Presentation on theme: "Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA)"— Presentation transcript:
1Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) 21-Oct-13Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA)Ilze PlavgoOffice of Research at Innocenti
221-Oct-13What is MODA?A child-centered, multidimensional approach to measuring child povertyChildren’s needs are multidimensional andage specificBuilds on existing initiatives to measure child poverty and deprivation:Sector by sector analysesUNICEF’s Global StudyAlkire and Foster methodology (also used for OPHI’s Multidimensional Poverty Index, Bhutan happiness index etc.)Material Deprivation, Social Exclusion (Europe)Child-centered; with the child as unit of analysisLife-cycle approach; capturing age-specific needsDeprivation overlaps; using an integrative approach between dimensionsCombines deprivation and monetary poverty analysis; for childrenFlexible methodology; selecting context-specific indicators, dimensions, profiling variables etc.Child deprivation profiles; Supports equity focusMODA
3From sector approach to child centered approach 21-Oct-13From sector approach to child centered approachSingle deprivation analysis Multiple deprivation analysisChild is the unit of analysis (instead of the household)Dimension/indicator choice is driven by their relevance to child well-being (basic needs; rights of the child), preferably adapting to country-specific circumstancesFocus is on the deprivations that a child experiences and on their intersection, rather than on single sectors in isolation. The multiple aspects of a child’s life are the basis of the analysis, recognizing that children’s needs are multidimensional
4‘Life-cycle’ approach 21-Oct-13‘Life-cycle’ approachChildren’s needs are not homogenous across childhoodLife-cycle approach allows to select age-specific indicators and analyse the different groups of children separately depending on their age to reflect children’s different needs in the periods of infancy, childhood, and adolescence
621-Oct-13MODA is flexible, not an ‘index’: “How many children suffer a deprivation?” “How many experience multiple deprivations?” versus “x% of children are multidimensionally poor.”Côte d’Ivoire 2012: children aged 5-17 yearsCongo DR 2010: children aged 5-17 yearsBut.. what are these specific deprivations? Are there some that occur in isolation?..
721-Oct-13MODA supports integrative approach showing where cross-sector cooperation and linkages can be beneficialDeprivation overlap for each dimension in Ethiopia (2011) among children aged below five, by regionDoes a deprivation occur in isolation? In Addis Nutrition more likely to be stand alone; in Dire dawa all deprivations ocur with others.
821-Oct-13Integrated approachWhich deprivations do the children suffer from simultaneously? How many and who are these children? Which sectors need a multi-sectoral, integrative approach? Are there regional differences?Overlap of nutrition, health, and water deprivations in Ethiopia (2011) among children aged below five, by region
9MODA Supports Equity Agenda 21-Oct-13MODA Supports Equity AgendaAssists in the identification of particularly vulnerable groupsAllows to concentrate on highly deprived groups in the society and to create profiles which assist in determining their geographical and social position
10MODA allows integration of monetary poverty and deprivation analysis (MALI MICS & ELIM 2009-10) Overlap between monetary poverty (food/non-food line) and deprivation (K=3), <5 years
11MODA application CC-MODA N-MODA Internationally comparable: Uses standardized definitions for age-groups, dimensions, indicators, thresholds, profiling variables; data: MICS and DHSUsing the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as guiding principlesProcess: Analysis prepared by OoRResults available in an interactive web-portal (www.unicef-irc.org/MODA/). Currently 31 cases uploaded. Results can all be exported as a pdf or Excel.55 countries to be completed by June 2014N-MODACountry-specific analysis; Done in collaboration with UNICEF COs and their national counterpartsUses country-specific indicators, dimensions, thresholds, age-groups, data etc.Various Objectives: child poverty study; SitAn; to help institutionalize child poverty measurement into government policies and monitoring systems; etcSAME methodology; different decisions; different (additional) elements of alnalysis
12Framework of the MODA methodology 21-Oct-13Framework of the MODA methodology
13Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Getting startedConcepts, definitions, data choiceStep 1: Choose concept(s) of child well-being/poverty to be analyzedStep 2: Define deprivation and specify its dimensions, based on the chosen definitionOptional – Define any other concepts of poverty (e.g. monetary poverty)Step 3: Select the dataset(s) and choose the unit of analysisPreparation for the deprivation analysisChoice of dimensions, indicators, thresholds, and age groupsStep 4: For each dimension, select indicator(s) and define the reference populationStep 5: Specify indicator threshold(s) and construct the indicator(s)Step 6: Decide upon the life-cycle stages and choose age group(s) for the multidimensional deprivation analysisStep 7: Decide whether to impute values on other members of the same householdStep 8: Perform a correlation test and select the final indicatorsStep 9: Decide how to weight indicators and how to aggregate them into dimensionsOptional – Perform a scalability test and select the final dimensionsStep 10: Decide how to weight dimensionsStep 11: Decide upon the identification method of the multidimensionally deprived children
14Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Single deprivation analysisAnalysis by indicator and by dimensionStep 12: Estimate a child deprivation headcount ratio for each indicator and dimensionStep 13: Select profiling variables and construct a profile of the deprived children for each dimensionOptional - For each indicator, construct a profile of the deprived children Multiple overlapping deprivation analysisDeprivation count and overlap analysis per age groupStep 14: For each child, estimate the number of dimensions in which (s)he is deprivedStep 15: Calculate the share of children deprived in 0, 1, 2, …, d dimensions, both at the national level and by subgroupStep 16: Carry out a deprivation overlap analysis analyzing the overlap and non-overlap of deprivationsStep 17: Construct a profile of the children in the deprivation overlapsIdentification of multidimensionally deprived childrenStep 18: Estimate the multidimensional child deprivation headcount ratio (H) for each age group using various cut-off pointsStep 19: Estimate the average intensity of deprivation (A) among the deprived for each age group using various cut-off pointsStep 20: Estimate the adjusted multidimensional child deprivation headcount ratio (M0) for each age group using various cut-off pointsOptional - Estimate H, A, and M0 for the entire child populationStep 21: Construct a profile of the multidimensionally deprived children, calculating H and M0 at subnational and subgroup levelStep 22: Decompose M0 by (1) subgroup, and (2) dimensionStep-by-step Guidelines to MODAReference:De Neubourg, C., J. Chai, M. de Milliano, I. Plavgo, Z. Wei (2012), 'Step-by-Step Guidelines to the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA)', Working Paper , UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.
15Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 1 - Choose concept(s) of child well-being/poverty to be analyzedMonetary povertyMeasured by household income/consumptionMeasures households’ resources, means to access the goods and services necessary for household members’ survival, development, and well-beingDeprivationMeasures whether individuals have access to the basic goods and services necessary for their survival, development, and well-being (‘things’)Visualisation of the realities that the individuals are facingMeasure of the individuals’ living conditionsMODA-specific: measure of the realisation/fulfilment of the rights of the childSubjective povertyMeasure of perceptions; measured by the individuals’ perceptions and opinionsChild povertyMonetary poor childrenSubjectively poor/unhappy childrenDeprived childrenMonetary poor childrenSubjectively poor/unhappy childrenDeprived children
16Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 2 - Define deprivation and specify its dimensionsTable 1: Child Well-being Dimensions according to the CRC used for CC-MODA
17Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 3 – Select the dataset(s)CC-MODA: internationally comparable surveysDHS V/VI and MICS 4 dataN-MODA application: any dataset that fits the criteria bestExample: household budget surveys; MICS; DHS; LSMS; censusTunisia: MICS 2013Senegal: DHS 2011 (<5 years); ESPS 2011 (≥ 5 years)Lao PDR: LECSMali: MICS/ELIMOutline – MODA objective – Methodology – Country case – Conclusion
18Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 4 - Select indicator(s) and define the reference populationCC-MODA application:DimensionsIndicatorsAge 0-4 yrAge 5-17 yrAll children1. NutritionInfant and young child feeding√ (0-23 m)Weight for height (wasting)√2. HealthImmunization√ (12-59 m)Skilled assistance at birth3. EducationCompulsory school attendance√ (cs)Primary school attainment4. InformationAvailability of information devices5. WaterAccess to improved water sourceDistance to water source6. SanitationAccess to improved sanitation7. HousingOvercrowdingRoof & floor material8. Protection from violenceDomestic violence√ (2-14 yrs)
19Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 5 - Specify indicator threshold(s); construct the indicator(s)DimensionsIndicatorsDeprived if6. SanitationAccess to improved sanitationHousehold usually uses unimproved toilet facility. WHO standards.What kind of toilet facility do members of your household usually use?Flush to piped sewer systemFlush to septic tankFlush to pit latrineFlush to somewhere elseVentilated improved pit latrinePit latrine with slabPit latrine without slab/ open pitComposting toiletBucket toiletHanging toilet/hanging latrineNo facility/bush/fieldSource: Standard DHS/MICS household questionnaire
20Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 5 – Specify indicator threshold(s); construct the indicator(s) CC-MODA APPLICATIONTable 3: Indicator thresholds for CC-MODADimensionsIndicatorsDeprived if1.NutritionInfant and young child feedingChild under 6 months not exclusively breastfed; child between 6-59 months living in a household where children between 6-23 months are not provided with minimum meal frequency in the last 24 hours. WHO standards.Weight for height (wasting)Child's weight for height is below minus two standard deviations from the international median. WHO standards.2.HealthImmunizationChild aged 1-4 years has not received all 3 DPT vaccinations. WHO standards.Skilled assistance at birthNo or an unskilled birth attendant assisted with child's birth. WHO standards.3. EducationCompulsory school attendanceChild of compulsory school age but not attending school. Country-specific data, retrieved from UNESCO.Primary school attainmentChild beyond primary school age with no or incomplete primary education. Country-specific data, retrieved from UNESCO.4. InformationAvailability of information devicesFamily has not reported having any of the following: TV, radio, phone, mobile phone, and computer. MDG.
21Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 5 – Specify indicator threshold(s); construct the indicator(s) CC-MODA APPLICATIONDimensionsIndicatorsDeprived if5.WaterAccess to improved water sourceHousehold's main source of drinking water is unimproved. WHO standards.Distance to water sourceTime needed to collect water (go, get water, and come back) is more than 30 minutes. WHO standards.6. SanitationAccess to improved sanitationHousehold usually uses unimproved toilet facility. WHO standards.7. HousingOvercrowdingHousehold has on average more than four people per sleeping room. UN-HABITAT, adjusted for the number of sleeping rooms only.Roof & floor materialBoth roof and floor are made of natural material, which are not considered permanent. UN-HABITAT standards.8. Protection from violenceDomestic violenceChild is living in a household where a child between 2 and 14 years experiences any type of physical abuse by parents.
22Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 6: Define life-cycle stages and dimensions usedLife-cycle stages and dimensions used for the CC-MODA analysis
23Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 6 - Define life-cycle stages and dimensions used:TunisiaData: MICS 2013
24Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 7 - Decide whether to impute values on other members of the same householdIt may occur that questions of interest have answers only for part of an age group (e.g. for only one child in each household). For example questions on child discipline in the MICS are only asked about one child between 2 and 14 years per household. In such an event, the following choices can be made:Assign indicator values only to children who have information on the indicatorAssign indicator values to all children of the same householdAssign indicator values to some children of the same household, imputing data only on those who belong to the same gender/(age) groupStep 8 - Perform a correlation test and select the final indicators
25Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 9 - Decide how to weight indicators and how to aggregate them into dimensionsAggregation methods:Union approach;Intersection approach;Intermediate cut-off approach;where yk is the deprivation status of a child i depending on the cut-off point K; Di is the number of deprivation each child i experiences; d is the total number of possible deprivations.CC-MODA uses the union approach to aggregate indicators in dimensions, because each deprivation is relevant to the well-being of the child.
26Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 9 - Decide how to weight indicators and how to aggregate them into dimensionsDeprivation indicators in water dimension Uganda (DHS 2010)Drinking water sourceTotal: 43.0%Only source:29%Intersection: %Distance to water Total: 29.8%Only distance: 15.8%Union: 58.8%
27Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 10 - Decide how to weight dimensionsWeights can be used to indicate the relative importance of different deprivations. The following weighting methods are used:Equal weighting;Data driven weighting (e.g. frequency based, most favorable, statistical and regression based weighting);Normative-based weighting.CC-MODA does not assign any explicit weights to dimensions when counting the deprivations each child suffers from. It should be noted that implicitly equal weights are assigned. This method is chosen, because it reveals exactly which deprivations children are facing, making severity and overlap analyses feasible and transparent.
28Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 11 - Decide upon the identification method of the multidimensionally deprived childrenFor the identification of the multidimensionally deprived, the number of deprivations a child experiences is compared to a cut-off point.The union (0<K≤1), intersection (K=d) and intermediate cut-off approach (0<K ≤d) can be usedMODA presents the outcomes for all possible cut-off points, thus incorporating all three methods.
29Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Analysis & Results (www.unicef-irc.org/MODA) :- Single deprivation analysis- Multiple deprivation analysisDeprivation count per childDeprivation distributionDeprivation overlap per dimensionDeprivation overlap per 2 and 3 dimensionsMultidimensional deprivation rateMultidimensional deprivation depth/intensityMultidimensional deprivation index and its decomposition
30Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Analysis using other measures of child poverty:Monetary poverty analysisDecide upon the measurement of monetary povertyEstimate the number of children living in financially poor familiesProfile the monetary poor
31Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Single Deprivation analysis: Analysis by Indicator and by DimensionStarting point for the calculations:i1, i2…………in – each child in the sample;j1, j2………….j6 – six dimensions included in the analysis;I11,1, I11,2……I16,10 – ten indicators forming the six dimensions, the first digit of the subscript indicating the individual, the second indicating the dimension, and the third referring to the indicator.
32Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Single Deprivation analysis: Analysis by Indicator and by DimensionDeprivation status of each child per indicator
33Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Single Deprivation analysis: Analysis by Indicator and by DimensionDeprivation status of each child per dimension
35Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Single Deprivation analysis: Analysis by Indicator and by DimensionChild deprivation headcount ratio for each dimension
36Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 13 – Select profiling variables and construct a profile of the deprived children for each dimensionProfiling aims at defining who are the children with a higher probability of being deprived in a specific dimensionThe selection of profiling variables is guided by:The objective of the analysisData availabilityThe applicability of criteria of relevance, variance, coverage, absence from bias and parsimonyExamples:AreaRegionEthnicityNumber of children per householdParents’ occupation, job statusMother’s level of educationDistance to the nearest hospital
37Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Deprivation analysis Step 14 – For each child, estimate the number of dimensions in which (s)he is deprived A child-centered multidimensional approach: counting the total number of deprivations of each child to inform about the breath and the combination of deprivations experienced by each child
38Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Deprivation analysis Step 14 – For each child, estimate the number of dimensions in which (s)he is deprived Deprivation count for each child
39Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Deprivation analysis Step 15 – Deprivation count and distribution
40Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Deprivation analysis Step 15 – Deprivation count and distribution
41Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Deprivation analysis Deprivation count and distribution
42Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Deprivation Analysis:Overlap AnalysisStep 16 - Carry out a deprivation overlap analysis analyzing the overlap and non-overlap of deprivationsDetermining which deprivations a child experiences simultaneously;Pointing towards sectors in need for an integrative approach.Step 17 - Construct a profile of the children in the deprivation overlaps
43Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Deprivation Analysis:Overlap AnalysisStep 16 - Carry out a deprivation overlap analysis analyzing the overlap and non-overlap of deprivations
44Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis:Identification of the multidimensionally deprived childrenStep 18 - Estimate the multidimensional child deprivation headcount ratio (H) for each age group using various cut-off points𝐻= 𝑞 𝐾 𝑛 𝑎𝑞 𝐾 = 𝑖=1 𝑛 𝑦 𝐾whereH - multidimensional child deprivation headcount ratio according to cut-off point K in age-group a; qK - number of children affected by at least K deprivations in the age-group a; 𝑛 𝑎 - total number of children in the age-group a; yK - deprivation status of a child i depending on the cut-off point K; Di - number of deprivations each child i experiences; K - cut-off point.
45Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 19 - Estimate the average intensity of deprivation (A) among the deprived for each age group using various cut-off points𝐴= 1 𝑞 𝐾 𝑐 𝐾 𝑞 𝐾 ×𝑑WhereA - average intensity of multidimensional deprivation according to the cut-off point K for the age-group a; 𝑞 𝐾 - number of children affected by at least K deprivations in the age-group a; d - total number of dimensions considered per child within the relevant age-group a; cK - number of deprivations each multi-dimensionally deprived child i experiences, with cK = Di * yK .
46Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 20 - Estimate the adjusted multidimensional child deprivation headcount ratio (M0) for each age group using various cut-off points𝑀 0 =𝐻∗𝐴= 1 𝑞 𝐾 𝑐 𝐾 𝑛 𝑎 ∗𝑑whereM0 - adjusted multidimensional child deprivation headcount ratio among children affected by at least K deprivations in age group a; cK - number of deprivations each multidimensionally deprived child i experiences, with cK = Di * yK.Optional - Estimate H, A, and M0 for the entire child populationStep 21 - Construct a profile of the multidimensionally deprived children, calculating H and M0 at subnational and subgroup level
47Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Step 22 - Decompose each adjusted deprivation headcount ratio M0 by (1) subgroup and (2) dimension(1) The decomposition by subgroup can be calculated using the following formula:𝑀 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑀 𝑀 𝑛 2 𝑛 𝑀 0 =1(2) The contribution of each dimension j to the overall deprivation level is expressed as a share of the total adjusted headcount ratio M0 and can be defined as follows: 𝑃 𝑗 = 𝑖=1 𝑛 ( 𝑦 𝑗 ∗ 𝑦 𝑘 ) 𝑛 𝑎 ∗𝑑∗ 𝑀 0wherePj – contribution of dimension j to the adjusted headcount ratio M0 𝑖=1 𝑛 ( 𝑦 𝑗 ∗ 𝑦 𝑘 ) – total number of children i deprived in dimension j while also being deprived multidimensionally according to the cut-off point K yj=1 if child i is deprived in dimension j, and yj=0 if child i is not deprived in dimension j yk=1 if child is multidimensionally deprived with Di≥K and yk = 0 if child is not multidimensionally deprived with Di <K d – total number of dimensions used in the analysis na – total number of children of the relevant age group a.Outline – MODA objective – Methodology – Country case – Conclusion
48Step-by-step Guidelines to MODA Field Overlap Analysis:Overlap Analysis between different fields of child povertyStudy the overlap between the different fields of child poverty chosen for the analysis, and profile each overlap/non-overlap groupFor example, if two fields of poverty are considered - monetary poverty and deprivation - four groups can be profiled:Neither monetary poor nor deprived;Deprived only;Monetary poor only; andDeprived and monetary poor simultaneously.