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1 of x Structuring Talk Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Version 3.0 Regional Support Network Meetings Autumn 2013
2 of x Connectivity This session focuses specifically on Speaking and Listening but it contains many concepts and ideas which connect with the other areas of literacy, namely reading and writing At earliest infancy speaking and listening come before reading and writing, and in most children S and L are a necessary precursor to R and W This session looks at how important it is to learn about ways in which formal/performed talk can be structured Students who understand structure in talk, should then be better able to detect structural mechanisms in texts that they read, and produce better structures in their own writing Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
3 of x Form/Structure/Language Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. These terms are notoriously ambiguous especially in their collocation Form here is the largest ‘unit’ and describes the overall type of spoken event, its generic features etc Structure here is the organisation and cohesion of the event, its internal workings Language here refers to its details, such as speech ‘syntax’ as well as vocabulary Version 3.0
4 of x Form All talk is performance to some extent whether the final category be Presenting, Discussing, Role Playing In the classroom performance of Talk students need to know exactly what form it is they are meant to be performing and/or simulating, and how such forms ‘work’ Performing to the class as a class is one type of audience, but there are many other types which can be simulated in order to help students. Version 3.0 Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
5 of x Form Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. It is not just Role-Playing which has simulation Individual presentations can have more sense of purpose and audience by having a form that is inventive Group work too can be within a narrative framework Version 3.0
6 of x Structure Of our three terms ( FSL) it is structure which tends to be undertaught… Yet it is structure which binds a text and gives it its impact Note the word text here – whether the student is talking or writing, many of the same structural ideas apply. Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Version 3.0
7 of x Some Structural Options The following slides suggest some areas of textual structure which are worth considering. Bear in mind too, though, that no amount of structural subtlety can work if the basic content and ideas lack substance Version 3.0 Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
8 of x Chronology Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The management of narrative and time How are you going to sequence ideas in the story you tell in terms of time? What can be achieved by foregrounding and backgrounding certain ideas and events?
9 of x Contrast Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. This is the interplay of different ideas (or points of view) Do you set up the opposition from the start or do you give your text an element of surprise by holding it back? Do you leave the contrast (conflict) hanging or do you resolve it?
10 of x Telling and Showing Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Do you headline your key point at the start, or do you lead up to it gradually? If starting with the key point in an abstract way, how do you then support it with detail? Is it possible just to show and leave your audience to ‘tell’ themselves?
11 of x Obvious or Oblique? Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Think of all those adverts whose meaning and messages are not obvious from the start Do you come at your topic obliquely, anecdotally, or do you go directly to it?
12 of x Some Structural Building Blocks Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Repetition Enumeration Accumulation Allusion Metaphor Analogy Audience address etc
13 of x Josie and Tashinga Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Look at clip 6 from Rochdale 2014 How is the form dramatically established here? How do the two students establish a sense of contrast in their roles together? In what ways does the role play go through a series of stages ( or structure)? In what sense do they reach a conclusion?
14 of x Peter Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Look at the clip of Peter in Rochdale DVD 2013. Role Playing. In this activity Peter performs a slot in the TV shorts series ‘If I ruled the world’ How is Peter helped by being given this form? What do you notice about the way he structures his talk?
A type of writing, either fiction or nonfiction, that tells a story.
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Version 1.0 Copyright © 2008 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. A2 Unit 4B Issue Evaluation Exercise Y
Any literary work meant to be read, viewed, or otherwise experienced by an audience (includes stories, plays, films, music, articles, television shows,
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Instructions for using this template. Remember this is Jeopardy, so where I have written “Answer” this is the prompt the students will see, and where.
TIPS FOR WRITING A SHORT STORY Narrative Writing Skills.
Patterns of Development The arrangement of an essay, speech, or story according to its purpose. These notes cover the wide range of logical ways to organize.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach – 7 th edition Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform This multimedia product and.
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What are they? A photo-essay (or photographic essay) is a set or series of photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of emotions.
Form, in poetry, can be understood as the physical structure of the poem: the length of the lines, their rhythms, their system of rhymes and repetition.
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