Characteristics of Modern life Urbanisation Ready to eat food, fast food and processed food. High calories (fat and carbohydrate) low fibre. Low in vitamins and minerals. Packaging. Not natural preservation. Refrigeration and freezing. Less physical activity.
Office based jobs. Chronic diseases, obesity etc. Aging, people live longer.
Diet – together with physical exercise – plays a major role when we try to prevent or postpone the onset of chronic conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. The food industry has already reacted to this challenge and a large number of products have been either reformulated or re- positioned to meet the current need for healthier foods.
WHO Chronic diseases are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. Chronic diseases are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 63% of all deaths. 36 million people died from chronic disease in 2008.
Noncommunicable diseases Cardiovascular diseases account for most NCD deaths, or 17 million people annually, followed by cancer (7.6 million), respiratory disease (4.2 million), and diabetes (1.3 million). These four groups of diseases account for around 80% of all NCD deaths, and share four common risk factors: tobacco use physical inactivity the harmful use of alcohol and poor diets.
Stages of life and R F In the uterus: intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); premature delivery of a normal growth for gestational age fetus over nutrition in utero Intergenerational factors.
Infancy: Retarded growth in infancy can be a reflected in a failure to gain weight and a failure to gain height. Both retarded growth and excessive weight or height gain can be factors in later incidence of chronic disease. Such as CVD There is increasing evidence that among term and pre-term infants, breastfeeding is associated with significantly lower blood pressure levels in childhood. Consumption of formula instead of breast milk in infancy has also been shown to increase diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure in later life. Obesity (type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease, some childhood cancers, inflammatory bowel disease) have also been associated with infant feeding on breast-milk substitutes and short-term breastfeeding
Childhood low growth in childhood and an increased risk of CHD has been described, irrespective of size at birth. Relative weight in adulthood and weight gain have been found to be associated with increased risk of cancer of the breast, colon, rectum, prostate and other sites. Higher blood pressure in childhood (in combination with other risk factors) causes target organ and anatomical changes that are associated with cardiovascular risk, including reduction in artery elasticity. High blood pressure in children is strongly associated with obesity,
Most chronic diseases are present at later period of life - the result of interactions between multiple disease processes as well as more general losses in physiological functions (due to risk factors) = lack of oxygen and adapted metabolism.
Angiogenesis Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel growth that occurs in the human body at specific times in development and growth. Although crucial for embryonic development and wound healing, angiogenesis also contributes to disease, such as in the growth of solid tumors, chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, ischemia, and diabetic retinopathy.
Inducers A number of inducers of angiogenesis have been identified, there is an emerging concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS such as ) superoxide anion O2- hydroxyl radical (OH-), lipid radical (LOO-), peroxy radicals (XOO-) and singlet oxygen (O-). ROS are products of mitochondrial respiration (energy production). Free radicals
Dietary sources of ROS High fat diet and deep fries High sucrose (or refined carbohydrates )diet Protein + sugar in high temperature (glycation) Low fruit and veg. diet Low vitamin and mineral diet (antioxidant). Life style: stress, pollution, smoking and low activity.
Golden rule More free radicals = chronic diseases = faster aging. Less free radicals = healthier body.
How to slow down generation of Free radicals? Homework.
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