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Infancy & Childhood Chapter 10. Section 1: The Study of Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Infancy & Childhood Chapter 10. Section 1: The Study of Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infancy & Childhood Chapter 10

2 Section 1: The Study of Development

3 Prenatal Care Must get enough to eat Take folic acid Best to be under age 40 No smoking, alcohol, or drugs STDs can be detrimental

4 Prenatal Development Zygote Embryo Fetus

5 Infants APGAR Test (1-10 Score range)

6 Developmental Psychology Study of growth and change of people throughout the life span Longitudinal Studies vs. Cross-Sectional Studies

7 Nature vs. Nurture Nature – – Maturation – – Critical period – time when human / animal is best suited to learn a particular skill or behavior pattern

8 Nature vs. Nurture Nurture – environment – Tabula Rosa – John Locke believed the mind of the infant is a blank slate

9 Stages vs. Continuity Does development occur in stages or as one continuous process? Both, depending on the situation – Sit / crawl / stand / walk in stages – Growth in weight and height from ages 2-11 is continuous

10 Section 2: Physical Development

11 Height and Weight Slows down throughout rest of childhood Most dramatic gains in height and weight occur before infant is born

12 Motor Development Purposeful movement that usually occurs in stages

13 Reflexes Involuntary reaction or response (inborn) – Examples: breathing, blinking, swallowing, sucking, etc. – Rooting Reflex – Moro Reflex – Babinski Reflex

14 Perceptual Development Vision – At first, prefer pictures with complex patterns – Eventually prefer pictures of human faces Depth Perception – the visual cliff experiment

15 Perceptual Development (cont’d) Hearing – Respond more to high-pitched sounds & mother’s voice Smell and Taste – Respond immediately to strong odors

16 Section 3: Social Development

17 Development of Attachment Attachment – emotional ties that form between people Stranger Anxiety – Separation Anxiety –

18 Contact Comfort Used to believe we became attached to those that fed us Harlow’s monkey experiments proved we have a basic need to touch and be touched by something soft (skin or fur) – Stronger than need for food

19 Imprinting Attachment can be instinctual Some animals attach during a critical period just after birth First moving object is imprinted on young animal

20 Secure vs. Insecure Attachment When parents are affectionate and reliable, infants become securely attached Unresponsive and unreliable parents cause insecure attachment

21 Styles of Parenting Permissive Cold Warm Strict Demanding Possessive Controlling Dictatorial Antagonistic Supportive Protective Affectionate Flexible Caring Lenient Democratic Inconsistent Overindulgent Neglecting Indifferent Careless Negligent Detached

22 Styles of Parenting Warm Parents Lots of affection Enjoy kid’s company –show it Better off with warm parents Better adjusted Develop a conscious Cold Parents More interested in escaping punishment than doing the right thing

23 Styles of Parenting (continued) Authoritative Warmth and positive strictness Expect a lot, but explain why and offer help Authoritarian Obedience for the sake of obedience Strict without questions Cold and rejecting

24 Styles of Parenting (continued) Uninvolved Tend to leave their children on their own Make few demands, show little warmth or encouragement Permissive Parents Easygoing Less rules and let kids do what they want Warm and supportive, but poor communicators

25 Childcare More than half of mothers work outside home Effects of day-care – Quality important: learning resources, individualized attention, many caregivers important Effects on parent-child attachment Can be positive and negative

26 Child Abuse and Neglect Abuse – Neglect – failure to give kid adequate food, shelter, emotional support, clothing, etc. – Usually causes more problems Seriously underreported Effects:

27 Why does abuse happen? 1.Stress 2.History of abuse 3.Substance abuse 4.Lack of attachment

28 Abuse runs in families Kids imitate behavior See it as normal Pattern usually doesn’t continue

29 Self-Esteem Value or worth that people attach to themselves Unconditional positive regard – Accept kids for who they are, kids know they’re not terrible people if they do something wrong Conditional positive regard – Parents show love only when behaving in accepted ways – Kids will seek approval from others as adults

30 Other factors that effect Self-Esteem Feeling competent about a skill / task Gender Age

31 Section 4: Cognitive Development

32 Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage

33 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Pre-conventional Level (stages 1 & 2)– base judgments on consequences of behavior Conventional Level (stages 3-4)– Post-conventional Level (stages 5-6) – Reasoning based on a person’s own moral standards of goodness

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