Presentation on theme: "Maternal Depression: Causes, Consequences, and Intervention Robert T. Ammerman, Ph.D, ABPP Every Child Succeeds and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical."— Presentation transcript:
Maternal Depression: Causes, Consequences, and Intervention Robert T. Ammerman, Ph.D, ABPP Every Child Succeeds and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Delaware Healthy Mother and Infant Consortium Annual Summit April 9, 2014
Depression in Mothers Determined by self-report –Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale –Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) –Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) –Patient Health Questionniare-9 (PHQ-9) Diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) –Postpartum onset ≤6 months –Prenatal
Phenomenology Pervasive loss –Loss of control –Loss of self –Social disconnection –Loss of voice Spiraling downward –Anxiety –Overwhelmed –Rumination –Obsessive thinking –Anger –Guilt From C.T. Beck, 2002
Phenomenology (cont.) Expectations and reality –Shattered dreams –Failure & incompetence –Fear of negative evaluation Making gains –Surrendering –Despair and hopelessness –Struggle
Epidemiology of MDD Lifetime prevalence for the general population is as high as 1 in 3, often begins in childhood or adolescence Lifetime prevalence in women postpartum: 13-26% Average length of episode: 3-6 months Impairment: 87% report significant role impairment (social, home, relationships, work) Comorbidity: 71% (anxiety disorders, substance use disorders) Risk for subsequent episodes: 80% Odds of relapse within 2 years: 50% First episodes in postpartum period: 50%
Associated Features Nationally, 57% receive treatment. Only 64% get at least minimally adequate treatment. 20-30% of women depressed postpartum receive treatment, less among low income. Failure to successfully treat the first episode increases risk for subsequent episodes and increases likelihood of treatment resistant depression. Suicide risk: between 4-15%
Maternal Depression is Expensive Mother Employment Education Health care utilization Lifetime earnings Child Preterm birth Cognitive delays, special education Mental health treatment Injury and illness Child abuse and neglect Maternal depression is a multigenerational issue.
Economic Costs World Health Organization (2012)—Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide Depression in adults costs $83.1 billion annually, including 31% direct medical costs, 62% workplace costs (absenteeism, presenteeism and disability) and 7% for suicide/mortality costs Depressed employees miss 27.2 days of work per year Maternal depression is associated with an increase in pre-term births which average $51,600 per birth Family lifetime loss in income potential is $300,000 due to childhood onset of psychological problems Identification and effective treatment saves money and protects investments in other programs.
Depression 2 years Postpartum Sample: 1,359 women over 2 years postpartum Measure: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale From Mayberry et al., 2007
Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 2009
Video Example Diagnostic Interview with a Depressed Mother in Home Visiting
Risk Factors for Depression History of depression Cognitive and emotional vulnerability: pessimism, anxiety, low self-esteem Stressful life events Trauma history Low social support Poverty Unmarried Unwanted pregnancy
Causes of Depression Genetics Disruptions in HPA axis and stress response Sensitivity to hormonal changes Social disconnection Cognitive distortions
Key Features of Infant Social and Emotional Development Infants can imitate facial expressions and show preferences for caregivers. Infants have a need to seek out communication with others. Infants can elicit social and emotional responses from caregivers.
Key Features of Infant Social and Emotional Development Communication between mothers and infants is organized around face, voice, gesture, and gaze--“a dance”. Secure attachment is the cornerstone of early social and emotional development. Communication directly influences, and is influenced by, brain development and emerging physiological regulation.
Key Features of Infant Social and Emotional Development In normal mothers’ interactions with babies, 42% of time is spent exhibiting positive affect. For babies, 15% of time. Mothers “guide” the quality of the interaction and the direction of development. They provide the scaffolding needed for successful development.
Characteristics of Depressed Mothers Withdrawn: disengaged, flat, unresponsive, little support. Intrusive: rough, angry, interrupt Unable to read cues. Rejecting. Imbalanced, discordant.
Characteristics of Depressed Mothers Don’t enjoy parenting. View themselves as less competent and ineffective. View children as more difficult. Less tolerant. More likely to attribute inappropriate intent in children. See their behavior as caused by outside influences. Preoccupied, less attentive, don’t anticipate. Slower and less effective problem-solvers.
Course of Depression & Development (illustrative) 1 st episode 4 months 2 nd episode 9 months 3rd episode 2 months Age 16Baby born (age 20) child 1 year old = depressive episode= normal mood 4th episode 3 months child 3 years old time
Impact on Infants and Development Avoid mom, look away (for intrusive moms), docile, typically following maternal rejection. Fussy, cries, focus on self-regulation (for withdrawn moms). Crystallizing of communication patterns. Delays in emotional regulation, and physiological organization. Attentional problems. IMPORTANT: timing, length, severity, frequency, inter-episode functioning, partner support, other adults
Exposure to Maternal Depression in Infancy & IQ 15 points BOYS AT AGE 11 Hay et al., 2001
Video Example Mother-Child Interaction Using Still-Face Paradigm
Treatment Challenges Treatment capacity Availability of evidence-based treatment Access and disparities Choice and engagement Antidepressant medications: adherence, effect on developing fetus, cost, trauma issues
Moving Beyond Depression™ Overcoming barriers, fostering collaboration, and engaging depressed mothers in a non-traditional setting www.movingbeyonddepression.org
Unique Opportunity in Home Visiting Reach mothers who might not otherwise receive treatment. Appeal to mothers’ interest in their baby’s development. Lower barriers to treatment. Identify mothers early in the MDD episode. Leverage relationship between mother and home visitor. Leverage ongoing and lengthy home visitation services to optimize outcomes.
12% receive mental health treatment Ammerman et al., 2009 74.8% with trauma history
Essential Intervention Elements Ameliorate depressive symptoms Help mother and home visitor/service Collaborate with home visitor, no burden Implement in home to remove barriers Use evidence-based treatment Fit with population, setting, & service
IH-CBT: Adaptations to Setting Overcome barriers to treatment to reach mothers Observe mothers in natural environment Observe important features that would not be evident in office Maximize learning and application of new skills Logistical challenges: privacy, other family, distractions Unexpected challenges and crises
IH-CBT: Adaptations to Population New mothers with limited parenting experience Young mothers with few social supports Emerging adulthood Educational underachievement & lower IQ Cultural sensitivity Poverty and hardship Trauma history & intimate partner violence Psychiatric comorbidity
IH-CBT: Adaptations to Service Collaborative relationship with home visitor Logistical coordination of multiple services Frequent contacts with home visitor Coordination of care Avoid triangulation
Predictors of symptom status at post-treatment BDI-II at post-txt: ≥9 ≤8 Ammerman, R.T., Peugh, J.L., Putnam, F.W., & Van Ginkel, J.B. (2012). Predictors of treatment response in depressed mothers receiving In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and concurrent home visiting. Behavior Modification, 36, 462-481.
Acknowledgments Frank W. Putnam, M.D. & Judith B. Van Ginkel, Ph.D. Jack Stevens, Ph.D., Mekibib Altaye, Ph.D., James Peugh, Ph.D. Jodie Short, Margaret J. Clark, M.P.A., Lawson Wulsin, M.D., Jennie Noll, Ph.D., Chad Shenk, Ph.D., Neil Richtand, M.D., Ph.D., Nicole Bosse, M.A., Angelique Teeters, Psy.D. Healthy Families America and Nurse-Family Partnership Grant support: National Institute of Mental Health (R34MH073867 & R01MH087499) Every Child Succeeds agencies and home visitors! Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati Kentucky H.A.N.D.S. & Ohio Help Me Grow United Way of Greater Cincinnati Xavier University, Dept. of Psychology www.everychildsucceeds.org