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Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Dennis Pain March 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Dennis Pain March 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Dennis Pain March 2012

2 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Environment in which a Liberian may live

3 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Liberia – Equity & Inclusion Annual Income: US$380, about half the level years earlier Education: 3.7 years in school Probability of not surviving first year of life: 7 in 100 Probability of not surviving first 5 years of life: 11 in 100 Life expectancy: 57 Probability of having adequate access to a safe functioning water point for every people within 1.5 miles - 2 in 5 Probability of malaria during last year: 1 in 3 (in 2010, reduced from 2 in 3 in 2005) The average Liberian has

4 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Has only 1.6 years of education and is half as likely as a man to have completed Grade 6 primary Has a probability of dying from giving birth at 5 in every worse than it was a decade or two earlier Has experienced physical violence from a husband/partner (8 out of 10) and half by a parent Is a member of the Sande secret society and experienced female genital cutting Suffers multiple control by her husband Is employed, but likely to be in agriculture or elementary occupations The average Liberian woman

5 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Has about 6 siblings: First had sex just after her 16 th birthday, 2 years before her brother; One in seven of those having sex before age 15 were forced against their will; Married before 20, two years later than her mother, but over 4 years younger than her husband Had her first child at age 19 Typically a woman :

6 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Depends on whether she lives around Monrovia and other towns or in a rural area Depends on the county where she lives Depends on how wealthy is her household But there is no such thing as an average Liberian woman! It depends on where she is born and lives:

7 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Six times as likely to have been born by choice; Slightly more likely to have a nutritionally healthy mother and nearly twice as likely to have been protected against neo-natal tetanus; BUT more likely to be malnourished (weight for height) in infancy!! Yet almost half as likely to be stunted (height for age); Four times as likely to receive all basic vaccines; Ten times as likely to have completed Primary 6; Less likely to be employed, but it will be in a skilled job; Four times as likely to give birth in a health facility; BUT about 5 times as likely to be HIV +ve; A wealthier Monrovian woman’s life story:

8 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Being born at home, not a health facility; Being twice as much at risk of death as an infant; Two out of eleven not reaching their 5th birthday; Most likely never having been to school; Having to leave home to access education above Grade 3; Working in agriculture; Accepting that a husband can be justified in beating his wife Another Liberian woman from a poor household in a border county survives despite

9 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 %9 Lofa Nimba Sinoe Bong Gbarpolu Grand Gedeh Grand Bassa Rivercess River Gee Grand Kru Bomi Margibi Grand Cape Mount Maryland Montserrado 276,683 83, , , , ,391 71, ,693 66, ,938 57, , ,076 84,119 1,118,241 Percentage of population below poverty line < 50 % % % > 70 % Overall Population & Income Poverty Head Count Source: Liberia PRS 2007

10 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Population Density by Clan Areas Source: Population Census 2008

11 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Average Distance to Health Facility within District Source: National Health and Social Policy Paper, MOHSW 2011

12 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Category Maternal Deliveries for 5 years up to 2007 ( LDHS 2007 Table 9.5) Liberia (37) Urban (63) Rural (26) Monrovia (71) S. East B (21) Wealthiest* (70) Poorest* (18) Wealthiest/Poorest refers to highest/lowest 20% households. Half of mothers report problems of cost of treatment (wealthiest – 37%; poorest - 74%) and cost of transport (wealthiest – 26%; poorest – 82%). Above secondary educated mother (64) Uneducated mother (28) Percentage deliveries in a health facility 2008 Ghana (57) 2008 Sierra Leone (25) 2005 Guinea (31) 1998 Cote d’Ivoire (47)

13 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Mosquito Nets & Prevalence of Fever ( Liberia Malaria Indicator Survey 2009 Tables 4.1) Percentage under-five children who slept under a net the previous night Monrovia Montserrado ( - Monrovia) Margibi Grand Bassa Bomi Grand Cape Mount Gbarpolu River Cess Sinoe Grand Gedeh River Gee Grand Kru Maryl;and Bong Nimba Lofa Wealthiest 20% Poorest 20% = Percentage of children under five with fever in two weeks preceding Urban Rural nd Poorest Quintile § § = Percentage under five who tested slide +ve for malaria

14 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Liberia (≈92) Infant Mortality (reporting for previous decade) Probability of dying before first birthday ( LDHS 2007 Table 8.1/2/3) Deaths per 1,000 live births Rural (99) Urban (78) S. Central (142) Monrovia (69) Poorest* (100) Wealthiest* (70) Uneducated mother (107) Above secondary educated mother (59) Category Poorest/Wealthiest refers to lowest/highest 20% households (quintiles). Note: second lowest quintile shows similar infant mortality at 105. Mother age <20 (122) Mother age (80) 2008 Sierra Leone (≈126) 2005 Guinea (≈126) 1998 Cote d’Ivoire (≈98) 2008 Ghana (≈40)

15 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Water Access Water Access Current coverage, population per waterpoint and access by county Waterpoint Atlas 2011 County Current Coverage (population within 1.5 miles of a point) Population per functional, in-use waterpoint* Current Access (assuming point capacity of max. 250 persons) Bomi95%20091% Bong54%73032% Gbarpolu55%37943% Grand Bassa55%72733% Grand Cape Mount73%41348% Grand Gedeh59%68434% Grand Kru64%33156% Lofa76%53143% Margibi80%39852% Maryland87%44652% Montserrado98%68635% Nimba68%67234% River Gee74%35953% Rivercess47%50436% Sinoe57%44747% TOTAL76%55240% Adjusted for number of taps on high-capacity waterpoints with multiple taps (e.g. kiosks)

16 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Water Access and Prevalence of Diarrhea ( LDHS 2007 Table 10.6) Percentage under-five children who had diarrhea in the two weeks before survey Monrovia Montserrado ( - Monrovia) Margibi Grand Bassa Bomi Grand Cape Mount Gbarpolu River Cess Sinoe Grand Gedeh River Gee Grand Kru Maryl;and Bong Nimba Lofa Wealthiest 20% Poorest 20% = % with Water Access 15.5

17 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Stunting ( LDHS 2007 Table 11.1) Percentage under-five children who were severely stunted (below – 3 SD height-for-age) Monrovia Montserrado ( - Monrovia) Margibi Grand Bassa Bomi Grand Cape Mount Gbarpolu River Cess Sinoe Grand Gedeh River Gee Grand Kru Maryl;and Bong Nimba Lofa Wealthiest 20% Poorest 20% % below – 3 SD Urban Rural Undeucated mother Mother post-primary

18 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Distribution of Level 1 schools (primary school only)

19 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Distribution of secondary schools

20 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Core Textbooks Available per 100 students in primary schools

21 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion

22 5 miles radius from Secondary School Level 3 schools (primary and secondary) Level 1 schools (primary only) Population density (person/mile sq): > 1000 Major roads County capitals Clan boundaries County boundaries 2 Level 2 schools (secondary only). Town/village

23 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion 5 miles Radius from secondary school

24 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Source: The 2008/2009 National School Census Report, Ministry of Education % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Out of school girls

25 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion Category Percentage Aged Having Education of Grade 6 or above ( LDHS 2007 Table 3.2.1/2) Percentage Liberia (43.1) Liberia Male (55.7) Liberia Female (30.5 ) F – Urban (53) F – Rural (14) F – Monrovia (58) F – N. Central & N. West (16) F – Wealthiest* (64) * Wealthiest / Poorest 20% of households F – Poorest* (8) M – Urban (75) M – Rural (43) M – Monrovia (78) M – N. West (40) M – Wealthiest* (81) M – Poorest* (31) 2008 – Sierra Leone – F (24.5) Guinea – F (22.5) 2008 – Sierra Leone – M (41.4) Guinea – M (48.8)

26 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion how well educated your mother was; whether you are male or female; whether you live around Monrovia and other towns or in a rural area; the county where you live; how wealthy is your parental household. So:- there is no such thing as an average Liberian! It all depends on:

27 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion So: will things never change in Liberia? YES, they can! The President has publicly committed to: Putting young people first and lifting the lives of all Liberians; Paying special attention to girls; Reducing inequities, ensuring equal opportunity and providing guarantees of social justice; Improving quality of life for ALL citizens; Reconciliation that depends on:  empowering youth,  creating jobs and opportunity  spreading development to all  justice in dealing with the past  justice in processes of government and law  justice in economic development

28 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion UNICEF is committed to: Protecting girls and boys from anything that harms them; Supporting their ambitions for education and skills; Delaying their age of marriage so they can fulfill their dreams; Enabling young people to be at peace with themselves and their communities; Young women having relationships and children by choice; Improving maternal health; Ensuring good nutrition & nurture, protected from disease, in infancy; Ensuring that ALL children have ALL rights; Ensuring equity in access to basic services and equal outcomes for all; Supporting a Liberian and a Child Wellbeing Index; Providing girls and boys, men and women with equal opportunities; Increasing participation of women and young people in decision making UNICEF is supporting Liberia’s new Poverty Reduction Strategy and Transformation Agenda

29 Liberia – Equity and Inclusion UNICEF THANKS YOU for your concern for Equity and Inclusion!


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