Presentation on theme: "Infant Cognition (plus finish perception) Results from Test Results from Survey First part of Paper due on Tuesday Visual Cliff/depth perception/constancies."— Presentation transcript:
Infant Cognition (plus finish perception) Results from Test Results from Survey First part of Paper due on Tuesday Visual Cliff/depth perception/constancies Themes of Infant cognitive development Piaget’s 6 stages of infant cognition René Ballargeon’s studies Categorization Causality Infant Number concepts Memory Development in Infancy Individual differences in Infant Cognition
Test Scoring and Results Score = # multiple choice *2 + # fill in the blank *2 + essay scores (10 pts. For essay) + 6 point curve Distribution – A – 16 – B – 26 – C – 31 – D – 27 – F – 23
Results from Questionnaire N = 113 Much to fast 6 A little too fast 52 About right 46 A little too slow 9 Much too slow 0 Average is right between a little too fast and about right. Many complaints about the room and size of class. Many would like more interactive activities in class, videos of actual child behavior, and group activities. Some appreciated the connection between lectures and the text and others failed to see the connection Several would like more specificity in the study guide for the the test.
Depth/Distance Perception Visual Cliff (Walk and Gibson) 6-7 months Campos (1978) – Notice at 2 months (orienting response) – Fear after they can crawl Looming (Yonas, et al) – Blink at 1 month – Defensive response at 3 months Pictorial depth cues between 5 to 7 months
Size and Shape constancy Some skill at birth Skill improves by 3 to 5 months
Themes of Infant Cognition 1.The orderly nature of cognitive development. 2.Infants are active participants in their own development. 3.Infant cognitive development is marked by both advances and limitations.
First two years Advances achieved during infancy include: basic understanding of physical world ability to use basic cognitive tools such as understanding categorization & number ability to combine actions into sequences increasingly powerful & flexible memory Limitations until late in infancy include: emphasis on perception & action absence of language & symbolic abilities limited flexibility in emerging cognitive abilities limited memory capacity
Piaget’s Theory and the Nature of Infants Infants ’ understanding of the world is limited to what they know through sensory awareness and motor acts. Infants actively construct an understanding of the world. http://www.ovguide.com/jean-piaget- 9202a8c04000641f80000000000a4720
The Object Concept Stages 1 & 2: Infants respond to objects with interest but seem not to understand object permanence. Stage 3: A partial view of something is now enough to remind them of the whole object. Stage 4: Infants search for hidden objects, making the A, not-B error. Stage 5: No longer make the A, not-B error, but may get upset when object isn ’ t at location B. Stage 6: At last acquire mature understanding of object permanence.
Video of Object Permanence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhHkJ3InQ OE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhHkJ3InQ OE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jW668F7 HdA Research with primates http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jW668F7 HdA René Ballargeon http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2ovHFt5 YXc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2ovHFt5 YXc
Categorization Causality Infant Number concepts Memory Development in Infancy Individual differences in Infant Cognition
New interesting study Uhls and Greenfield 100 6 th graders assessed for ability to identify primary emotions (happy, sad, angry, afraid) in photographs of faces. Children this age normally spend 4.5 hrs./day on a computer, notebook, of smart phone. Half of the kids are told to do nothing different for a week while the other half were taken to a summer camp at which no electronic devices were allowed. The second group improved in their ability to read emotions and far exceeded the control grp.
Categorization Perceptual Categories – Squares, triangles, circles Distinction of kinds (Mandler, 1998) – Distinction between natural and artificial
Causality Michotte and the perception of causality Infants discriminate between some causal and non-causal events http://www.yale.edu/perception/Brian/demos/ca usality-Basics.html http://www.yale.edu/perception/Brian/demos/ca usality-Basics.html – http://perception.research.yale.edu/causality/launchi ng.mov http://perception.research.yale.edu/causality/launchi ng.mov – http://perception.research.yale.edu/causality/spatialG ap.mov http://perception.research.yale.edu/causality/spatialG ap.mov – http://perception.research.yale.edu/causality/tempor alGap.mov http://perception.research.yale.edu/causality/tempor alGap.mov – Leslie (1984) brick pushing another brick – Baillargeon and supported versus non-supported box
Number Concepts Starkey & Cooper (1980) 4- to 7-month olds – Discriminating 2 and 3 but not 4 vs 6 – Disagreement about whether it is really number or amount Antel & Keating (1983) Demonstrated in neonates Canfield & Haith (1991) 3-month-olds Sequence an location of 1 and 2
Memory Piaget and effecting an Mobile Rovee-Collier– under what conditions do infants remember – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPJiB- oGMN0&list=PL1ACFACF774EFA277&index=28 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPJiB- oGMN0&list=PL1ACFACF774EFA277&index=28
Individual differences in Infant memory How complex a figure can they habituate to How long to habituate Correlation to later IQ moderate after 18 months.