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Starting Well Evidence to Lancashire Fairness Commission Dr Ann Hoskins Director Children, Young People and Families.

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Presentation on theme: "Starting Well Evidence to Lancashire Fairness Commission Dr Ann Hoskins Director Children, Young People and Families."— Presentation transcript:

1 Starting Well Evidence to Lancashire Fairness Commission Dr Ann Hoskins Director Children, Young People and Families

2 UK’s u15s mortality is now amongst the worst in Europe 2 Since 1980 UK child mortality rate has moved from one of the best in 11 European countries to the worst.

3 Overview of issues to be covered Laying the foundations for good parenting including a healthy pregnancy Early years development that supports children from 0-5 and their families build their skills and resilience so that they are ready for school Support to teenagers and adolescents to build life skills and personal resilience to prepare them for the transition to adult life 3

4 Giving Every Child the Best Start in Life is crucial to reducing Health Inequalities across the life course  Ensure high quality maternity services, parenting programmes, childcare and early years education to meet need across the social gradient  Ensuring that parents have access to support during pregnancy is particularly important  An integrated policy framework is needed for early child development to include policies relating to the prenatal period and infancy, leading to the planning and commissioning of maternity, infant and early years family support services as part of a wider multi-agency approach to commissioning children and family services 4

5 5 Children, Young People and Families: Life course approach Marmot 2010, Fair Society, Healthy Lives: The Marmot Review

6 6 The evidence base shows we can make a difference through early intervention and public health approaches ( next-steps.pdf and There are economic and social arguments for investing in childhood. The Family Nurse Partnership estimated savings five times greater than the cost of the programme in the form of reduced welfare and criminal justice expenditures; higher tax revenues and improved physical and mental health (Department for Children, Schools and Families (2007) Cost–Benefit Analysis of Interventions with Parents. Research Report DCSF-RW008).. Marmot showed that of c. 700,000 children born in 2010, if policies could be implemented to eradicate health inequalities, then each child could expect to live two years longer. ( marmot-review) Child poverty has short, medium and long term consequences for individuals, families, neighbourhoods, society and the economy. These consequences relate to health, education, employment, behaviour, finance, relationships and subjective well-being ( costs.pdf.). Why Children and Young People are a Priority

7 7 Inequality in early cognitive development of children in the 1970 British Cohort Study, at ages 22 months to 10 years Environment matters for short, medium and long term outcomes

8 Blackburn with Darwen Adverse Childhood Experiences: Increased risk of having health behaviours/conditions in adulthood for individuals who experienced four or more ACE STIs: risk is increased 30-fold Heroin or Crack user: risk is increased 10-fold Prison or cells: risk is increased 9-fold Hit someone last 12 months: risk is increased 8-fold Morbidly Obese : risk is increased 7-fold Been hit in last 12 month: risk is increased 5-fold Pregnant or got someone accidently pregnant under 18: risk is increased 4-fold Regular heavy drinker: risk is increased 4-fold Liver or digestive disease: risk is increased 2-fold Adverse childhood experience;retrospective study to determine their impact on adult health behaviours and health outcomes in a UK population. Bellis M,Lowey H, Leckenby N, Hughes K, Harrison D Journal of PH, advance access 013/04/14 8 Environment matters for short, medium and long term outcomes

9 Early years

10 Key factors for poor development outcomes Parental depression * Parental illness or disability Smoking in pregnancy * Parent at risk of alcoholism Domestic violence Financial stress * Teenage mother, smoking in pregnancy and parental depression frequently occur together * Associated with worst outcomes – cognitive emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer & pro-social Analysis of MCS, Sabates & Dex, 2013 Parental worklessness Teenage mother Parental lack of basic skills, which limits daily activities Household overcrowding 10

11 The Scientific Base Protective factors Breast feeding and nutrition Bernardo LH, Rajiv B, Jose Cm, Cesar GV (2007) Evidence on the long- term effects of breastfeeding. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis, Geneva, WHO Immunization NICE (2009) reducing the differences in the uptake of immunizations (including targeted vaccines) among children and young people under 19, NICE PH guidance 21 London : NICE Parenting and parent–child relationship Gardner FEM (1987) Positive interaction between mothers and children with conduct problems: is there training for harmony as well as fighting? Journal of Abnormal Child 15, 283- 93 Psychology Relationship between parents Coleman L, Glenn F (2009) When couples part, Understanding the consequences for adults and children London: One plus One 11

12 Opportunities for LAs with transfer commissioning 0-5 years Healthy Child Programme Commissioning HCP 0-5 Opportunities Joining up commissioning in local authorities for children’s public health, early years and wider family services Involving HWB to promote aligned/joint commissioning between LA, CCGs (which commission NHS children services) for services around the child and family Streamlining universal access to Healthy Child Programme with early intervention and targeted interventions/programmes for families needing more help Joining up 0 – 5 Healthy Child Programme with 5 – 19 Healthy Child Programme (which is already commissioned by LAs) Better integration of services at point of delivery with improved access and experience Improved outcomes for children families and communities and reduced inequalities

13 Progressive universalism 13 Universal Core universal offer Universal partnership plus Universal plus e.g. Interagency work to support children in need Child protection & safeguarding Additional parenting support e.g. sleep, feeding, behaviour

14 Universal Health and development reviews Screening and physical exam. Immunisations Promotion of health and wellbeing, e.g.: smoking, diet and physical activity, breastfeeding and healthy weaning, keeping safe, prevention of sudden infant death, maintaining infant health, dental health Promotion of sensitive parenting and child development Involvement of fathers Mental health needs assessed Preparation and support with transition to parenthood and family relationships Signposting to information and services Universal plus Emotional and psychological problems addressed Promotion and extra support with breastfeeding Support with behaviour change (smoking, diet, keeping safe, SIDS, dental health) Parenting support programmes, including assessment and promotion of parent– baby interaction Promoting child development, including language Additional support and monitoring for infants with health or developmental problems Common Assessment Framework completed Higher risk High-intensity-based intervention Intensive structured home visiting programmes by skilled practitioners Referral for specialist input Action to safeguard the child Contribution to care package led by specialist service Common Assessment Framework completed SAFEGUARDING Healthy Child Programme (HCP): best start for all children and extra help where needed

15 Maternity and Early years: targeted interventions Targeted interventions by HV e.g. postnatal depression Working with the Troubled Families Programme to develop a health offer and improve integration with health services Family Nurse Partnership quality assurance of FNP unit Working with partners to promote early intervention including the Early Intervention Foundation / Big Lottery 15

16 694,241new opportunities available last year in the England (ONS 2012) To prevent early adversities stopping our children developing their full potential Every child ready to learn

17 Adolescence

18 Adolescence – periods of change Adolescence and early adulthood represent a transition period marked by many pressures and challenges... Physical and emotional changes... Changing social relationships and growing academic and professional expectations EuroHealthNet, Making the Link: Youth and Health Equity 18

19 19 There are more than 11.5 million aged 10-24 in England The rate of developmental change during adolescence is second only to infancy Good health allows young people to make the most of their teenage years – education and socialisation Many poor health outcomes for adults originate when we are young, for example smoking, mental health, obesity and violence Why focus on adolescence?

20 20 Behaviour across Adolescence Source: Hawkins & Monahan 2009

21 Research from the CMO’s report All cause mortality for 10-19 year olds is now higher than for other periods of childhood except for newborns – main cause is Injury Five of the ten riskiest factors for the total burden of disease in adults are initiated or shaped in adolescence Adolescents have higher use of health services than other child categories above the age of 3 There appears to be a window of vulnerability to risky behaviours between 14-17 years 21

22 Adolescent health and wellbeing framework A high level document to inform local strategies that will draw on what works and what matters Working in collaboration with schools, FE and Local Authorities Central to our work to support local improvements – identifying what works from the evidence base, supporting evidence into practice Strengthening the public health workforce Wider than just ‘public health’ trained workforce – youth services, children’s centres, VCS etc PHE next steps 22

23 Foundations in adolescence and young adulthood Our framework will be promoting: Using the 10-24 years life course period in line with CMO and WHO Raising importance of relationships, especially with parents/carers as well as peers Building life skills alongside raising awareness of key issues, such as sexual health, drugs and alcohol, positive mental health – and the importance of schools, colleges and other settings Building resilience – risk taking is an important part of development, how can young people be supported to make safe decisions Role of integrated or connected services – minimise the complexity of accessing services and maximise how they overlap Challenges and opportunities for achieving public health outcomes for children and young people 23

24 How can we make a difference? Use knowledge about risk and what builds resilience Promote evidence and learning from practice about what works Combine targeted help for those most at risk with universal interventions Take a life course and place-based approach –early years, schools, families, and communities Work in partnership, taking a coordinated and collaborative approach, recognising strengths of different partners and using resources effectively Listen and act on what children, young people and parents/carers tell us Challenges and opportunities for achieving public health outcomes for children and young people 24

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