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LOOKING BACK… SCHOOL OF THOUGHT Structuralism – studied elements that explained mental processes Functionalism – how particular behaviors helped people.

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Presentation on theme: "LOOKING BACK… SCHOOL OF THOUGHT Structuralism – studied elements that explained mental processes Functionalism – how particular behaviors helped people."— Presentation transcript:

1 LOOKING BACK… SCHOOL OF THOUGHT Structuralism – studied elements that explained mental processes Functionalism – how particular behaviors helped people adapt to their environment (purpose of behavior) Psychoanalysis – uncovering of unconscious motivations Behaviorism – studying observable behaviors and the influence of the environment Humanism – Free will; freedom in our choices (how we behave)

2 LOOKING BACK… 4 Goals of Psychology To describe behavior To explain behavior To predict behavior To control/change behavior

3 LOOKING BACK… TYPES OF RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE CORRELATIONAL EXPERIMENTAL

4 HUMAN GROWTH And DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 2

5 Maturation It is the unfolding of all hereditary potentials of an individual It refers to the changes the body undergoes in such a way that it is ready to function. Human Development the study of the human cycle from conception to death It encompasses the physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes that occur in an individual

6 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth You maybe wondering.. HOW DOES A BABY DEVELOP IN THE MOTHERS WOMB? MALE SPERM CELL (with 23 single chromosomes) MALE SPERM CELL (with 23 single chromosomes) FEMALE OVUM (with 23 single chromosomes) FEMALE OVUM (with 23 single chromosomes) ZYGOTE (fertilized egg that has 23 PAIRS of chromosomes) ZYGOTE (fertilized egg that has 23 PAIRS of chromosomes)

7 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth

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11  GERMINAL STAGE of conception: The first 14 days after conception  Major characteristic: CELL DIVISION that will continue until the 2 nd week.  When it reached to a 100- organism, it is now called blastocyst  Also, during the process of cell division, this mass of cells travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus  On the 9 th day of conception, the blastocyst implants itself in the lining of the uterine wall

12 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth  Embryonic stage: The organism is now called EMBRYO  Range: 2 nd to 8 th weeks  When the blastocyst attaches itself to the uterine wall, its outside cells develop into the support structures: PLACENTA, UMBILICAL CORD & AMNIOTIC SAC.

13 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth  Major characteristic: Formation and development of the major organs and systems  All major biological systems – Cardiovascular, digestive, skeletal, excretory, respiratory and nervous system  Most precarious stage of prenatal development  Most miscarriages and genetic defects surface during this stage

14 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth  About 4 weeks after conception, heart is beating, spinal cord is forming, the liver is producing red blood cells and ovaries/testes have formed  Embryo now looks human, though its just an inch long

15 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth  FETAL STAGE: begins 9 th week until birth  The organism is now called FETUS  Major characteristics: Continued growth and maturation  By 14 weeks, the fetus can kick and open its mouth, swallow, and turn its head. Lungs and external sex organs have developed.  By the end of the 6 th month (24 th week), the organs are sufficiently formed that the fetus had reached VIABILITY – possibility of surviving outside the womb

16 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth

17 DETERMINATION OF TWINS Fraternal twins - conceived when a mother releases two separate eggs and these are fertilized by two separate sperms to form two separate embryos and then make two separate babies Identical twins - one egg from the mother is fertilized by one sperm from the father, and the embryo splits and two fetuses grow

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20 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth WHAT ARE SOME BIRTH DEFECTS THAT CAN OCCUR?? Internal Chromosomal Abnormality a. Down Syndrome – results from an extra 21 st chromosome - distinct facial features and are more likely to experience heart defects and varying degrees of mental retardation

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22 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Conception to Birth WHAT ARE SOME BIRTH DEFECTS THAT CAN OCCUR?? Outside Environmental Factors An outside agent that has a potential to harm the embryo is called TERATOGEN. It can be a drug/substance that the mother takes (cocaine/alcohol/nicotine); a disease (rubella virus )

23 I. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT (Growing, Moving & Exploring) A.REFLEX AND MOTOR DEV’T Infants are born with reflexes that help the infant survive -Sucking -Rooting -Startle -Grasping -Babinski

24 INFANCY & CHILDHOOD

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27 B. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  PERCEPTION -VISION: Babies are nearsighted at birth; they cannot focus both their eyes on an object -HEARING: Infants can locate directions of the sound. They prefer soft and rhythmic sounds -TOUCH: Responsive. Stimulates their growth. * Infants’ perceptual abilities allow them to gather much needed information from the environment. From these beginnings, infants develop the abilities to know, think, remember –> COGNITION.

28 PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 3 Central Concepts: A.Schema – any mental idea, concept or thought. B.Assimilation – a process by which an existing schema is used to understand something new in the environment C.Accommodation – process we use to change or modify our existing schema or create a new one. *Accdg. To Piaget, assimilation and accommodation create shifts in mental thinking that allow the child to learn.

29 SENSORIMOTORPRE-OPERATIONAL CONCRETE OPERATIONAL FORMAL OPERATIONAL Birth - 2 y/o2 - 7 y/o7 - 11 y/o11 y/o - adult REFLEXESEGOCENTRISMCONSERVATIONABSTRACT REASONING OBJECT PERMANENCEILLOGICAL THINKINGLOGICAL THINKING

30 MORAL REASONING How we think about right and wrong?? Your bank’s ATM dispenses P10,000 to you and there is no way that this error would ever be discovered. You keep the money, but you donate half of it to the Church. Should you have kept the money? How did you decide what to do?

31 INFANCY & CHILDHOOD

32 C.PSYCHOSOCIAL: PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT A. ORAL (0 – 18 months) - Erogenous zone: Mouth -Sucking, mouthing and chewing B. ANAL (1-3 y/o) -Erogenous zone: Anus -Control elimination / toilet training

33 C. PHALLIC (3-6 y/o) -Erogenous zone: Genitals -Identification – trying to become someone else -Oedipus complex (boys) -Electra complex (girls)

34 D. LATENCY (6-12 y/o) -Sexual impulses remain dormant/repressed E. GENITAL (Puberty) -Attraction to opposite sex -Sexual relationship / marriage

35 INFANCY & CHILDHOOD (Birth – 12 y/o) C. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  How much impact do parents have on their child’s development?  Attachment : Emotional bond between caretaker and infant that is established by 8 or 9 months through warm contact (holding & caress)

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37 FOUR PATTERNS OF ATTACHMENT 1.Secure– infants who are securely attached use the parent as a supportive base 2.Avoidant – ignore parents. Pay parent little attention. 3.Resistant – “clinging” baby. Show extreme distress when the parent leaves and appear to be angry when the parent returns 4.Disorganized – Look away from the mother while being held and may have a blank expression after being calmed by her

38 PARENTING STYLES

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40 INFANCY & CHILDHOOD (Birth – 12 y/o)

41 ADOLESCENCE (12 – 20 y/o)  PUBERTY: process of sexual maturation and bodily changes  Female: 11 yrs old  Male: 13 yrs old  Menarche: refers to the onset of menstruation (age 13)  Spermarche: age 13; sufficient sperm cells to fertilize the egg

42 ADOLESCENCE (12 – 20 y/o)  A.1 PHYSICAL CHANGES FOR BOYS -Acne -Beard -Voice Change -Underarm, chest hair -Muscle development -Pubic hair

43 ADOLESCENCE (12 – 20 y/o)  A.2 PHYSICAL CHANGES FOR GIRLS -Acne -Underarm hair -Breast development -Rounded body contour -Pubic hair -Menstruation

44 ADOLESCENCE (12 – 20 y/o) B. COGNITIVE CHANGES  Let’s go back to Piaget’s Cognitive Development SENSORIMOTORPRE-OPERATIONAL CONCRETE OPERATIONAL Birth - 2 y/o2 - 7 y/o7 - 11 y/o REFLEXESEGOCENTRISMCONSERVATION OBJECT PERMANENCEILLOGICAL THINKINGLOGICAL THINKING

45 ADOLESCENCE (12 – 20 y/o) B. SOCIAL: DATING  Outlet of fun and recreation  Gives teenager a chance to learn how to cooperate and compromise with people in a variety of situations  Way of establishing intimate relationships

46 ADOLESCENCE (12 – 20 y/o) B. SOCIAL: 5 th Stage  Developmental Crisis : IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION -Who or what they want to be in terms of occupation, beliefs, attitudes and behavior patterns -Adolescents who succeed in defining who they are find a role for themselves develop a strong sense of identity -Adolescents who fail to define their identity become confused and withdraw

47 YOUNG ADULTHOOD (20 – 40 y/o) A.PHYSICAL CHANGES  BOTH: Peak of physical strength, stamina, coordination and endurance  BOTH: Visual acuity / ability to focus vision  Trouble free reproduction

48 YOUNG ADULTHOOD (20 – 40 y/o) B. PSYCHOSOCIAL  Explore different types of friendships and relationships  Moving and travelling as part of building careers  Marriage and Divorce  Parenting

49 YOUNG ADULTHOOD (20 – 40 y/o) B. PSYCHOSOCIAL: 6th Stage of Erikson Developmental Crisis: INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION -Task fading those in early adulthood is to be able to share who they are with another person in a committed relationship -People who succeed in this task will have intimate relationships -People who fail will be isolated from other people and will experience loneliness

50 MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (40 – 65 y/o) A.PHYSICAL  During the middle adulthood, skin starts to wrinkle and hair may thin and turn gray  Reproductive capacity: menopause(female); andropause (male)

51 MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (40 – 65 y/o) B. COGNITIVE  They have a higher need to know WHY should they learn something new  More and different experiences  Willing to learn things that they believe are necessary to deal with REAL world problems rather than abstract and hypothetical situations  Motivation from self esteem/personal satisfaction

52 MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (40 – 65 y/o) B. PSYCHOSOCIAL  Letting go of children  Realize that their time here on earth is limited  They will reflect about their contributions and accomplishments

53 MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (40 – 65 y/o) C. PSYCHOSOCIAL: 7 th stage of Erikson

54 LATE ADULTHOOD (65 - death) A. PHYSICAL  Gradual decline in height  Dysfunctions in the lungs,kidneys, hearing, vision, taste, etc B. COGNITIVE  Memory and attention problems

55 LATE ADULTHOOD (65 - death) C. PSYCHOSOCIAL: 8 th stage of Erikson

56 DEATH…..  A process rather than a point in time  IF YOU WERE TOLD TODAY THAT YOU ONLY HAD 6 MONTHS TO LIVE, HOW WILL YOU REACT??  KUBLER-ROSS STAGES of Dying - Denial (typical reaction) -Anger (unfairness of death; why me?) -Bargaining (attempt of dealing with more time) -Depression (sad, mourn their own death) -Acceptance (facing of death with loved ones)

57 DEATH…..  HOW WE RESPOND TO DEATH?? - Bereavement: experience of losing a loved one - Grief: our emotional reaction to that loss - 3 Phases: impact/shock, confrontation and acceptance


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