Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1Developmental Psychology A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social changes throughout the lifespan.
2Prenatal DevelopmentConception begins with the drop of an egg and the release of about 200 million sperm.The sperm seeks out the egg and attempts to penetrate the eggs surface.
3Once the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a fertilized egg called…….. The ZygoteThe first stage of prenatal development. Lasts about two weeks and consists of rapid cell division.
4The Zygote StageLess than half of all zygotes survive first two weeks.About 10 days after conception, the zygote will attach itself to the uterine wall.The outer part of the zygote becomes the placenta (which filters nutrients).
5After two weeks, the zygote develops into a Embryo
6The Embryo Stage Lasts about 6 weeks. Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to develop.The “baby” is more vulnerable to damage at this stage than any others. Don’t drink or do drugs!
7By nine weeks we have something that looks unmistakably human… A Fetus
9The Fetus StageBy about the 6th month, the stomach and other organs have formed enough to survive outside of mother.At this time the baby can hear (and recognize) sounds and respond to light.
10Teratogens harmful agents to the prenatal environment
11Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women’s heavy drinking.Severe cases symptoms include facial disproportions.
12So what will a healthy newborn do? ReflexesRooting Reflex- a babies tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open mouth and search for a nipple.Turn towards human voices.Gaze longer at human face like images.
13Maturation Maturation is the physical development of a person. First you roll over, then crawl, then walk, then run.Some babies skip crawling but that can be bad for cognitive development.
15Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget did not conduct formal experiments, but rather loosely structured interviews in which he posed problems for children to solve, observed their actions carefully, and questioned them about their solutionsWas particularly interested in children’s error, which would provide insights into children’s thought processesAssumed that a child is an active seeker of knowledge and gains an understanding of the world by operating on it
16Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development SensorimotorBirth - age 2Preoperational2 - 6 yearsConcrete OperationalyearsFormal Operational12+ years
20Sensorimotor Stage 0-2Infant learns about the world through their sensory and motor interactions (including reflexes)Lack object permanence, the knowledge than an object exists independent of perceptual contactSymbolic representation ofobjects and events starts todevelop during the latter part of thesensorimotor stage (e.g., use oftelegraphic speech)
21Preoperational StageThe child’s thinking becomes more symbolic and language-based, but remains egocentric and lacks the mental operations that allow logical thinkingEgocentrism is the inability to distinguish one’s own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings from those of othersCannot perceive the world from another person’s perspective
22AnimismGiving animal qualities to inanimate objects
23Preoperational StageConservation is the knowledge that the quantitative properties of an object (such as mass, volume, and number) remain the same despite changes in appearanceSome grasp of conservation marks the end of the preoperational stage and the beginning of the concrete-operational stageThe liquid/beakers problem is a common test of conservation ability
24Preoperational StageA major reason why a preoperational child does not understand conservation is that the child lacks an understanding of reversibility, the knowledge that reversing a transformation brings about the conditions that existed before the transformationChild’s thinking also reflects centration, the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a problem at a time
26Concrete Operational Stage Children (age 6-12) gain a fuller understanding of conservation and other mental operations that allow them to think logically, but only about concrete eventsConservation for liquids, numbers, and matter acquired early, but conservation of length acquired later in the stage
27Concrete Operational Stage Can demonstrate concept of conservation.Learn to think logicallyClick the penguin to see kids try to grasp concrete logic.
28Formal Operational Stage What would the world look like with no light?Picture godWhat way do you best learn?Abstract reasoningManipulate objects in our minds without seeing themHypothesis testingTrial and ErrorMetacognitionNot every adult gets to this stage
29Criticisms of PiagetSome say he underestimates the abilities of children.Information-Processing Model says children to not learn in stages but rather a gradual continuous growth.Studies show that our attention span grows gradually over time.
30Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory Not all people reach formal operational thoughtThe theory may be biased in favor of Western cultureThere is no real theory of what occurs after the onset of adolescenceDespite refinements, recent research has indeed shown that cognitive development seems to proceed in the general sequence of stages that Piaget proposed
36Body Contact Then this guy came along…….. It was first assumed that infants became attached to those who satisfied their need for nourishment.Then this guy came along……..
37Harry Harlow and hisDiscovered that monkeys preferred the soft body contact comfort of a cloth mother, over the nourishment of a hard/wirily mother.
38FamiliarityAttachments based on familiarity are formed during our critical periods.
39In general, a critical period is a limited time in which an event can occur, usually to result in some kind of transformation. A "critical period" in developmental psychology is a time in the early stages of an organism's life during which it displays a heightened sensitivity to certain environmental stimuli, and develops in particular ways due to experiences at this time. If a child does not attach during the critical period for attachment, then it may be impossible to attach later. Same for language acquisition. Can you learn language at 4 years old?
40Konrad LorenzKonrad Lorenz studied how goslings (baby geese) will imprint themselves to a human if they get human exposure during a critical period
42Deprivation of Attachment Often withdrawn, frightened and in extreme cases speechless.Harlow’s monkeys would either cower in fright or act extremely aggressive. Many could not mate and if they could, the mothers were unresponsive parents.Is there a connection between crime and lack of childhood attachment?
43Cognitive Development Rats who are raised in a rich environment have more neurons.
44DaycareHigh Quality daycare has shown no detrimental effects on children over the age of two.The studies go both ways for children under the age of two- no clear answer yet.
45Child Attachment Styles based on Ainsworth’s (1971) “The Strange Situation” studies
46Mary Ainsworth studied children's’ attachment styles Mary Ainsworth studied children's’ attachment styles. She would place a mother and young child in a room. The independent variable was a “strange situation” like a stranger or have the mother leave the room. The dependent variable was how the child would react.
47Ainsworth’s attachment styles Mary Ainsworth would have a stranger enter the room. Children with a secure attachment would go to the mother for comfort when a stranger entered the room. The child would cry when the mother left but was happy when the mother returned.Most common (66%)
48Ainsworth’s attachment styles Insecure-avoidant (20%) – not distressed at mother leaving or stranger arriving; cool response when mother returnsProbably caused by distant mothers
50Ainsworth’s attachment styles insecure- resistant (12%) – clingy to mother; traumatized by every stage of the experiment; distrustful of their mothersCaused by over-bearing, controlling mothers
51General Parenting Styles Based on Diana Baumrind’s studiesThey are:PermissiveAuthoritarianAuthoritative
52Permissive ParentsParents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands and use little punishment.
53Authoritarian Parents Impose rules and expect obedience.“Why, because I said so!!!!”What word that begins with A describes an authoritarian?
54Authoritative Parents Parents are both demanding and responsive.Exert control by setting rules, but explain reasoning behind the rules.Encourage open discussion.
55Do you remember this FRQ? The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first baby. Both parents-to-be have had a psychology course and are looking forward to applying the principles they learned from theories and research that address child development.A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each of the following four researchers.Skinner’s operant conditioningBandura’s social learning theoryB. Provide a specific example of actions the Smith-Garcias might take to raise their child to produce positive outcomes using each of the theories below to address the corresponding psychological concept.Skinner’s operant conditioning: tantrum managementBandura’s social learning theory: sharing behavior
56Now, answer the rest….The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first baby. Both parents-to-be have had a psychology course and are looking forward to applying the principles they learned from theories and research that address child development.A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each of the following four researchers.Skinner’s operant conditioningBandura’s social learning theoryAinsworth’s attachment researchBaumrind’s research on parenting stylesB. Provide a specific example of actions the Smith-Garcias might take to raise their child to produce positive outcomes using each of the theories below to address the corresponding psychological concept.Skinner’s operant conditioning: tantrum managementBandura’s social learning theory: sharing behaviorAinsworth’s attachment research: self-relianceBaumrind’s research on parenting styles: self-esteem