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Chapter 3 – Infancy & Childhood

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1 Chapter 3 – Infancy & Childhood

2 Physical, Perceptual, & Language Development
Infants are born equipped to experience the world. As infants grow physically, they also develop perceptions and language. Nature v Nurture Developmental Psychology is the specialized study of how an individual’s physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development occurs in sequential interrelated stages throughout the life cycle. Physical, Perceptual, & Language Development

3 Developmental Psychologists study the following main issues:
Continuity versus stages of development Stability versus change Nature v nurture

4 Newborns Capacities Grasping reflex in response to a touch on the palm of their hands, infants can grasp an object, such as a finger, so strongly that they can be lifted into the air. Rooting reflex occurs when an alert newborn is touched anywhere around the mouth, he will move his head and mouth toward the source of the touch

5 Physical Development Average infant birth weight = 7.3 pounds
By one year old, average weight = pounds Maturation is internally programmed growth Newborns can’t hold their own head up, but by about 1 year old, they are walking!!!

6 Perceptual Development
Gibson & Walk (1960) realized infants 6 months old and older recognize cliffs/drop-offs and refuse to go over them Fantz (1961) completed a study and found that infants prefer to look at human faces and patterned material the most.

7 Development of Language
Language and thought are closely intertwined Both involve using symbols Can animals use language? Gardners raised a chimp names Washoe and taught her to use American Sign Language for the Deaf By 3 ½ years old, Washoe knew and accurately used 87 signs for words By 5 years old she was using more than 160 signs!

8 How children acquire language
Children imitate the speech of their parents and older siblings The first real words usually refer to things an infant can see or touch Critical period for learning language? The leap to using sounds as symbols occurs sometime in the second year By 2 years old, a kid’s vocabulary should be between 500 and 1500 words Speech is telegraphic – they leave words out, but can still get the point across

9 Cognitive & Emotional Development
As the thought processes of children develop, they begin to think, communicate and relate with others, and solve problems. Cognitive Development Piaget (20th Century) Intelligence, or the ability to understand, develops gradually as the child grows Cognitive & Emotional Development

10 How Knowing Changes Schemas are mental representations of the world
We construct these and apply and change them as necessary Assimilation is trying to fit new objects into our schemas Accommodation is when we change our schema to fit the characteristics of the new object

11 Assimilation and accommodation work together to produce intellectual growth
Object permanence happens when a small child realizes an object is till there even when it cannot be seen (peek-a-boo) Representational thought occurs once object permanence has been achieved. A small child can see something and imitate it later. The Principle of Conservation means that a child can understand that the quantity did not change even though the appearance did Usually does not occur until after age 5

12 Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development
Egocentric is when kids can only see and think of the world from their point of view Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Birth – 2 years Behavior consists of simple motor responses to sensory stimuli; lacks concept of object permanence Preoperational 2-7 years Lacks operations (reversible mental processes); exhibits egocentric thinking; lacks concept of conservation; uses symbols (such as words or mental images to solve simple problems or to talk about things that are not present

13 Concrete Operations Formal Operations 7-11 years
Begins to understand concept of conservation; still has trouble with abstract ideas; classification abilities improve; masters concept of conservation Formal Operations 11 years – onward Understands abstract ideas and hypothetical situations; capable of logical and deductive reasoning

14 Emotional Development
Experiments with Animals Imprinting is a sudden, virtually permanent learning process Baby geese think the first thing they see is their mother Critical period is a time in development when an animal or human is best able to learn a skill or behavior Surrogate Mothers Harlow (20th Century) discovered baby monkeys chose comfort over food when forced to choose between a soft cloth mother figure and a wire one with milk

15 Human Infants Attachments begin to form to a mother or surrogate mother at about 6 months old The attachment is strongest between 6 months and 3 years old Stranger anxiety may be displayed even when the mother is present, but will go away Separation anxiety occurs whenever the child is suddenly separated from the mother

16 Other psychologists later added the one below:
Ainsworth and Bowlby (1991) conducted an experiment called Strange Situation and found three forms of attachment between children and their mothers: Secure attachment – infants balance the need to explore and the need to be close Avoidant attachment – infants avoid or ignore the mother when she leaves and returns Resistant attachment – infants are not upset when the mother leaves but reject her or act out angrily when she returns Other psychologists later added the one below: Disorganized attachment – these infants never act the same way twice

17 Parenting Styles and Social Development
Children face various social decisions as they grow and progress through the stages of life Parenting Styles Authoritarian Families – parents are the bosses Parents do not believe that they have to explain their actions or demands Democratic/Authoritative Families – children participate in decisions affecting their lives There is a great deal of discussion and negotiation in such families Permissive/Laissez-faire Families – children have the final say Parents may attempt to guide the children but give in when the children insist on having their own way Parenting Styles and Social Development

18 Effects of Parenting Styles
Studies have shown that adolescents who have grown up in Democratic/Authoritative Families are more confident of their own values and goals than other young people. This comes from two features: Establishment of limits Responding to the child with warmth and support Children of democratic families tend to want to make their own decisions The child is able to assume responsibility gradually The child is more likely to identify with parents who love and respect him or her than with parents who treat him or her as incompetent Democratic parents present a model of responsible cooperative independence for the growing person to imitate

19 Child Abuse Child abuse includes the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or mistreatment of children under the age of 18 by adults entrusted with their care Social problem resulting from a variety of causes Many abusive parents were abused Many abusive parents have little patience and unrealistic expectations Overburdened and stressed parents are more likely to abuse Low-birth weight infants and children who are hyperactive, mentally or physically disadvantaged are more likely to be abused

20 Social Development Socialization is learning the rules of behavior of the culture in which you are born and raised. Learning what the rules are Learning when to apply them Learning when to bend them Learning to live with other people and with yourself

21 Freud’s theory of psychosocial development
Oral Stage First 18 months of life Infants pleasure seeking focused on the mouth Anal Stage 1 ½ years – 3 years old Infants pleasure seeking centered on the functions of elimination Phallic Stage 3-6 years old Infants pleasure seeking focused on the genitals Latency Stage 6 years – puberty Sexual thoughts are repressed, child focuses on developing social and intellectual skills Genital Stage Puberty though adulthood Sexual desires are renewed, individual seeks relationships with others.

22 Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
Trust v Mistrust Early infancy Is my world predictable and supportive? Autonomy v shame and doubt 1-3 years Can I do things myself or must I rely on others? Initiative v guilt 3-6 years Am I good or bad?

23 Industry v Inferiority
6-12 years Am I successful or worthless? Identity v Role Confusion Early teens Who am I? Intimacy v Isolation Young adult Shall I share my life with someone or live alone? Generativity v Stagnation Middle adult Will I succeed in life? Ego integrity v Despair Older adult Have I lived a full life?

24 Cognitive-Development Approach
Games and Play Children’s games are serious business They like to make up and stick to the rules A child’s role taking involves trying to be like adult role models

25 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Pre-Conventional Stage 1 – obedience and punishment Self oriented Stage 2 – Instrumental Relativist Immediate family Conventional Stage 3 – Good/Nice girl Extended family Stage 4 – Law and order Self-serving view of society Post-Conventional Stage 5 – Social Contract Interactive view of society Stage 6 – universal Ethics Principle Balanced cost/benefit analysis of self/society

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