2Physical, Perceptual, & Language Development Infants are born equipped to experience the world. As infants grow physically, they also develop perceptions and language.Nature v NurtureDevelopmental Psychology is the specialized study of how an individual’s physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development occurs in sequential interrelated stages throughout the life cycle.Physical, Perceptual, & Language Development
3Developmental Psychologists study the following main issues: Continuity versus stages of developmentStability versus changeNature v nurture
4NewbornsCapacitiesGrasping reflex in response to a touch on the palm of their hands, infants can grasp an object, such as a finger, so strongly that they can be lifted into the air.Rooting reflex occurs when an alert newborn is touched anywhere around the mouth, he will move his head and mouth toward the source of the touch
5Physical Development Average infant birth weight = 7.3 pounds By one year old, average weight = poundsMaturation is internally programmed growthNewborns can’t hold their own head up, but by about 1 year old, they are walking!!!
6Perceptual Development Gibson & Walk (1960) realized infants 6 months old and older recognize cliffs/drop-offs and refuse to go over themFantz (1961) completed a study and found that infants prefer to look at human faces and patterned material the most.
7Development of Language Language and thought are closely intertwinedBoth involve using symbolsCan animals use language?Gardners raised a chimp names Washoe and taught her to use American Sign Language for the DeafBy 3 ½ years old, Washoe knew and accurately used 87 signs for wordsBy 5 years old she was using more than 160 signs!
8How children acquire language Children imitate the speech of their parents and older siblingsThe first real words usually refer to things an infant can see or touchCritical period for learning language?The leap to using sounds as symbols occurs sometime in the second yearBy 2 years old, a kid’s vocabulary should be between 500 and 1500 wordsSpeech is telegraphic – they leave words out, but can still get the point across
9Cognitive & Emotional Development As the thought processes of children develop, they begin to think, communicate and relate with others, and solve problems.Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget (20th Century)Intelligence, or the ability to understand, develops gradually as the child growsCognitive & Emotional Development
10How Knowing Changes Schemas are mental representations of the world We construct these and apply and change them as necessaryAssimilation is trying to fit new objects into our schemasAccommodation is when we change our schema to fit the characteristics of the new object
11Assimilation and accommodation work together to produce intellectual growth Object permanence happens when a small child realizes an object is till there even when it cannot be seen (peek-a-boo)Representational thought occurs once object permanence has been achieved. A small child can see something and imitate it later.The Principle of Conservation means that a child can understand that the quantity did not change even though the appearance didUsually does not occur until after age 5
12Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development Egocentric is when kids can only see and think of the world from their point of viewPiaget’s stages of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotorBirth – 2 yearsBehavior consists of simple motor responses to sensory stimuli; lacks concept of object permanencePreoperational2-7 yearsLacks operations (reversible mental processes); exhibits egocentric thinking; lacks concept of conservation; uses symbols (such as words or mental images to solve simple problems or to talk about things that are not present
13Concrete Operations Formal Operations 7-11 years Begins to understand concept of conservation; still has trouble with abstract ideas; classification abilities improve; masters concept of conservationFormal Operations11 years – onwardUnderstands abstract ideas and hypothetical situations; capable of logical and deductive reasoning
14Emotional Development Experiments with AnimalsImprinting is a sudden, virtually permanent learning processBaby geese think the first thing they see is their motherCritical period is a time in development when an animal or human is best able to learn a skill or behaviorSurrogate MothersHarlow (20th Century) discovered baby monkeys chose comfort over food when forced to choose between a soft cloth mother figure and a wire one with milk
15Human InfantsAttachments begin to form to a mother or surrogate mother at about 6 months oldThe attachment is strongest between 6 months and 3 years oldStranger anxiety may be displayed even when the mother is present, but will go awaySeparation anxiety occurs whenever the child is suddenly separated from the mother
16Other psychologists later added the one below: Ainsworth and Bowlby (1991) conducted an experiment called Strange Situation and found three forms of attachment between children and their mothers:Secure attachment – infants balance the need to explore and the need to be closeAvoidant attachment – infants avoid or ignore the mother when she leaves and returnsResistant attachment – infants are not upset when the mother leaves but reject her or act out angrily when she returnsOther psychologists later added the one below:Disorganized attachment – these infants never act the same way twice
17Parenting Styles and Social Development Children face various social decisions as they grow and progress through the stages of lifeParenting StylesAuthoritarian Families – parents are the bossesParents do not believe that they have to explain their actions or demandsDemocratic/Authoritative Families – children participate in decisions affecting their livesThere is a great deal of discussion and negotiation in such familiesPermissive/Laissez-faire Families – children have the final sayParents may attempt to guide the children but give in when the children insist on having their own wayParenting Styles and Social Development
18Effects of Parenting Styles Studies have shown that adolescents who have grown up in Democratic/Authoritative Families are more confident of their own values and goals than other young people. This comes from two features:Establishment of limitsResponding to the child with warmth and supportChildren of democratic families tend to want to make their own decisionsThe child is able to assume responsibility graduallyThe child is more likely to identify with parents who love and respect him or her than with parents who treat him or her as incompetentDemocratic parents present a model of responsible cooperative independence for the growing person to imitate
19Child AbuseChild abuse includes the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or mistreatment of children under the age of 18 by adults entrusted with their careSocial problem resulting from a variety of causesMany abusive parents were abusedMany abusive parents have little patience and unrealistic expectationsOverburdened and stressed parents are more likely to abuseLow-birth weight infants and children who are hyperactive, mentally or physically disadvantaged are more likely to be abused
20Social DevelopmentSocialization is learning the rules of behavior of the culture in which you are born and raised.Learning what the rules areLearning when to apply themLearning when to bend themLearning to live with other people and with yourself
21Freud’s theory of psychosocial development Oral StageFirst 18 months of lifeInfants pleasure seeking focused on the mouthAnal Stage1 ½ years – 3 years oldInfants pleasure seeking centered on the functions of eliminationPhallic Stage3-6 years oldInfants pleasure seeking focused on the genitalsLatency Stage6 years – pubertySexual thoughts are repressed, child focuses on developing social and intellectual skillsGenital StagePuberty though adulthoodSexual desires are renewed, individual seeks relationships with others.
22Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Trust v MistrustEarly infancyIs my world predictable and supportive?Autonomy v shame and doubt1-3 yearsCan I do things myself or must I rely on others?Initiative v guilt3-6 yearsAm I good or bad?
23Industry v Inferiority 6-12 yearsAm I successful or worthless?Identity v Role ConfusionEarly teensWho am I?Intimacy v IsolationYoung adultShall I share my life with someone or live alone?Generativity v StagnationMiddle adultWill I succeed in life?Ego integrity v DespairOlder adultHave I lived a full life?
24Cognitive-Development Approach Games and PlayChildren’s games are serious businessThey like to make up and stick to the rulesA child’s role taking involves trying to be like adult role models
25Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Pre-ConventionalStage 1 – obedience and punishmentSelf orientedStage 2 – Instrumental RelativistImmediate familyConventionalStage 3 – Good/Nice girlExtended familyStage 4 – Law and orderSelf-serving view of societyPost-ConventionalStage 5 – Social ContractInteractive view of societyStage 6 – universal Ethics PrincipleBalanced cost/benefit analysis of self/society