Presentation on theme: "H UMAN D EVELOPMENT — I NFANCY AND C HILDHOOD Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:
H UMAN D EVELOPMENT — I NFANCY AND C HILDHOOD Chapter 10
H EREDITY VS. E NVIRONMENT Heredity Environment The issue surrounding these two concepts is the idea of Nature vs. Nurture
N ATURE VS. N URTURE Nature vs. Nurture is a huge controversy in the psychology world. How do we gain certain characteristics? Nature- refers to Nurture- refers to the What do we think? Genie
T HE R OLE OF H EREDITY Genes They contain directions for many characteristics, such as Everything babies are born with is determined by their genes Genes are carried on larger units called chromosomes. Every cell contains 23 pair of chromosomes During reproduction, when the sperm and the egg unite, the fertilized egg is called a zygote.
R OLE OF H EREDITY While the environment is crucial to development, recently psychologists have focused more and more on Genes can influence a child’s Even though a trait is inherited, it can still be changed by environment.
T WINS Two types of twins Dizygotic Twins Monozygotic Twins
D IZYGOTIC T WINS Or Fraternal twins, meaning twins develop from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm. These twins are no more alike in their genetic makeup (heredity) than any other siblings.
M ONOZYGOTIC T WINS Identical twins have the same In this twin type, twins develop from only Psychologists like to study them to see how they are alike—even if they weren’t raised together in the same environment.
T WIN S TUDIES A careful study of hundreds of pairs of grown monozygotic twins separated at birth have shown For example, these twins’ basic temperaments, occupational interests, hobbies, preferences for the arts and music, and athletic interests were quite similar even though they hadn’t met each other. (ex on pg. 289) Most researchers today estimate that roughly _____ of our personality traits and intelligence are the result of
D EVELOPMENTAL P ATTERNS E XPERIMENT A husband and wife decided to adopt a Chimpanzee around the same age as their son. They were curious to see the development pattern that the Chimpanzee took. Would it be similar to a humans? At first, the Chimp progressed faster than the son and the parents became very concerned.
D EVELOPMENTAL P ATTERNS E XPERIMENT But by the time both children reached the age 2, the boy surpassed the chimp in ever aspect except for physical strength and body hair.
D EVELOPMENTAL P ATTERNS E XPERIMENT What is significant about this study is it makes the point that… Development is The development pattern is directly related to the… Ex- the chimp developed faster on basic skills, but once those skills became more intense and complicated, the boy excelled over the Chimp.
D EVELOPMENTAL P ATTERNS Much of development is a process of integrating our These developments will occur with the proper stimulation and
M ATURATION P ROCESS A child is preprogrammed for certain activities— like walking. Walking is a natural skill that begins to develop btw 9-15 months. Some believe this process is learned, but… Training your child to work does not do much except maybe help your child start to walk a month earlier than maybe it would have. Walking early is not a sign of… It is just a reflection of individual...
M ATURATIONAL P ROCESSES Maturation is the Sequential process of This rule applies to other skills likes walking, talking, and reasoning.
M ATURATIONAL P ATTERN Many toys on the market claim to speed up_______ for a child’s intelligence, but these claims should not be taken too seriously. Children need ____________ from their surroundings, but toys are not the best way to do this. Parents should “talk” to children because this is good to stimulate the baby’s brain. Development takes time. It takes time for the nerve cells to grow, develop, and branch out. No toy can do this
M ATURATION P ROCESS Without a stimulating environment, With a stimulation environment, a child’s development will proceed at its own internal pace, not exceed it.
G ROWTH C YCLES Our various parts do not develop at one uniform rate… Some areas develop more rapidly than others, some take time, some develop in spurts. Ex: at age 8, 95% of the basic structure of the brain has been completed, but the body has 55% left to go, and the reproductive system has 90% left.
T HE FAMILY Mother: Father:
T HE F AMILY AND C HILD D EVELOPMENT The typical “U.S. family” has gone through many changes and continues to look different. Nuclear family Extended family
C HANGING F AMILY S TRUCTURES One reason for change in our family structure is... By the 1980’s about ½ of marriages ended in This means that that about ½ of today’s children will
S INGLE -P ARENT H OMES Who will now head single-parent family home? why? The mother is more likely than the father to be affected... Consequently, children of divorce are affected not only from the divorce, but also now economically.
E FFECTS OF D IVORCE ON C HILDREN Fighting and harsh words between parents tends to threaten their Fighting also fails to teach the They often do not know how to solve their own conflicts.
E FFECTS OF D IVORCE ON C HILDREN Another aspect of divorce is when… The child is usually not sure what Often the child resents _________ and are afraid they will try and take the place of the absent parent.
D IVORCE What are positive, proactive behaviors parents can do regarding divorce?
W ORKING M OM Mothers play a very important role in the upbringing of their child. It has been speculated that… However, this idea has been proven to be ____ as long as certain elements are evident in the
W ORKING M OM Researchers have found that its not the amount of time a mother spends with her children that matter, but Children tend to do fine with a working mom if
F ATHERS AND C HILDREN Fathers tend to spend less time with children than mothers do, but they do the same kinds of things like… Having a warm affectionate father or father figure around helps children become more independent and also help children develop a feeling of being worthwhile and useful.
N O F ATHER I NFLUENCE Most problems that occur in single-mom homes are financially-related and a result of too much stress on the family Not necessarily due to The most important thing is for children to feel…. This is easier in a 2 parent household, but is not impossible for a single parent.
P ARENTING S TYLES 1. Permissive 2. Authoritarian 3. Authoritative
P ERMISSIVE Permissive parents tend to let their children do whatever they want. These parents don’t make many rules and tend to not enforce them. As a result their children don’t learn much about unacceptable behavior and their consequences. Children tend to be impulsive and irresponsible and don’t have much self-discipline. They tend to lack self-confidence and have a hard time making decisions, they normally don’t get along well with others.
A UTHORITARIAN Also known as dictatorial. In this style, they approach their children as their subjects. They are rigid and inflexible They set down rules and demand compliance They set harsh disciplines Children from this type of parenting are not good at decision making, tend to be moody, and have poor self esteem.
A UTHORITATIVE In this style, parents are in an authoritative role but are not the dictator. They make rules and enforce them, but are flexible and interested in their child’s views. They try to help their children grow as individuals by making their own decisions and learning from mistakes. These children tend to be confident, responsible, friendly and self-reliant.
C HILD A BUSE 2 ½ million cases of child abuse and neglect are reported each year. 1 million of these cases abuse is verified. The mistreatment of children result in 1,400 children each year. Most cases of abuse are never reported.
C HILD A BUSE Physical punishment is not a good attempt to discipline. This does not help the children learn the difference btw right and wrong.
C HILD A BUSE Whether a parent will abuse a child depends on a lot different things. Most child abusers tend to not know a lot about children. They tend to not be very mature and are looking for love from their child not ready to give love. Often abusers come from violent homes, but that doesn’t mean every child from a violent home will be violent. Other factors: financial problems, unemployment, stress, drugs and alcohol, psychological issues.
P ROCESS OF L ANGUAGE Speech is _________ in infants from birth. The _________ provides examples to ______ and guides each infant to the correct ______ ______ for the _______ in which the child is being raised. Children pick & choose the sounds that fit the language they hear around them. Psychologists believe that _____ ______ develop because certain sounds are ______ or ______ whenever they occur. Example?
R ULES OF L ANGUAGE Children follow rigid, fixed rules. “Er” is a rule they learn to apply to a word to indicate a greater degree of something. Example? Grammar and plurals are rules that will only be learned if _____ Language, in the beginning, is a child’s goal for what?
B IOLOGY AND L ANGUAGE Environment plays a critical role in ____ _____ While we are ______ for language, the ______ helps us fine tune our language
B IOLOGY OF L ANGUAGE We do inherit the potential for speech sounds. Sounds and words are stored over time and this process depends on brain development. By age 2, the average child knows 300 words By 3, knows roughly 1,000 words By 6, can correctly use 5,000 words and understands about 10,000 The average adult knows about 10,000 words by can understand the meaning of about 50,000 words. Why do you think this is?