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Infancy & Childhood Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Infancy & Childhood Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infancy & Childhood Chapter 8

2 Objectives Describe the processes of intellectual development and Piaget’s theory Discuss the development of language Compare the theories of social development Summarize the cognitive-development theory and Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning

3 Key Terms Accommodation Grasping reflex Representational thought
Anal stage Identification Role taking Assimilation Imprinting Rooting reflex Conservation Latency stage Schemas Critical Period Maturation Separation anxiety Developmental psychology Object permanence Socialization Oedipal conflict Electra complex Sublimation Oral stage Genital stage Telegraphic speech Phallic stage

4 Developmental Psych Young children live in a strange world of wonders and delights where doorknobs and table legs are mysterious objects. Mom and Pops are the source of all life’s great pleasures, and many of its pains. Each day there is something new to be learned. About 15 years ago you were taking your first steps and then playing doctor or writing on the walls. You have changed faster and learned more in childhood than you ever will again

5 Developmental Psych Developmental psychology: is the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older. Covers the entire life cycle from conception to death

6 Developmental Psych Questions developmental psychologists seek to answer What does the newborn know? How does the infant respond in the early years of life? How do we learn to walk and talk, to think and feel? How do we develop our unique personalities?

7 The Beginning of Life Development begins long before an infant is born. Expectant mothers can feel strong movement and kicking -even hiccuping- inside them during the later stages of pregnancy. Birth puts new demands on a baby’s capacity to adapt and survive. Baby goes from an environment in which he is totally protected from the world to one in which he is assaulted by lights, sounds, touches, and extreme temperature.

8 Developmental Psych Newborn is capable of certain inherited, automatic, coordinated movement patterns, called reflexes Grasping reflex: Is a response to a touch on the palm of the hand Infants can grasp an object, such as a finger, so strongly that they can be lifted into the air Rooting reflex: Infant’s response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around their mouth Breast feeding

9 Developmental Psych Besides grasping and sucking, newborns look at their bodies and at their surroundings. From birth, unless they are sleeping, feeding, or crying, they direct their gazes toward bright patterns and faces, tracing the outlines of those patterns with their eye movements.

10 Developmental Psych How to measure the capabilities of newborn infants who cannot speak or understand the questions of curious psychologists? Take advantage of things infants can do Suck, turn their head, look at things, cry, smile, and show signs of surprise or fright By measuring these stimulations, we can infer how infants perceives the world

11 More about… Read reflexes on page 184

12 How Do Babies Grow Maturation At about 3 months baby will lift head
Smile at 4 months Grasp objects at 5-6 months Crawling appears at 8-10 months By this time baby is able to pull self into standing position 3-4 months later baby will walk, gradually acquiring a sense of balance

13 Maturation Maturation: Internally programmed growth
Is as important as learning or experience, especially in the first years Unless child is underfed, severely restricted in movements, or deprived of human contact and thing to look at, child will develop more or less according to schedule. No amount of coaching will push a child to walk or speak before child is physiologically ready (maturational readiness)

14 Maturation Why? One twin, but not the other, was given special training in climbing stairs, building with blocks, and the like, The child did acquire some skill in these areas. But in a short time the second child learned to climb and build just as well as his twin, and with much less practice. Because he had matured to the point where he could coordinate his legs and hands more easily

15 Maturation Process of maturation becomes obvious when you think about walking. An infant lacks the physical control walking requires. However, by the end of the first year the nerves connected to the child’s muscles have grown. He or she is ready to walk

16 Maturation By recording the ages at which thousands of infants first began to smile, to sit upright, to crawl, and to try a few steps, psychologist have been able to draw up an approximate timetable for maturation. This schedule helps doctors and other professionals to spot problems and abnormalities. If the child has not begun to talk by the age of 2 ½ a doctor will recommend tests to determine if something is wrong

17 Maturation HOWEVER Each child is unique, and some start sooner than others while others start later in some stages Babies have own temperament Some are active while others are quiet Some are cuddly and some are stiff Some cry while others hardly whimper No 2 are exactly alike or mature according to the same schedule

18 At a Glance Ethnic Differences in infants Read page 186

19 Funny babies Video

20 Sequence of Motor Development
See figure on page 187 Activity Recreate schedule for wonderful babies

21 Learning Infants and children are exceptionally responsive. Each experience changes the child, teaches him something, pushes him in some direction. Babies turn head at sound of buzzer, fed bottle Movie screen and pacifier, focus of picture

22 Intellectual Development
Oh c’mon! Why does he always have to play with my friends and I, he is too little. Sound familiar? How many times has your younger brother or sister played with you and messed up the game of hide and seek? Why couldn’t your brother or sister understand that he or she had to keep quiet or he’d be found right away?

23 Intellectual Development
Jean Piaget set out to answer that question over 70 years ago Common sense told him intelligence or the ability to understand develops gradually as the child grows 4 year old vs. 7 year old

24 Piaget Spent years observing, questioning, and playing games with babies and young children Concluded that young children aren’t dumb, but think in a different way than older children Use of different kind of logic Piaget was able to detail the ways in which a child’s thinking changes and says that every child passes through the same predictable stages. Each stage builds on the last, increasing the child’s ability to solve more complex problems

25 How Knowing Changes Schemas: Plans for knowing or understanding the world Assimilation: Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, fitting the world into our schemas Accommodation: Change of scheme to fit the characteristics of the world Assimilation and accommodation work together to produce intellectual growth

26 How Knowing Changes According to Piaget, newborns have a set of ready made responses Bright lights= blinking Objects in hand= grasping Loss of support= throwing arms and legs out Object near mouth= sucking Theses reflexes let babies understand and cope with things

27 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
STAGE 1: Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years) Thinking is displayed in action, such as grasping, sucking, and looking schemas, Child gradually learns to discover the location of hidden objects at about 18 months, when the concept of object permanence is fully understood

28 Object Permanence A baby’s understanding of things lies totally in the here and now. The sight of a toy, the way it feels, the sensation. The baby does not imagine it, picture it, think of it, remember it, or even forget it. When hidden baby acts as if it didn’t exist. Toy under blanket 7-12 months, this pattern begins to change. 12-18 baby will keep searching for toy. Act surprised 18-24 Toy must be somewhere (Giant step in intellectual development)

29 Object Permanence Achievement of object permanence
Piaget calls it representational thought Representational thought: Intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind Child can picture thing in mind Children will mimic others

30 Stage 1 Video

31 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
STAGE 2: Preoperational Stage (2 – 6 years) Beginning of symbolic representation. Language first appears; child begins to draw pictures that represent things. Child cannot represent a series of actions in his or her head in order to solve problems

32 Conservation Ages 5-7 Piaget calls conservation: principle that a given quantity does not change when it appearance is changed. Dimensions

33 Stage 2 Video

34 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
STAGE 3: Concrete Operational Stage (6 – 12 years) Ability to understand conservation problems. Ability to think of several dimensions or features at same time. Child can now do elementary math problems, such as judging the quantity of liquid containers and checking addition of numbers by subtraction

35 Stage 3 Video

36 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
STAGE 4: Formal Operational Stage (12 years to adulthood) Thinking becomes more abstract and hypothetical. The individual can consider many alternative solutions to a problem, make deductions, contemplate the future, and formulate personal ideals and values.

37 Stage 4 Video

38 Worksheet Intellectual Development: Jean Piaget Front and back

39 Homework Crossword Application of the stages of Cognitive Development

40 Separation Anxiety Separation Anxiety: A phase many children experience after 12 months, characterized by fear and anxiety at any prolonged absence of the primary caregiver. A 5-month old baby does not react this way. Why does a 1-year old? Disappearance led to uncertainty (Nursery room door/closet)

41 Imprinting Konrad Lorenz
Imprinting: A social learning capacity in some species by which attachments are formed to other organisms or to objects very early in life Geese Critical period: hours after birth, makes a deep impression that resists change

42 Imprinting Video

43 Surrogate mothers Harry Harlow
Video Read page 202 Effects Later in Life Infant begins to develop a strong attachment to its mother by the age of 6 months

44 Imaginary Playmate Page 203

45 Socialization Boys vs. Girls!

46 Socialization Some rules have gray areas
Boys are encouraged to express aggression but not fear Girls have been raised to express emotions but not ambitions Rules have changed over time

47 Socialization Story

48 Socialization Socialization: Learning the rules of behavior of the culture in which you are born and grow up To live with other people, a child has to learn what is considered acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

49 Sigmund Freud

50 Freud’s Theory Psychosexual Development
Freud believed that all children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. In learning to control these impulses, children acquire a sense of right and wrong They become “civilized”

51 Freud’s Theory In the first few years of life, boys and girls have similar experiences Erotic pleasures through breast feeding Oral stage: Weaning period of frustration and conflict, child’s first experience with not getting what he/she wants Anal stage: Children associate erotic pleasure with the elimination process Child enjoys pushing out or holding in feces until required

52 Freud’s Theory Major conflict comes between ages 3-5, when children discover the please they obtain from their genitals As a consequence, they become extremely aware of of the differences between themselves and members of the opposite sex

53 Freud’s Theory Phallic stage
Child becomes a rival for the affections of the parent of the opposite sex. The boy wants to win his mother for himself and finds himself in hostile conflict with his father. The girl wants her father for herself and tries to shut out her mother These struggles take place on an unconscious level; no clear awareness this is going on

54 Freud’s Theory Freud called this crisis the Oedipal Conflict
Oedipus, the king in Greek tragedy who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother Read page 207 Identification: The process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent Learns to behave a certain way, morals, voice inside (conscience)

55 Freud’s Theory Electra complex:
Daughter finds herself sexually attracted to father, hostility toward mother. Identifies with mother to reduce punishment Read page 208

56 Freud’s Theory Latency stage: Sexual desires are pushed into the background and the child becomes involved in exploring the world and learning new skills Sublimation: Redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks that begins at about age 5 Genital stage: During which an individual’s sexual satisfaction depends as much on giving pleasure as receiving it (Adolescence)

57 Today Few psychologists believe that sexual feelings disappear in childhood Young girls experience penis envy Young boys fear castration Freud was attempting to set off a revolution and probably overstated his case Controversial, but hard to deny that children learn to control powerful sexual and aggressive desires, and that the belief that early childhood experiences can have a long-term effect on adult personality and behavior

58 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson Takes a broader view of human development than Freud Recognizes the child’s sexual and aggressive urges, he believes that the need for social approval is just as important Erikson believes childhood experiences have a lasting impact on the individual, he views development as a lifelong process

59 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Trust vs. Mistrust Age 0-1 If an infant is well cared for, she will develop faith in the future. But is she experiences too much uncertainty about being taken care of, she will come to look at the world with fear and suspicion

60 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Autonomy vs. Doubt Age 2-3 Here the child learns self-control and self-assertion. But if he receives too much criticism, he will be ashamed of himself and have doubts about his independence

61 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Initiative vs. Guilt Age 4-5 When the child begins to make her own decisions, constant discouragement or punishment could lead to guilt and a loss of initiative

62 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Industry vs. Inferiority 5-Puberty The child masters skills and takes pride in his competence. Too much criticism of his work at this stage can lead to long-term feels of inferiority

63 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence The teenager tries to develop her own separate identity while “fitting in” with her friends. Failure leads to confusion over who she is

64 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Intimacy vs. Isolation Early Adulthood A person secure in his own identity can proceed to an intimate partnership in which he makes compromises for another. The isolated person may have many affairs or even a long-term relationship, but always avoid true closeness

65 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Age A person who becomes stagnated is absorbed in herself and tries to hang onto the past. Generativity involves a productive life which will serve as an example to the next generation.

66 Theory of Psychosocial Development
Integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood Some people look back over life with a sense of satisfaction, and accept both the bad and the good. Others face death with nothing but regrets

67 Learning Theories of Development
Conditioning Imitation Albert Bandura experiment Bobo Doll Conditioning and modeling work together Children do not imitate everything they see, only behavior that seems to bring rewards

68 Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg
In Europe, a woman was near death from a disease. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he cold only get about half of it. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said “NO”. The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?

69 Moral Development At every age, some children said that the man should steal, some that he should not. What interested Kohlberg was how children arrived at the conclusion What reasoning?

70 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
After questioning 84 children, Kohlberg identified 6 stages of moral development

71 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
Children are generally egocentric Do not consider other people’s point of view No sense of right and wrong Main concern is avoiding punishment Child in this stage will say that the man should steal because people will blame him for his wife’s death if he does not, or that he should not steal because he might go to prison

72 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
Better idea of how to work the system to receive rewards as well as to avoid punishment “Marketplace orientation” Interpret golden rule as “Help someone if he helps you, and hurt him if he hurts you” Evaluate acts in terms of consequence, not in terms of right and wrong

73 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
Children become acutely sensitive to what other people want and think Child in this stage will say that the man in the story should steal because people will think he is cruel if he lets his wife die, or that he should not steal because people will think he is a criminal. In other words, children want social approval, so they apply rules other people have decreed literally and rigidly

74 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
A child is less concerned with the approval of others Key issue is law and order- Law seen as moral rule and is obeyed because of a strong belief in established authority Many stay in this stage for their whole lives

75 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
Person is primarily concerned with whether a law is fair or just Believes the laws must change as the world changes, and they are never absolute Question whether a law is good for society as a whole

76 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
Involves acceptance of ethical principles that apply to everyone, like the Golden Rule “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” Moral laws cannot be broken, more important than written law

77 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development
Worksheet: Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development

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