2ObjectivesDescribe the processes of intellectual development and Piaget’s theoryDiscuss the development of languageCompare the theories of social developmentSummarize the cognitive-development theory and Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning
4Developmental PsychYoung children live in a strange world of wonders and delights where doorknobs and table legs are mysterious objects. Mom and Pops are the source of all life’s great pleasures, and many of its pains. Each day there is something new to be learned.About 15 years ago you were taking your first steps and then playing doctor or writing on the walls. You have changed faster and learned more in childhood than you ever will again
5Developmental PsychDevelopmental psychology: is the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older.Covers the entire life cycle from conception to death
6Developmental PsychQuestions developmental psychologists seek to answerWhat does the newborn know?How does the infant respond in the early years of life?How do we learn to walk and talk, to think and feel?How do we develop our unique personalities?
7The Beginning of LifeDevelopment begins long before an infant is born. Expectant mothers can feel strong movement and kicking -even hiccuping- inside them during the later stages of pregnancy.Birth puts new demands on a baby’s capacity to adapt and survive.Baby goes from an environment in which he is totally protected from the world to one in which he is assaulted by lights, sounds, touches, and extreme temperature.
8Developmental PsychNewborn is capable of certain inherited, automatic, coordinated movement patterns, called reflexesGrasping reflex: Is a response to a touch on the palm of the handInfants can grasp an object, such as a finger, so strongly that they can be lifted into the airRooting reflex: Infant’s response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around their mouthBreast feeding
9Developmental PsychBesides grasping and sucking, newborns look at their bodies and at their surroundings. From birth, unless they are sleeping, feeding, or crying, they direct their gazes toward bright patterns and faces, tracing the outlines of those patterns with their eye movements.
10Developmental PsychHow to measure the capabilities of newborn infants who cannot speak or understand the questions of curious psychologists?Take advantage of things infants can doSuck, turn their head, look at things, cry, smile, and show signs of surprise or frightBy measuring these stimulations, we can infer how infants perceives the world
12How Do Babies Grow Maturation At about 3 months baby will lift head Smile at 4 monthsGrasp objects at 5-6 monthsCrawling appears at 8-10 monthsBy this time baby is able to pull self into standing position3-4 months later baby will walk, gradually acquiring a sense of balance
13Maturation Maturation: Internally programmed growth Is as important as learning or experience, especially in the first yearsUnless child is underfed, severely restricted in movements, or deprived of human contact and thing to look at, child will develop more or less according to schedule.No amount of coaching will push a child to walk or speak before child is physiologically ready (maturational readiness)
14MaturationWhy?One twin, but not the other, was given special training in climbing stairs, building with blocks, and the like, The child did acquire some skill in these areas. But in a short time the second child learned to climb and build just as well as his twin, and with much less practice.Because he had matured to the point where he could coordinate his legs and hands more easily
15MaturationProcess of maturation becomes obvious when you think about walking. An infant lacks the physical control walking requires. However, by the end of the first year the nerves connected to the child’s muscles have grown. He or she is ready to walk
16MaturationBy recording the ages at which thousands of infants first began to smile, to sit upright, to crawl, and to try a few steps, psychologist have been able to draw up an approximate timetable for maturation.This schedule helps doctors and other professionals to spot problems and abnormalities. If the child has not begun to talk by the age of 2 ½ a doctor will recommend tests to determine if something is wrong
17MaturationHOWEVEREach child is unique, and some start sooner than others while others start later in some stagesBabies have own temperamentSome are active while others are quietSome are cuddly and some are stiffSome cry while others hardly whimperNo 2 are exactly alike or mature according to the same schedule
18At a GlanceEthnic Differences in infantsRead page 186
20Sequence of Motor Development See figure on page 187ActivityRecreate schedule for wonderful babies
21LearningInfants and children are exceptionally responsive. Each experience changes the child, teaches him something, pushes him in some direction.Babies turn head at sound of buzzer, fed bottleMovie screen and pacifier, focus of picture
22Intellectual Development Oh c’mon! Why does he always have to play with my friends and I, he is too little.Sound familiar?How many times has your younger brother or sister played with you and messed up the game of hide and seek? Why couldn’t your brother or sister understand that he or she had to keep quiet or he’d be found right away?
23Intellectual Development Jean Piaget set out to answer that question over 70 years agoCommon sense told him intelligence or the ability to understand develops gradually as the child grows4 year old vs. 7 year old
24PiagetSpent years observing, questioning, and playing games with babies and young childrenConcluded that young children aren’t dumb, but think in a different way than older childrenUse of different kind of logicPiaget was able to detail the ways in which a child’s thinking changes and says that every child passes through the same predictable stages. Each stage builds on the last, increasing the child’s ability to solve more complex problems
25How Knowing ChangesSchemas: Plans for knowing or understanding the worldAssimilation: Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, fitting the world into our schemasAccommodation: Change of scheme to fit the characteristics of the worldAssimilation and accommodation work together to produce intellectual growth
26How Knowing ChangesAccording to Piaget, newborns have a set of ready made responsesBright lights= blinkingObjects in hand= graspingLoss of support= throwing arms and legs outObject near mouth= suckingTheses reflexes let babies understand and cope with things
27Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 1: Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years)Thinking is displayed in action, such as grasping, sucking, and looking schemas, Child gradually learns to discover the location of hidden objects at about 18 months, when the concept of object permanence is fully understood
28Object PermanenceA baby’s understanding of things lies totally in the here and now. The sight of a toy, the way it feels, the sensation. The baby does not imagine it, picture it, think of it, remember it, or even forget it. When hidden baby acts as if it didn’t exist.Toy under blanket7-12 months, this pattern begins to change.12-18 baby will keep searching for toy. Act surprised18-24 Toy must be somewhere (Giant step in intellectual development)
29Object Permanence Achievement of object permanence Piaget calls it representational thoughtRepresentational thought: Intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mindChild can picture thing in mindChildren will mimic others
31Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 2: Preoperational Stage (2 – 6 years)Beginning of symbolic representation. Language first appears; child begins to draw pictures that represent things. Child cannot represent a series of actions in his or her head in order to solve problems
32ConservationAges 5-7Piaget calls conservation: principle that a given quantity does not change when it appearance is changed.Dimensions
34Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 3: Concrete Operational Stage (6 – 12 years)Ability to understand conservation problems. Ability to think of several dimensions or features at same time. Child can now do elementary math problems, such as judging the quantity of liquid containers and checking addition of numbers by subtraction
36Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 4: Formal Operational Stage (12 years to adulthood)Thinking becomes more abstract and hypothetical. The individual can consider many alternative solutions to a problem, make deductions, contemplate the future, and formulate personal ideals and values.
38WorksheetIntellectual Development: Jean PiagetFront and back
39HomeworkCrosswordApplication of the stages of Cognitive Development
40Separation AnxietySeparation Anxiety: A phase many children experience after 12 months, characterized by fear and anxiety at any prolonged absence of the primary caregiver.A 5-month old baby does not react this way. Why does a 1-year old?Disappearance led to uncertainty (Nursery room door/closet)
41Imprinting Konrad Lorenz Imprinting: A social learning capacity in some species by which attachments are formed to other organisms or to objects very early in lifeGeeseCritical period: hours after birth, makes a deep impression that resists change
48SocializationSocialization: Learning the rules of behavior of the culture in which you are born and grow upTo live with other people, a child has to learn what is considered acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
50Freud’s Theory Psychosexual Development Freud believed that all children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed.In learning to control these impulses, children acquire a sense of right and wrongThey become “civilized”
51Freud’s TheoryIn the first few years of life, boys and girls have similar experiencesErotic pleasures through breast feedingOral stage: Weaning period of frustration and conflict, child’s first experience with not getting what he/she wantsAnal stage: Children associate erotic pleasure with the elimination processChild enjoys pushing out or holding in feces until required
52Freud’s TheoryMajor conflict comes between ages 3-5, when children discover the please they obtain from their genitalsAs a consequence, they become extremely aware of of the differences between themselves and members of the opposite sex
53Freud’s Theory Phallic stage Child becomes a rival for the affections of the parent of the opposite sex.The boy wants to win his mother for himself and finds himself in hostile conflict with his father.The girl wants her father for herself and tries to shut out her motherThese struggles take place on an unconscious level; no clear awareness this is going on
54Freud’s Theory Freud called this crisis the Oedipal Conflict Oedipus, the king in Greek tragedy who unknowingly killed his father and married his motherRead page 207Identification: The process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parentLearns to behave a certain way, morals, voice inside (conscience)
55Freud’s Theory Electra complex: Daughter finds herself sexually attracted to father, hostility toward mother. Identifies with mother to reduce punishmentRead page 208
56Freud’s TheoryLatency stage: Sexual desires are pushed into the background and the child becomes involved in exploring the world and learning new skillsSublimation: Redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks that begins at about age 5Genital stage: During which an individual’s sexual satisfaction depends as much on giving pleasure as receiving it (Adolescence)
57TodayFew psychologists believe that sexual feelings disappear in childhoodYoung girls experience penis envyYoung boys fear castrationFreud was attempting to set off a revolution and probably overstated his caseControversial, but hard to deny that children learn to control powerful sexual and aggressive desires, and that the belief that early childhood experiences can have a long-term effect on adult personality and behavior
58Theory of Psychosocial Development Erik EriksonTakes a broader view of human development than FreudRecognizes the child’s sexual and aggressive urges, he believes that the need for social approval is just as importantErikson believes childhood experiences have a lasting impact on the individual, he views development as a lifelong process
59Theory of Psychosocial Development Trust vs. MistrustAge 0-1If an infant is well cared for, she will develop faith in the future. But is she experiences too much uncertainty about being taken care of, she will come to look at the world with fear and suspicion
60Theory of Psychosocial Development Autonomy vs. DoubtAge 2-3Here the child learns self-control and self-assertion. But if he receives too much criticism, he will be ashamed of himself and have doubts about his independence
61Theory of Psychosocial Development Initiative vs. GuiltAge 4-5When the child begins to make her own decisions, constant discouragement or punishment could lead to guilt and a loss of initiative
62Theory of Psychosocial Development Industry vs. Inferiority5-PubertyThe child masters skills and takes pride in his competence. Too much criticism of his work at this stage can lead to long-term feels of inferiority
63Theory of Psychosocial Development Identity vs. Role ConfusionAdolescenceThe teenager tries to develop her own separate identity while “fitting in” with her friends. Failure leads to confusion over who she is
64Theory of Psychosocial Development Intimacy vs. IsolationEarly AdulthoodA person secure in his own identity can proceed to an intimate partnership in which he makes compromises for another. The isolated person may have many affairs or even a long-term relationship, but always avoid true closeness
65Theory of Psychosocial Development Generativity vs. StagnationMiddle AgeA person who becomes stagnated is absorbed in herself and tries to hang onto the past. Generativity involves a productive life which will serve as an example to the next generation.
66Theory of Psychosocial Development Integrity vs. DespairLater AdulthoodSome people look back over life with a sense of satisfaction, and accept both the bad and the good. Others face death with nothing but regrets
67Learning Theories of Development ConditioningImitationAlbert Bandura experimentBobo DollConditioning and modeling work togetherChildren do not imitate everything they see, only behavior that seems to bring rewards
68Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg In Europe, a woman was near death from a disease. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he cold only get about half of it. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said “NO”. The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?
69Moral DevelopmentAt every age, some children said that the man should steal, some that he should not.What interested Kohlberg was how children arrived at the conclusionWhat reasoning?
70Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development After questioning 84 children, Kohlberg identified 6 stages of moral development
71Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Children are generally egocentricDo not consider other people’s point of viewNo sense of right and wrongMain concern is avoiding punishmentChild in this stage will say that the man should steal because people will blame him for his wife’s death if he does not, or that he should not steal because he might go to prison
72Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Better idea of how to work the system to receive rewards as well as to avoid punishment“Marketplace orientation”Interpret golden rule as “Help someone if he helps you, and hurt him if he hurts you”Evaluate acts in terms of consequence, not in terms of right and wrong
73Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Children become acutely sensitive to what other people want and thinkChild in this stage will say that the man in the story should steal because people will think he is cruel if he lets his wife die, or that he should not steal because people will think he is a criminal.In other words, children want social approval, so they apply rules other people have decreed literally and rigidly
74Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development A child is less concerned with the approval of othersKey issue is law and order- Law seen as moral rule and is obeyed because of a strong belief in established authorityMany stay in this stage for their whole lives
75Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Person is primarily concerned with whether a law is fair or justBelieves the laws must change as the world changes, and they are never absoluteQuestion whether a law is good for society as a whole
76Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Involves acceptance of ethical principles that apply to everyone, like the Golden Rule“Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”Moral laws cannot be broken, more important than written law
77Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Worksheet: Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development