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Infancy & Childhood Chapter 8. Objectives Describe the processes of intellectual development and Piaget’s theory Describe the processes of intellectual.

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Presentation on theme: "Infancy & Childhood Chapter 8. Objectives Describe the processes of intellectual development and Piaget’s theory Describe the processes of intellectual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infancy & Childhood Chapter 8

2 Objectives Describe the processes of intellectual development and Piaget’s theory Describe the processes of intellectual development and Piaget’s theory Discuss the development of language Discuss the development of language Compare the theories of social development Compare the theories of social development Summarize the cognitive-development theory and Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning Summarize the cognitive-development theory and Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning

3 Key Terms Accommodation Accommodation Anal stage Anal stage Assimilation Assimilation Conservation Conservation Critical Period Critical Period Developmental psychology Developmental psychology Electra complex Electra complex Genital stage Genital stage Grasping reflex Grasping reflex Identification Identification Imprinting Imprinting Latency stage Latency stage Maturation Maturation Object permanence Object permanence Oedipal conflict Oedipal conflict Oral stage Oral stage Phallic stage Phallic stage Representational thought Representational thought Role taking Role taking Rooting reflex Rooting reflex Schemas Schemas Separation anxiety Separation anxiety Socialization Socialization Sublimation Sublimation Telegraphic speech Telegraphic speech

4 Developmental Psych Young children live in a strange world of wonders and delights where doorknobs and table legs are mysterious objects. Mom and Pops are the source of all life’s great pleasures, and many of its pains. Each day there is something new to be learned. Young children live in a strange world of wonders and delights where doorknobs and table legs are mysterious objects. Mom and Pops are the source of all life’s great pleasures, and many of its pains. Each day there is something new to be learned. About 15 years ago you were taking your first steps and then playing doctor or writing on the walls. You have changed faster and learned more in childhood than you ever will again About 15 years ago you were taking your first steps and then playing doctor or writing on the walls. You have changed faster and learned more in childhood than you ever will again

5 Developmental Psych Developmental psychology: is the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older. Developmental psychology: is the study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow older. Covers the entire life cycle from conception to death Covers the entire life cycle from conception to death

6 Developmental Psych Questions developmental psychologists seek to answer Questions developmental psychologists seek to answer What does the newborn know? What does the newborn know? How does the infant respond in the early years of life? How does the infant respond in the early years of life? How do we learn to walk and talk, to think and feel? How do we learn to walk and talk, to think and feel? How do we develop our unique personalities? How do we develop our unique personalities?

7 The Beginning of Life Development begins long before an infant is born. Expectant mothers can feel strong movement and kicking -even hiccuping- inside them during the later stages of pregnancy. Development begins long before an infant is born. Expectant mothers can feel strong movement and kicking -even hiccuping- inside them during the later stages of pregnancy. Birth puts new demands on a baby’s capacity to adapt and survive. Birth puts new demands on a baby’s capacity to adapt and survive. Baby goes from an environment in which he is totally protected from the world to one in which he is assaulted by lights, sounds, touches, and extreme temperature. Baby goes from an environment in which he is totally protected from the world to one in which he is assaulted by lights, sounds, touches, and extreme temperature.

8 Developmental Psych Newborn is capable of certain inherited, automatic, coordinated movement patterns, called reflexes Newborn is capable of certain inherited, automatic, coordinated movement patterns, called reflexes Grasping reflex: Is a response to a touch on the palm of the hand Grasping reflex: Is a response to a touch on the palm of the hand Infants can grasp an object, such as a finger, so strongly that they can be lifted into the air Infants can grasp an object, such as a finger, so strongly that they can be lifted into the air Rooting reflex: Infant’s response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around their mouth Rooting reflex: Infant’s response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around their mouth Breast feeding Breast feeding

9 Developmental Psych Besides grasping and sucking, newborns look at their bodies and at their surroundings. From birth, unless they are sleeping, feeding, or crying, they direct their gazes toward bright patterns and faces, tracing the outlines of those patterns with their eye movements. Besides grasping and sucking, newborns look at their bodies and at their surroundings. From birth, unless they are sleeping, feeding, or crying, they direct their gazes toward bright patterns and faces, tracing the outlines of those patterns with their eye movements.

10 Developmental Psych How to measure the capabilities of newborn infants who cannot speak or understand the questions of curious psychologists? How to measure the capabilities of newborn infants who cannot speak or understand the questions of curious psychologists? Take advantage of things infants can do Take advantage of things infants can do Suck, turn their head, look at things, cry, smile, and show signs of surprise or fright Suck, turn their head, look at things, cry, smile, and show signs of surprise or fright By measuring these stimulations, we can infer how infants perceives the world By measuring these stimulations, we can infer how infants perceives the world

11 More about… Read reflexes on page 184 Read reflexes on page 184

12 How Do Babies Grow Maturation Maturation At about 3 months baby will lift head At about 3 months baby will lift head Smile at 4 months Smile at 4 months Grasp objects at 5-6 months Grasp objects at 5-6 months Crawling appears at 8-10 months Crawling appears at 8-10 months By this time baby is able to pull self into standing position By this time baby is able to pull self into standing position 3-4 months later baby will walk, gradually acquiring a sense of balance 3-4 months later baby will walk, gradually acquiring a sense of balance

13 Maturation Maturation: Internally programmed growth Maturation: Internally programmed growth Is as important as learning or experience, especially in the first years Is as important as learning or experience, especially in the first years Unless child is underfed, severely restricted in movements, or deprived of human contact and thing to look at, child will d evelop more or less according to schedule. Unless child is underfed, severely restricted in movements, or deprived of human contact and thing to look at, child will d evelop more or less according to schedule. No amount of coaching will push a child to walk or speak before child is physiologically ready (maturational readiness) No amount of coaching will push a child to walk or speak before child is physiologically ready (maturational readiness)

14 Maturation Why? Why? One twin, but not the other, was given special training in climbing stairs, building with blocks, and the like, The child did acquire some skill in these areas. But in a short time the second child learned to climb and build just as well as his twin, and with much less practice. One twin, but not the other, was given special training in climbing stairs, building with blocks, and the like, The child did acquire some skill in these areas. But in a short time the second child learned to climb and build just as well as his twin, and with much less practice. Why? Why? Because he had matured to the point where he could coordinate his legs and hands more easily Because he had matured to the point where he could coordinate his legs and hands more easily

15 Maturation Process of maturation becomes obvious when you think about walking. An infant lacks the physical control walking requires. However, by the end of the first year the nerves connected to the child’s muscles have grown. He or she is ready to walk Process of maturation becomes obvious when you think about walking. An infant lacks the physical control walking requires. However, by the end of the first year the nerves connected to the child’s muscles have grown. He or she is ready to walk

16 Maturation By recording the ages at which thousands of infants first began to smile, to sit upright, to crawl, and to try a few steps, psychologist have been able to draw up an approximate timetable for maturation. By recording the ages at which thousands of infants first began to smile, to sit upright, to crawl, and to try a few steps, psychologist have been able to draw up an approximate timetable for maturation. This schedule helps doctors and other professionals to spot problems and abnormalities. If the child has not begun to talk by the age of 2 ½ a doctor will recommend tests to determine if something is wrong This schedule helps doctors and other professionals to spot problems and abnormalities. If the child has not begun to talk by the age of 2 ½ a doctor will recommend tests to determine if something is wrong

17 Maturation HOWEVER HOWEVER Each child is unique, and some start sooner than others while others start later in some stages Each child is unique, and some start sooner than others while others start later in some stages Babies have own temperament Babies have own temperament Some are active while others are quiet Some are active while others are quiet Some are cuddly and some are stiff Some are cuddly and some are stiff Some cry while others hardly whimper Some cry while others hardly whimper No 2 are exactly alike or mature according to the same schedule No 2 are exactly alike or mature according to the same schedule

18 At a Glance Ethnic Differences in infants Ethnic Differences in infants Read page 186 Read page 186

19 Funny babies Video Video Video

20 Sequence of Motor Development See figure on page 187 See figure on page 187 Activity Activity Recreate schedule for wonderful babies Recreate schedule for wonderful babies

21 Learning Infants and children are exceptionally responsive. Each experience changes the child, teaches him something, pushes him in some direction. Infants and children are exceptionally responsive. Each experience changes the child, teaches him something, pushes him in some direction. Babies turn head at sound of buzzer, fed bottle Babies turn head at sound of buzzer, fed bottle Movie screen and pacifier, focus of picture Movie screen and pacifier, focus of picture

22 Intellectual Development Oh c’mon! Why does he always have to play with my friends and I, he is too little. Oh c’mon! Why does he always have to play with my friends and I, he is too little. Sound familiar? Sound familiar? How many times has your younger brother or sister played with you and messed up the game of hide and seek? Why couldn’t your brother or sister understand that he or she had to keep quiet or he’d be found right away? How many times has your younger brother or sister played with you and messed up the game of hide and seek? Why couldn’t your brother or sister understand that he or she had to keep quiet or he’d be found right away?

23 Intellectual Development Jean Piaget set out to answer that question over 70 years ago Jean Piaget set out to answer that question over 70 years ago Common sense told him intelligence or the ability to understand develops gradually as the child grows Common sense told him intelligence or the ability to understand develops gradually as the child grows 4 year old vs. 7 year old 4 year old vs. 7 year old

24 Piaget Spent years observing, questioning, and playing games with babies and young children Spent years observing, questioning, and playing games with babies and young children Concluded that young children aren’t dumb, but think in a different way than older children Concluded that young children aren’t dumb, but think in a different way than older children Use of different kind of logic Use of different kind of logic Piaget was able to detail the ways in which a child’s thinking changes and says that every child passes through the same predictable stages. Each stage builds on the last, increasing the child’s ability to solve more complex problems Piaget was able to detail the ways in which a child’s thinking changes and says that every child passes through the same predictable stages. Each stage builds on the last, increasing the child’s ability to solve more complex problems

25 How Knowing Changes Schemas: Plans for knowing or understanding the world Schemas: Plans for knowing or understanding the world Assimilation: Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, fitting the world into our schemas Assimilation: Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, fitting the world into our schemas Accommodation: Change of scheme to fit the characteristics of the world Accommodation: Change of scheme to fit the characteristics of the world Assimilation and accommodation work together to produce intellectual growth Assimilation and accommodation work together to produce intellectual growth

26 How Knowing Changes According to Piaget, newborns have a set of ready made responses According to Piaget, newborns have a set of ready made responses Bright lights= blinking Bright lights= blinking Objects in hand= grasping Objects in hand= grasping Loss of support= throwing arms and legs out Loss of support= throwing arms and legs out Object near mouth= sucking Object near mouth= sucking Theses reflexes let babies understand and cope with things Theses reflexes let babies understand and cope with things

27 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 1: Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years) STAGE 1: Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years) Thinking is displayed in action, such as grasping, sucking, and looking schemas, Child gradually learns to discover the location of hidden objects at about 18 months, when the concept of object permanence is fully understood Thinking is displayed in action, such as grasping, sucking, and looking schemas, Child gradually learns to discover the location of hidden objects at about 18 months, when the concept of object permanence is fully understood

28 Object Permanence A baby’s understanding of things lies totally in the here and now. The sight of a toy, the way it feels, the sensation. The baby does not imagine it, picture it, think of it, remember it, or even forget it. When hidden baby acts as if it didn’t exist. A baby’s understanding of things lies totally in the here and now. The sight of a toy, the way it feels, the sensation. The baby does not imagine it, picture it, think of it, remember it, or even forget it. When hidden baby acts as if it didn’t exist. Toy under blanket Toy under blanket 7-12 months, this pattern begins to change months, this pattern begins to change baby will keep searching for toy. Act surprised baby will keep searching for toy. Act surprised Toy must be somewhere (Giant step in intellectual development) Toy must be somewhere (Giant step in intellectual development)

29 Object Permanence Achievement of object permanence Achievement of object permanence Piaget calls it representational thought Piaget calls it representational thought Representational thought: Intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind Representational thought: Intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind Child can picture thing in mind Child can picture thing in mind Children will mimic others Children will mimic others

30 Stage 1 Video Video Video

31 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 2: Preoperational Stage (2 – 6 years) STAGE 2: Preoperational Stage (2 – 6 years) Beginning of symbolic representation. Language first appears; child begins to draw pictures that represent things. Child cannot represent a series of actions in his or her head in order to solve problems Beginning of symbolic representation. Language first appears; child begins to draw pictures that represent things. Child cannot represent a series of actions in his or her head in order to solve problems

32 Conservation Ages 5-7 Ages 5-7 Piaget calls conservation: principle that a given quantity does not change when it appearance is changed. Piaget calls conservation: principle that a given quantity does not change when it appearance is changed. Dimensions Dimensions

33 Stage 2 Video Video Video

34 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 3: Concrete Operational Stage (6 – 12 years) STAGE 3: Concrete Operational Stage (6 – 12 years) Ability to understand conservation problems. Ability to think of several dimensions or features at same time. Child can now do elementary math problems, such as judging the quantity of liquid containers and checking addition of numbers by subtraction Ability to understand conservation problems. Ability to think of several dimensions or features at same time. Child can now do elementary math problems, such as judging the quantity of liquid containers and checking addition of numbers by subtraction

35 Stage 3 Video Video Video

36 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development STAGE 4: Formal Operational Stage (12 years to adulthood) STAGE 4: Formal Operational Stage (12 years to adulthood) Thinking becomes more abstract and hypothetical. The individual can consider many alternative solutions to a problem, make deductions, contemplate the future, and formulate personal ideals and values. Thinking becomes more abstract and hypothetical. The individual can consider many alternative solutions to a problem, make deductions, contemplate the future, and formulate personal ideals and values.

37 Stage 4 Video Video Video

38 Worksheet Intellectual Development: Jean Piaget Intellectual Development: Jean Piaget Front and back Front and back

39 Homework Crossword Crossword Application of the stages of Cognitive Development Application of the stages of Cognitive Development

40 Separation Anxiety Separation Anxiety: A phase many children experience after 12 months, characterized by fear and anxiety at any prolonged absence of the primary caregiver. Separation Anxiety: A phase many children experience after 12 months, characterized by fear and anxiety at any prolonged absence of the primary caregiver. A 5-month old baby does not react this way. Why does a 1-year old? A 5-month old baby does not react this way. Why does a 1-year old? Disappearance led to uncertainty (Nursery room door/closet) Disappearance led to uncertainty (Nursery room door/closet)

41 Imprinting Konrad Lorenz Konrad Lorenz Imprinting: A social learning capacity in some species by which attachments are formed to other organisms or to objects very early in life Imprinting: A social learning capacity in some species by which attachments are formed to other organisms or to objects very early in life Geese Geese Critical period: hours after birth, makes a deep impression that resists change Critical period: hours after birth, makes a deep impression that resists change

42 Imprinting Video Video Video

43 Surrogate mothers Harry Harlow Harry Harlow Video Video Video Read page 202 Read page 202 Effects Later in Life Effects Later in Life Infant begins to develop a strong attachment to its mother by the age of 6 months Infant begins to develop a strong attachment to its mother by the age of 6 months

44 Imaginary Playmate Page 203 Page 203

45 Socialization Boys vs. Girls! Boys vs. Girls!

46 Socialization Some rules have gray areas Some rules have gray areas Boys are encouraged to express aggression but not fear Boys are encouraged to express aggression but not fear Girls have been raised to express emotions but not ambitions Girls have been raised to express emotions but not ambitions Rules have changed over time Rules have changed over time

47 Socialization Story Story

48 Socialization Socialization: Learning the rules of behavior of the culture in which you are born and grow up Socialization: Learning the rules of behavior of the culture in which you are born and grow up To live with other people, a child has to learn what is considered acceptable and unacceptable behavior. To live with other people, a child has to learn what is considered acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

49 Sigmund Freud

50 Freud’s Theory Psychosexual Development Psychosexual Development Freud believed that all children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. Freud believed that all children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. In learning to control these impulses, children acquire a sense of right and wrong In learning to control these impulses, children acquire a sense of right and wrong They become “civilized” They become “civilized”

51 Freud’s Theory In the first few years of life, boys and girls have similar experiences In the first few years of life, boys and girls have similar experiences Erotic pleasures through breast feeding Erotic pleasures through breast feeding Oral stage: Weaning period of frustration and conflict, child’s first experience with not getting what he/she wants Oral stage: Weaning period of frustration and conflict, child’s first experience with not getting what he/she wants Anal stage: Children associate erotic pleasure with the elimination process Anal stage: Children associate erotic pleasure with the elimination process Child enjoys pushing out or holding in feces until required Child enjoys pushing out or holding in feces until required

52 Freud’s Theory Major conflict comes between ages 3-5, when children discover the please they obtain from their genitals Major conflict comes between ages 3-5, when children discover the please they obtain from their genitals As a consequence, they become extremely aware of of the differences between themselves and members of the opposite sex As a consequence, they become extremely aware of of the differences between themselves and members of the opposite sex

53 Freud’s Theory Phallic stage Phallic stage Child becomes a rival for the affections of the parent of the opposite sex. Child becomes a rival for the affections of the parent of the opposite sex. The boy wants to win his mother for himself and finds himself in hostile conflict with his father. The boy wants to win his mother for himself and finds himself in hostile conflict with his father. The girl wants her father for herself and tries to shut out her mother The girl wants her father for herself and tries to shut out her mother These struggles take place on an unconscious level ; no clear awareness this is going on These struggles take place on an unconscious level ; no clear awareness this is going on

54 Freud’s Theory Freud called this crisis the Oedipal Conflict Freud called this crisis the Oedipal Conflict Oedipus, the king in Greek tragedy who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother Oedipus, the king in Greek tragedy who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother Read page 207 Read page 207 Identification: The process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent Identification: The process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent Learns to behave a certain way, morals, voice inside (conscience) Learns to behave a certain way, morals, voice inside (conscience)

55 Freud’s Theory Electra complex: Electra complex: Daughter finds herself sexually attracted to father, hostility toward mother. Identifies with mother to reduce punishment Daughter finds herself sexually attracted to father, hostility toward mother. Identifies with mother to reduce punishment Read page 208 Read page 208

56 Freud’s Theory Latency stage: Sexual desires are pushed into the background and the child becomes involved in exploring the world and learning new skills Latency stage: Sexual desires are pushed into the background and the child becomes involved in exploring the world and learning new skills Sublimation: Redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks that begins at about age 5 Sublimation: Redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks that begins at about age 5 Genital stage: During which an individual’s sexual satisfaction depends as much on giving pleasure as receiving it (Adolescence) Genital stage: During which an individual’s sexual satisfaction depends as much on giving pleasure as receiving it (Adolescence)

57 Today Few psychologists believe that sexual feelings disappear in childhood Few psychologists believe that sexual feelings disappear in childhood Young girls experience penis envy Young girls experience penis envy Young boys fear castration Young boys fear castration Freud was attempting to set off a revolution and probably overstated his case Freud was attempting to set off a revolution and probably overstated his case Controversial, but hard to deny that children learn to control powerful sexual and aggressive desires, and that the belief that early childhood experiences can have a long-term effect on adult personality and behavior Controversial, but hard to deny that children learn to control powerful sexual and aggressive desires, and that the belief that early childhood experiences can have a long-term effect on adult personality and behavior

58 Theory of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson Erik Erikson Takes a broader view of human development than Freud Takes a broader view of human development than Freud Recognizes the child’s sexual and aggressive urges, he believes that the need for social approval is just as important Recognizes the child’s sexual and aggressive urges, he believes that the need for social approval is just as important Erikson believes childhood experiences have a lasting impact on the individual, he views development as a lifelong process Erikson believes childhood experiences have a lasting impact on the individual, he views development as a lifelong process

59 Theory of Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust Trust vs. Mistrust Age 0-1 Age 0-1 If an infant is well cared for, she will develop faith in the future. But is she experiences too much uncertainty about being taken care of, she will come to look at the world with fear and suspicion If an infant is well cared for, she will develop faith in the future. But is she experiences too much uncertainty about being taken care of, she will come to look at the world with fear and suspicion

60 Theory of Psychosocial Development Autonomy vs. Doubt Autonomy vs. Doubt Age 2-3 Age 2-3 Here the child learns self-control and self-assertion. But if he receives too much criticism, he will be ashamed of himself and have doubts about his independence Here the child learns self-control and self-assertion. But if he receives too much criticism, he will be ashamed of himself and have doubts about his independence

61 Theory of Psychosocial Development Initiative vs. Guilt Initiative vs. Guilt Age 4-5 Age 4-5 When the child begins to make her own decisions, constant discouragement or punishment could lead to guilt and a loss of initiative When the child begins to make her own decisions, constant discouragement or punishment could lead to guilt and a loss of initiative

62 Theory of Psychosocial Development Industry vs. Inferiority Industry vs. Inferiority 5-Puberty 5-Puberty The child masters skills and takes pride in his competence. Too much criticism of his work at this stage can lead to long-term feels of inferiority The child masters skills and takes pride in his competence. Too much criticism of his work at this stage can lead to long-term feels of inferiority

63 Theory of Psychosocial Development Identity vs. Role Confusion Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence Adolescence The teenager tries to develop her own separate identity while “fitting in” with her friends. Failure leads to confusion over who she is The teenager tries to develop her own separate identity while “fitting in” with her friends. Failure leads to confusion over who she is

64 Theory of Psychosocial Development Intimacy vs. Isolation Intimacy vs. Isolation Early Adulthood Early Adulthood A person secure in his own identity can proceed to an intimate partnership in which he makes compromises for another. The isolated person may have many affairs or even a long-term relationship, but always avoid true closeness A person secure in his own identity can proceed to an intimate partnership in which he makes compromises for another. The isolated person may have many affairs or even a long-term relationship, but always avoid true closeness

65 Theory of Psychosocial Development Generativity vs. Stagnation Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Age Middle Age A person who becomes stagnated is absorbed in herself and tries to hang onto the past. Generativity involves a productive life which will serve as an example to the next generation. A person who becomes stagnated is absorbed in herself and tries to hang onto the past. Generativity involves a productive life which will serve as an example to the next generation.

66 Theory of Psychosocial Development Integrity vs. Despair Integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood Later Adulthood Some people look back over life with a sense of satisfaction, and accept both the bad and the good. Others face death with nothing but regrets Some people look back over life with a sense of satisfaction, and accept both the bad and the good. Others face death with nothing but regrets

67 Learning Theories of Development Conditioning Conditioning Imitation Imitation Albert Bandura experiment Albert Bandura experiment Bobo Doll Bobo Doll Bobo Doll Bobo Doll Conditioning and modeling work together Conditioning and modeling work together Children do not imitate everything they see, only behavior that seems to bring rewards Children do not imitate everything they see, only behavior that seems to bring rewards

68 Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg In Europe, a woman was near death from a disease. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he cold only get about half of it. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said “NO”. The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why? In Europe, a woman was near death from a disease. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he cold only get about half of it. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said “NO”. The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?

69 Moral Development At every age, some children said that the man should steal, some that he should not. At every age, some children said that the man should steal, some that he should not. What interested Kohlberg was how children arrived at the conclusion What interested Kohlberg was how children arrived at the conclusion What reasoning? What reasoning?

70 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development After questioning 84 children, Kohlberg identified 6 stages of moral development After questioning 84 children, Kohlberg identified 6 stages of moral development

71 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development STAGE 1 STAGE 1 Children are generally egocentric Children are generally egocentric Do not consider other people’s point of view Do not consider other people’s point of view No sense of right and wrong No sense of right and wrong Main concern is avoiding punishment Main concern is avoiding punishment Child in this stage will say that the man should steal because people will blame him for his wife’s death if he does not, or that he should not steal because he might go to prison Child in this stage will say that the man should steal because people will blame him for his wife’s death if he does not, or that he should not steal because he might go to prison

72 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Stage 2 Stage 2 Better idea of how to work the system to receive rewards as well as to avoid punishment Better idea of how to work the system to receive rewards as well as to avoid punishment “Marketplace orientation” “Marketplace orientation” Interpret golden rule as “Help someone if he helps you, and hurt him if he hurts you” Interpret golden rule as “Help someone if he helps you, and hurt him if he hurts you” Evaluate acts in terms of consequence, not in terms of right and wrong Evaluate acts in terms of consequence, not in terms of right and wrong

73 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Stage 3: Stage 3: Children become acutely sensitive to what other people want and think Children become acutely sensitive to what other people want and think Child in this stage will say that the man in the story should steal because people will think he is cruel if he lets his wife die, or that he should not steal because people will think he is a criminal. Child in this stage will say that the man in the story should steal because people will think he is cruel if he lets his wife die, or that he should not steal because people will think he is a criminal. In other words, children want social approval, so they apply rules other people have decreed literally and rigidly In other words, children want social approval, so they apply rules other people have decreed literally and rigidly

74 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Stage 4 Stage 4 A child is less concerned with the approval of others A child is less concerned with the approval of others Key issue is law and order- Law seen as moral rule and is obeyed because of a strong belief in established authority Key issue is law and order- Law seen as moral rule and is obeyed because of a strong belief in established authority Many stay in this stage for their whole lives Many stay in this stage for their whole lives

75 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Stage 5 Stage 5 Person is primarily concerned with whether a law is fair or just Person is primarily concerned with whether a law is fair or just Believes the laws must change as the world changes, and they are never absolute Believes the laws must change as the world changes, and they are never absolute Question whether a law is good for society as a whole Question whether a law is good for society as a whole

76 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Stage 6 Stage 6 Involves acceptance of ethical principles that apply to everyone, like the Golden Rule Involves acceptance of ethical principles that apply to everyone, like the Golden Rule “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” Moral laws cannot be broken, more important than written law Moral laws cannot be broken, more important than written law

77 Kohlberg’s 6 stages of Moral Development Worksheet: Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development Worksheet: Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development


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