Presentation on theme: "1 INFANCY. 2 The First Year of Life Time of rapid growth and development. Growth in the first year is extremely rapid. It occurs in spurts, called saltatory."— Presentation transcript:
2 The First Year of Life Time of rapid growth and development. Growth in the first year is extremely rapid. It occurs in spurts, called saltatory growth.
Patterns of Physical Development Head to toe – Lift head to see object – Muscle control: pick up – Walk towards Near to far: trunk outward – Wave arms – Grab with palm of hand – Pick up with thumb and fingers Simple to complex – Eating with fingers – Spoon and fork
Weight Lose some after birth2.7 – 4.0 kg g/day/month 1st 6 months 15g/day/month in 2nd 6 months – Birth weight: Doubled by 6 month Tripled by 1 yr – Heredity, feeding habits, and physical activity
5 Weight Gain (per month) AGEWEIGHT GAIN 0-3 months:900 g 3-6 months:600 g 6-9 months:450 g 9-12 months:360 g 1-3 years:240 g/month(2.8 kg/yr) 4-6 years:180 g/month (2 kg/yr)
6 Infant Weight At birth: 2.7 – 4.0 kg – At 5 months: 2X birth weight. – At 12 months: 3 X birth weight. – At 2 years: 4 X birth weight. – At 3 years: 5 X birth weight. – At 5 years: 6 X birth weight. – At 7 years: 7 X birth weight. – At 8 years: 8 X birth weight. – At 9 years: 9 X birth weight. – At 10 years: 10 X birth weight.
8 Formula For Weight During Infancy WT (Kg) = [ Age (months) +9] /2. During 2-6 Years WT (Kg) = Age (yrs) X During 7-12 Years WT (Kg) = [Age (yrs) X 7-5] /2.
9 Length/ Height Supine length is measured for children of less than two years of age. After two years of age, standing height is taken as a measure of stature.
Height Avg newborn =20 inches 48 – 53 cm Avg 1 year =30 inches 75 cm Heredity: influences height more than weight
11 Length At Birth: – At birth: 48 – 53 cm – At one year = 75 cm. – At two years = 87.5 cm. – At four years = 100 cm.
12 Length Gain AGE GAIN 0-3 months:3.5 cm/ month 3-6 months:2 cm / month 6-9 months:1.5 cm/ month 9-12 months:1.2 cm/ month 1-3 years:1 cm/month(12 cm/yr) 3-6 years:0.25 cm/month (3 cm/yr)
13 Gain In Length 1 st year = 25 cm 2 nd year = 12 cm 3 rd year = 10 cm 4 th year = 3 cm At puberty: – Girls = 6-11 cm – Boys= 7-12 cm
14 Formula for Calculating Height From 1- 6 Years Height (cm) = Age (Yrs) X
15 Head Circumference At birth: 35.3 ± 1.2 cm. Increases by 6 cm during the first 3 months. Further increases by another 6 cm during months.
16 Gain in head circumference During 1 st year = 12 cm. During 2 nd year = 2 cm. During 3 rd year = 1.5 cm. From 3 to 14 years = 2.5 cm
17 Changes in head circumference AGE GAIN 0-3 months:2 cm/ month 3-6 months:1 cm / month 6-12 months:0.5 cm/ month 1-3 years:0.25 cm/month 3-6 years:1 cm/year
Proportion Large: head and abdomen Short/small: arms and legs Head grows rapidly b/c brain development Soft spots allow head to grow and close
1 st Year Physical Developments
Sight: Improves Rapidly Blurry at first, within week can focus on object inches away cm away 1 month, focus on objects 3 feet away By 3 ½ months, vision almost as good as an adult Prefer patterns with high contrast and faces – alternating stripes, bull’s eyes – Prefer color red
Depth Perception 2nd month: recognize that object is three-dimensional, not flat Binocularity: fixation of two ocular images into one cerebral picture begins to develop by 6 weeks and established by 4 months
Hand-Eye Coordination Develop hand-eye coordination: – Move hands and fingers in relation to what is seen 3-4 months: reach for what they see – Essential for: Eating Catching a ball Coloring Tying shoes
Hearing develops before birth At birth, can tell general direction sound is coming from Prefer human voice – soothing voice calms – loud voice alarms
Smell and Taste Within 10 days can tell mom’s smell Can distinguish taste by 2 weeks old – show preference for sweet taste Learn about world by using mouth
Voice Cry becomes softer as lungs mature Physical growth of throat muscles, tongue, lips, teeth, and vocal cords Tongue and mouth interior change making speech development possible
Teeth Begin to develop in 6 th week of pregnancy – Primary teeth begin to appear between 6-7 months of age – Complete set by 20 months (1 year, 8 months) Teething can be painful process – Can refuse food or drool a lot, increased desire for liquid, coughing, and fever how to help minor teething pain: – teething biscuits or rubber teething rings – rub ice cube on gums to ease pain temporarily – teething medication
Motor Skills Abilities that depend on use and control of muscles Mastering motor skills requires intellectual, social, emotional, and physical development – Control head by 1 month – 2-3 months can lift their chest – By 9 months crawling- adds opportunity for learning
The Developing Brain
Rules to Build a Brain By Keep it simple and natural – Rich environment- lots of loving interaction and talking Match experiences to the child’s mental capacities – Learn by physical experiences Practice makes perfect – Repetition
Rules to Build a Brain By continued Make sure the child is actively involved – Learn by doing Provide variety, but avoid overloading – Give range of experiences, avoid being overwhelmed Avoid pushing the child – Learn better if emotionally involved
32 Language Acquisition Cooing: Repetition of vowel sounds by infants Babbling: Repetition of meaningless language sounds (e.g., babababa) Single-Word Stage: The child says one word at a time Telegraphic Speech: Two word sentences that communicate a single idea (e.g., Want yogurt)
33 Language development 12 weeks cooing, smiles when talked to 16 weeks turns head in response to human voice 20 weeks makes vowels and consonant sounds 6 months babbling (all sounds) 8 months repeat certain syllables (ma-ma) 12 months understands and says some words
34 Psychosocial development Erik Erikson: First Psychosocial Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust Consistent loving care by a mothering person is essential to build a trust relationship. Mistrust develops when basic needs are inconsistently met.
35 Piaget’s Cognitive Stages
36 Sensorimotor Stage (0-2) Stage One (birth-1 mo.) Use of reflexes Stage Two (1 - 4 mos.) Primary circular reactions: Actions that are at first random and activate a reflex are attempted again to try and induce the experience again (recognition of causality). The interesting events are occurring within the body (plays with hands, fingers, feet). Stage Three (4 - 8 mos.) Secondary circular reactions: The interesting events in this case are located in the external world (Making Interesting Sights Last) Beginning of object permanence: shows separation anxiety Able to imitate selective activity
37 Infants’ imitation of facial expressions
38 Sensorimotor Stage, Cont’d Stage Four ( mos.) Coordination of secondary schemata New Adaptations and Anticipation Intentionality occurs in interactions with the environment and the infant is moving towards goal directed behavior: works to get toy that is out of reach Fully developed object permanence
39 Moral development (Kohlberg) Level 1: Preconventional morality (0-9y) Stage 1: the punishment-and-obedience orientation. – Children determine the goodness or badness of an action in terms of its consequences. – They avoid punishment and obey unquestioningly those who have the power to determine and enforce the rules – They have no concept of the underlying moral order
40 Play Solitary Play: When a child plays alone even when with other children
41 Principles of Motor Development Gross movements before fine movements Pattern of development is usually the same, but the rate differs greatly from child to child and from culture to culture.
43 First Month – Turns head to clear nose from bed – Keeps hands fisted or slightly open – Head lag when pulled from lying to sitting Second month – Holds head up while on tummy almost 45 degrees Third month – Lift head and chest of the bed – Turns head to sounds – Reaches for objects with both hands Gross Motor Development
44 Fourth month – Rolls from back to side – Able to raise head and chest off surface to angle of 90 degrees Fifth month – Rolls from abdomen to back – May sit if supported – When supine, puts feet to mouth Sixth month – Transfer toy from one hand to next – army crawl on tummy – Rolls from back to abdomen
45 Seventh month – Pushes up on hands and knees – Sits w/ little support – When held in standing position bounces actively Eighth month – Sit without support – Creeps – Stands leaning against something Ninth month – May crawl upstairs
46 Tenth month – Stands w/ little support – Cruises the room. Eleventh month – Stands alone Twelfth month – Walks
47 At 4 month: brings hands together and shake rattle. At 6 month: palmer grasp. At 7 month: pass object from hand to another. At 8 month: advanced eye-hand coordination. At 10 month: pincer grasp. at 12 month: holds cup or spoon Fine Motor Behavior
49 Hematologic System Hgb A production largely replaces Hgb F by 4 months (physiologic anemia due to fetal RBCs destruction)
50 Respiratory System RR slows. Upper respiratory infections tend to be more severe due to small lumen of respiratory tract and inefficient mucus production.
51 Become functioning at 2 months. Produce both IgG & IgM antibodies by the first year. Immune System
52 Emotional At 6 weeks: social smile. At 4 months: recognize his primary caregiver. At 7-8 months: stranger anxiety, continue until 12 months. At 8 months: separation anxiety, continue until preschool period. Both are related to infant’s ability to discriminate between familiar and nonfamiliar people
53 Dentation First tooth erupt 5-7 months Has 6-8 deciduous teeth by the first year of age. The sequence of eruption is: – At 6 months: lower central incisors. – At 7 months: lower lateral incisors. – At 8 months: upper central incisors. – At 9 months: upper lateral incisors.
55 GI System Can digest protein at birth. Amylase deficiency until 3 rd month of age ( cannot digest complex CHO) Lipase deficiency during entire 1 st year. Infant needs frequent feedings. Extrusion reflex exists until 3-4 months. Introduction of solid food 4-6 months.
Handling and Feeding Infants
Gentle Handling of an Infant Never shake a baby Shaken baby syndrome- when someone severely shakes the baby usually to make them stop crying – Damages the brain – Learning problems – Mental retardation – Blindness – Deafness – death
Gentle Handling of an Infant continued Safe ways to handle a stressful situation with crying: – Put baby down in a safe place and calm down – Ask a friend or relative to care for the baby – Take deep breaths – Talk out your problems
59 Energy Requirement AgeEnergy requirement < 6 monthsWt (kg) x 108/ day 6mo-1 yearWt (kg) x 98/ day
60 Water requirements = amt in foods + fluids Age Amount 3 days ml/kg/day 10 days ml/kg/day 3 mo ml/kg/day 6 mo130/155 ml/kg/day 9 mo ml/kg/day With BF and formula: none additionally needed in first 4 to 6 months
62 Infant Nutrition Birth through 4-6 months Breast milk OR Iron-Fortified infant formula
63 Breast- Versus Bottle-Feeding Debate focused on whether breast-feeding is better for the infant than bottle-feeding American Pediatric Association strongly endorses breast- feeding throughout the first year of life Benefits – Appropriate weight gain – Fewer allergies – Fewer illnesses – Reduced childhood cancer and reduced incidence of breast cancer in mothers and their female offspring – Lower incidence of SIDS – Stronger attachment bond
Why Breastfeed? Healthy Free Bonding Natural Builds immune system Mom burns more calories and loses weight quicker
How long should you breastfeed? Recommend 1 st 6 months First milk- colostrum – High in fat, protein, antibodies 20 minutes on each breast Feed on demand 5-6 wet diapers 3-4 dirty diapers Feeding-Positions.htm Feeding-Positions.htm
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How to Feed with a Bottle Hold baby is semi-upright position Support neck and head with the head held above the stomach Hold the bottle at an angle – Prevents swallowing air Never prop a bottle – Choking hazard, tooth decay, digestive problems
Burping a Baby Burping helps expel air the baby swallowed You should burp a baby once during feeding and once after
71 4 through 7 months Breast milk OR Iron-Fortified infant formula Iron-Fortified infant cereal Vegetables Fruit Infant Nutrition
Types of Formula Powder, concentrate, ready to feed (RTF)
73 8 through 11 months Same as 4 through 7 months PLUS Meat Egg yolks Infant Nutrition
75 Tips for Introduction of Solid Foods Start slowly Only 1 new food every 4-5 days Hold baby during feeding First food: Iron-Fortified infant rice cereal
76 Tips for Introduction of Solid Foods Use single-ingredient foods Read food labels Avoid desserts Avoid foods that can choke infants
Introducing New Foods Introduce solids around 4-6 months Cereal first – Mix with breast milk or formula to make it runny – Feed with a spoon, never in a bottle Vegetables, then fruits – 1 new food at a time for at least 3 days – Feed with a spoon, never in a bottle Never feed straight from the jar 8-10 months, start using fingers; eventually move to spoons
What Infants Need to Stay Healthy Enough calories to provide rapid growth Protein, iron, vitamins B, C, and D Food that is easy to digest Adequate amounts of liquid
79 Feeding Problems Colic (<3months): gas production, and bloating – Cause? Not always known: formula fed! (high in carbohydrate) – Overfeeding : swallowing too much air. – Breastfeeding? Foods in the mother’s diet Cow’s milk, or other items Spitting up – Normal occurrence: after meals, mouthful of milk. – Unless projectile vomiting: Organic problem: pyloric sphincter closure
Sleep Newborns sleep hours a day – By 1 year has 2-3 sleep periods including naps Preparation for sleep: – Change diaper and clothes, wash face/hands – Rock to calm the baby – Put the baby in the bed on it’s back – Follow the same routine to provide comfort each time
81 Common Health Concerns Teething: gum sore, tender can lead to decreased intake and cry. Thumb sucking: does not deform the jaw as long as it stops by school-age. Diaper dermatitis: prolong contact with urine or feces. Constipation: increased with formula fed. Sleep problems: as a result of colic or other health problems.