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1 Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform

2 Using Boundless Presentations The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: If you have any questions or problems please

3 Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com.boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at About Boundless

4 The Newborn Physical Development in Childhood Cognitive Development in Childhood Socioemotional Development in Childhood Moral Development in Childhood Influences of Parenting Styles on Child Development Cultural and Societal Influences on Child Development Infancy and Childhood Human Development > Infancy and Childhood Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

5 There are five states of arousal in which newborn babies spend their time; the five stages are regular sleep, irregular sleep, drowsiness, quiet alertness and crying. Newborns use crying as a means of communication - there are different cries to illicit various responses from caregivers. There are several important reflexes that a newborn baby shows after birth; each has a specific duration and function.Rooting/sucking, Moro, stepping and Babinski are a few of the most common newborn reflexes. Some of the newborn's senses are well developed at birth, whereas others will take months to fully develop.Touch is the most highly developed at birth, whereas vision is the least developed. The Newborn Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Newborn baby View on Boundless.com Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

6 Gross motor skills are those skills that are part of movement and motor development. Fine motor skills involve the coordination of small muscle movements, usually involving the hands working in coordination with the eyes. Children meet a myriad of physical development milestones in the first few years of life, from walking to drawing to self-feeding. Physical Development in Childhood Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Toddler exploring her world View on Boundless.com Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

7 The brain grows and matures rapidly during early childhood, faster than any other organ in a child's body. Through a process known as synaptic pruning, neurons that are not useful to the brain die off, making room for more relevant connections to help a child learn. Piaget's preoperational and concrete operational define the development of childhood.The preoperational stage focuses on the development of concept through make-believe play and development of symbolism.The concrete operational stage allows a child's thinking to become more logical and focused. Several key thinking processes emerge during this phase, including reversibility, seriation, and transitive inference. Reversibility is the capacity to go through a series of steps and mentally reverse them, ending up back at the beginning. Seriation is the ability to order items by a quantitative dimension, such as height or weight. Cognitive Development in Childhood Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at The anatomy of the brain View on Boundless.com Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

8 Transitive inference is a relational concept in which children can understand how objects related to one another. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

9 Emotional self-regulation refers to a child's ability to change their emotional state to either match that of others (social) or make the child more comfortable in a particular situation (social and personal). Play is one way in which children develop relationships with others.Several types of play exist, and each step builds upon the last in a three-step process. In order to demonstrate the importance of social and emotional development in people, Harry Harlow studied the attachment patterns of Rhesus monkeys. Harlow concluded that there was much more to the mother/infant relationship than milk and that this "contact comfort" was essential to the psychological development and health of infant monkeys and children. Socioemotional Development in Childhood Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Food or Security?Harlow's study on monkeys' attachment View on Boundless.com Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

10 Morality is a system of beliefs about what is right and good compared to what is wrong or bad. Lawrence Kohlberg focused on the development of moral judgments in children rather than on their actions.He divided his stages of moral understanding into three levels, each with two stages (total of six stages). At the preconventional level, a child's sense of morality is externally controlled.At the conventional level, children still believe they should follow rules, but not only for themselves. At the postconventional or principled level, children can think of morals and values in an abstract way and begin to realize some moral dilemmas do not have a clear- cut, right or wrong answer. Moral Development in Childhood Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Kohlberg's Moral Development View on Boundless.com Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

11 Authoritarian parents tend to be very strict parents, whereas permissive parents tend to be warm and loving parents, but do not set appropriate limits or rules. Authoritative parents set realistic expectations for their children, and they provide their children with fair (or natural) consequences. Neglectful parents are often uninvolved in their children's lives or involved in a negative way. Authoritative parenting is generally regarded as the most successful approach to parenting, due to its high level of involvement and appropriate levels of control. Influences of Parenting Styles on Child Development Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mother and Child View on Boundless.com Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

12 Gender typing starts well before a child knows his or her biological sex. Children learn at a young age that there are distinct expectations for boys and girls.Known as gender stereotypes, these are the predetermined ways in which members of a particular sex are supposed to act. Racial stereotypes also exist and can have detrimental effects on a child's development.The United States is a highly racialized society, and children - especially children of color - often become aware of the dynamics of racism from a young age. Race is also highly linked to class, and children of color are still statistically much more likely to lack access to basic resources and experience economic hardship. Cultural and Societal Influences on Child Development Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Newborn gender socialization View on Boundless.com Human Development > Infancy and Childhood

13 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Appendix

14 Key terms authoritarian One who commands absolute obedience to his or her authority. authoritative Having a commanding style. colic Severe pains that grip the abdomen or the disease that causes such pains (due to intestinal or bowel related problems). dexterity Skill in performing tasks, especially with the hands. empathy The capacity to understand another person's point of view, or the result of such understanding. gender The socio-cultural phenomenon of the division of people into various categories according to their biological sex, with each having associated roles, clothing, stereotypes, etc.; those with male sex characteristics are perceived as "boys" and "men", while those with female sex characteristics are perceived as "girls" and "women." Lawrence Kohlberg (1927 – 1987) An American psychologist best known for his theory of stages of moral development. maternal deprivation Loss of the mother due to death or separation. morality Recognition of the distinction between good and evil or between right and wrong; respect for and obedience to the rules of right conduct; the mental disposition or characteristic of behaving in a manner intended to produce morally good results. myelination The production of a coating of myelin around an axon neglectful Tending to neglect; failing to take care of matters which require attention. neonatal Of or pertaining to the period of time immediately following birth, or to the newborn. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development

15 neurotransmitter Any substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, responsible for sending nerve signals across a synapse between two neurons. permissive Giving, or predisposed to give permission; lenient. posture The way a person holds and positions their body. race A group of sentient beings, particularly people, distinguished by common heritage or characteristics: stereotype A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image. synapse The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve impulses pass. temperament a person's normal manner of thinking, behaving or reacting Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development

16 Newborn baby The newborn baby requires a great deal of care to develop. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "Infant." GNU FDL View on Boundless.comGNU FDLhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InfantView on Boundless.com Human Development

17 Toddler exploring her world By manipulating the world around them, children learn and grow physically, with both gross and fine motor skills. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Walter de Maria Vertikaler Erdkilometer." Public domain View on Boundless.comPublic domainhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Walter_de_Maria_Vertikaler_Erdkilometer.jpgView on Boundless.com Human Development

18 Jean Piaget Piaget's theory of cognitive development is still widely used and accepted today. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Jean Piaget." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Piaget.jpgView on Boundless.com Human Development

19 The anatomy of the brain The brain grows and matures rapidly during early childhood, faster than any other organ in a child's body. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Brain human sagittal section." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_human_sagittal_section.svgView on Boundless.com Human Development

20 Mother with child Mother to child attachment plays a key role in the emotional and social development of children. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Mother & child." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mother_%2526_child.jpgView on Boundless.com Human Development

21 Food or Security?Harlow's study on monkeys' attachment Short documentary part on the controversial studies performed by Harry Harlow and his assistants."Food or security, what will it be for the monkey".Harlow's research emphasized the importance of "contact comfort" for young monkeys, as well as humans. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at YouTube. "Food or Security? Harlow." Youtube License View on Boundless.comYoutube Licensehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsA5Sec6dAIView on Boundless.com Human Development

22 Kohlberg's Moral Development Diagram outlining the stages in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Kohlberg Model of Moral Development." Public domain View on Boundless.comPublic domainhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kohlberg_Model_of_Moral_Development.pngView on Boundless.com Human Development

23 Mother and Child Authoritative parents are highly involved in their child's life, growth and development. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "US Army EFMP energizes exceptional education." Public domain View on Boundless.comPublic domain on Boundless.com Human Development

24 Newborn gender socialization Parents tend to start socializing children to a certain gender type beginning at birth. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Flickr. "Davis and Mom. | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/augie/ /View on Boundless.com Human Development

25 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development The newborn baby's reflex that aids in survival by assisting them to find a nipple for food is known as ______. A) Rooting/sucking B) Moro C) Babinski D) Stepping

26 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development The newborn baby's reflex that aids in survival by assisting them to find a nipple for food is known as ______. A) Rooting/sucking B) Moro C) Babinski D) Stepping

27 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development The development of dexterity is dependent on the development of: A) Gross motor skills. B) Hand-eye coordination. C) Walking independently. D) Flexibility in the arms and legs.

28 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development The development of dexterity is dependent on the development of: A) Gross motor skills. B) Hand-eye coordination. C) Walking independently. D) Flexibility in the arms and legs.

29 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development By the age of 3, most children can perform all of the following tasks EXCEPT: A) Building a 8-block tower B) Tying shoes without assistance C) Kicking a ball D) Balancing on one foot for a few seconds

30 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development By the age of 3, most children can perform all of the following tasks EXCEPT: A) Building a 8-block tower B) Tying shoes without assistance C) Kicking a ball D) Balancing on one foot for a few seconds

31 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development Advanced functions in the brain, such as integrating sensory information and action planning, develop due to which process? A) The death of unused neurons. B) The connecting of neighboring neurons. C) The creation of new neurons. D) The disconnecting of neighboring neurons.

32 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development Advanced functions in the brain, such as integrating sensory information and action planning, develop due to which process? A) The death of unused neurons. B) The connecting of neighboring neurons. C) The creation of new neurons. D) The disconnecting of neighboring neurons.

33 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development A researcher shows a child a ball of clay. Next, the researcher rolls it up into a thin rod and then breaks it into 10 pieces. The child is able to determine that if rolled back into a single ball, the ball of clay would look the same as it did originally. Which cognitive ability does the above description represent? A) Reversibility B) Assimilation C) Deferred imitation D) Hypothetical thinking

34 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Saylor OER. "Psychology « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://www.saylor.org/majors/Psychology/ Human Development A researcher shows a child a ball of clay. Next, the researcher rolls it up into a thin rod and then breaks it into 10 pieces. The child is able to determine that if rolled back into a single ball, the ball of clay would look the same as it did originally. Which cognitive ability does the above description represent? A) Reversibility B) Assimilation C) Deferred imitation D) Hypothetical thinking

35 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development Jack notices that Molly is taller than George, and that George is taller than Alice. He understands that that means that Molly is taller Alice due to: A) Conservation B) Transitivity C) Classification D) Reversibility

36 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development Jack notices that Molly is taller than George, and that George is taller than Alice. He understands that that means that Molly is taller Alice due to: A) Conservation B) Transitivity C) Classification D) Reversibility

37 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development Piaget's four stages of cognitive development explain how a child mentally develops from birth to adolescence. Which of the following is a key feature of these four stages? A) Some children skip over or abbreviate certain stages. B) Each later stage incorporates abilities developed in the previous stages. C) The stages do not necessarily happen in the same order. D) Each stage is similar to the one previous.

38 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development Piaget's four stages of cognitive development explain how a child mentally develops from birth to adolescence. Which of the following is a key feature of these four stages? A) Some children skip over or abbreviate certain stages. B) Each later stage incorporates abilities developed in the previous stages. C) The stages do not necessarily happen in the same order. D) Each stage is similar to the one previous.

39 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development Harry Harlow performed experiments with __ and determined that ___. A) Monkeys; there is an innate need for comforting and nurturing in primates (including humans) B) Ducks; the existence of critical periods as seen through the imprinting process C) Infants; intellectual stimulation facilitates cognitive development D) Rats; enriched environments lead to better outcomes

40 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Saylor OER. "Psychology « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://www.saylor.org/majors/Psychology/ Human Development Harry Harlow performed experiments with __ and determined that ___. A) Monkeys; there is an innate need for comforting and nurturing in primates (including humans) B) Ducks; the existence of critical periods as seen through the imprinting process C) Infants; intellectual stimulation facilitates cognitive development D) Rats; enriched environments lead to better outcomes

41 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development When David was three years old and Matthew took his ball, he threw himself on the ground and cried loudly. Now, David no longer throws a temper tantrum when Matthew takes his ball. David has learned: A) Empathy. B) Altruistic Behavior. C) Emotional self-regulation. D) Parallel play.

42 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development When David was three years old and Matthew took his ball, he threw himself on the ground and cried loudly. Now, David no longer throws a temper tantrum when Matthew takes his ball. David has learned: A) Empathy. B) Altruistic Behavior. C) Emotional self-regulation. D) Parallel play.

43 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development If a child struggles to understand how a person could commit an unlawful act, even if it benefits the greater good of society, he or she is in what stage of moral development? A) Interpersonal cooperation B) Punishment and obedience C) Social-order maintenance D) Universal ethical principle

44 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development If a child struggles to understand how a person could commit an unlawful act, even if it benefits the greater good of society, he or she is in what stage of moral development? A) Interpersonal cooperation B) Punishment and obedience C) Social-order maintenance D) Universal ethical principle

45 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development A 9-year-old boy who regularly disrupts his class, doesn't make high grades, and often leaves his toys outside to be ruined by rain most likely has parents who are too: A) permissive. B) authoritative. C) authoritarian. D) neglectful.

46 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development A 9-year-old boy who regularly disrupts his class, doesn't make high grades, and often leaves his toys outside to be ruined by rain most likely has parents who are too: A) permissive. B) authoritative. C) authoritarian. D) neglectful.

47 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development Which of the following are children of color statistically more likely to experience? A) greater access to good education systems B) lack of access to gender-specific programs C) lack of access to basic healthcare D) early gender typing at birth

48 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development Which of the following are children of color statistically more likely to experience? A) greater access to good education systems B) lack of access to gender-specific programs C) lack of access to basic healthcare D) early gender typing at birth

49 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development Which of the following would be an example of a gender stereotype? A) A boy's father pushing him to play sports B) A boy signing up for a home economics class C) An Asian American being in an advanced math class D) A girl wanting to listen to rock music and work on cars

50 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Human Development Which of the following would be an example of a gender stereotype? A) A boy's father pushing him to play sports B) A boy signing up for a home economics class C) An Asian American being in an advanced math class D) A girl wanting to listen to rock music and work on cars

51 Attribution Wiktionary. "colic." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/colic Wiktionary. "neonatal." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/neonatal Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/Development: birth through death." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/Development: birth through death." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikipedia. "Infant." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infant Wiktionary. "posture." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/posture Wiktionary. "dexterity." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dexterity Wikibooks. "Introduction to Psychology/Child and Adolescent Psychology/Infants and Toddlers." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikipedia. "Child development stages." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development_stages#Physical_4 Wikipedia. "Child development stages." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development_stages#Physical_4 Wikipedia. "Child development stages." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development_stages#Physical_4 Wikipedia. "Fine motor skill." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine_motor_skill Wikipedia. "Gross motor skill." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_motor_skill Connexions. "Student development: Physical development during the school years." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0 Wiktionary. "myelination." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/myelination Wiktionary. "neurotransmitter." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/neurotransmitter Wiktionary. "synapse." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/synapse Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development

52 Wikibooks. "SL Psychology/Genetic interplay." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikibooks. "Social and Cultural Foundations of American Education/Knowing/Brain Research." CC BY-SA 3.0 oodCC BY-SA 3.0 ood Wikipedia. "Cognitive development." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_development Wikiversity. "Motivation and emotion/Textbook/Emotion/Children." CC BY-SA entCC BY-SA ent Wikipedia. "maternal deprivation." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/maternal+deprivation Wiktionary. "empathy." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/empathy Wiktionary. "temperament." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/temperament Wikipedia. "Harry Harlow." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Harlow Connexions. "Emotional, Social and Personality Development." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m33455/latest/ Wikibooks. "Professionalism/Using Animals in Research." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikipedia. "Lawrence Kohlberg." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence+Kohlberg Wiktionary. "morality." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/morality Wikibooks. "Applied History of Psychology/Moral Development." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Connexions. "Student development: Moral development: forming a sense of rights and responsibilities." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0 Wiktionary. "neglectful." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/neglectful Wiktionary. "permissive." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/permissive Wiktionary. "authoritarian." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/authoritarian Wiktionary. "authoritative." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/authoritative Wikipedia. "Parenting styles." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parenting_styles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development

53 Wiktionary. "stereotype." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stereotype Wiktionary. "race." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/race Wiktionary. "gender." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gender Connexions. "Race and Ethnicity in the United States." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m42866/latest/ Wikipedia. "Child development." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development Connexions. "Gender." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m42871/latest/ Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Human Development


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