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Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective

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1 Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective
Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

2 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
This baby is now full term and is ready to begin its journey down the birth channel. From the 32 week the baby can open and close its eyes. Birth- the baby is fully developed and ready to be born at 40 weeks. However, a baby can be born quite normally from 37 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation. Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

3 We have looked at Chromosomes and genes – to recap quickly
Have people ever said to you, "It's in your genes?" They were probably talking about a physical characteristic, personality trait, or talent that you share with other members of your family. We know that genes play an important role in shaping how we look and act and even whether we get sick. Now scientists are trying to use that knowledge in exciting new ways, such as preventing and treating health problems. Once the baby is born it will be made up of all millions of pieces of genetic information past on from its parents. This means everything from the colour of the eyes, hair, shape of hands, nails, height the baby will grow to and any other inherited weaknesses – such as illness – also emotions, intelligence and so on. L/O The moment of conception – lesson objective to learn what happens during the first moments of human development and how chromosome and genetic information can often predetermine our life chances. Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

4 Infancy 0-2 years -Once a baby is born – what can they do?
New born babies have a number of reflexes at birth, they can use to each to help survive the first few months of life. the suck-swallow reflex – this helps the baby to suck from the nipple or teat and swallow the milk smoothly the rooting reflex – a baby turns its mouth towards a nipple or teat Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

5 Moro reflex The asymmetrical tonic neck reflex appears "when the infant, lying on the back, turns the head to one side or if the head is passively rotated to one side." The infant tends to assume a "fencing" position-with his face toward the extended arm, while the other arm flexes at the elbow. The lower limbs respond in a similar manner. A sudden jolting movement, such as that produced by striking the mattress or table on both sides of the infant, will usually cause the startle response. Occasionally a loud noise may precipitate the reflex. Extension of the head relative to the trunk or a sudden strong stimulus appear to be the most reliable means of eliciting the reflex Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

6 "Palmar and Plantar Grasp
Palmar and plantar grasp are strong automatic reflexes in full-term newborns. They are elicited by the observer placing a finger firmly in the child's palm or at the base of the child's toes. The palmar grasp response weakens as the hand becomes less continuously fisted, merging, sometime after 2 months, into the voluntary ability to release an object held in the hand. The plantar response disappears at about 8 or 9 months, though it may persist during sleep for a while thereafter. Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

7 Supporting Reaction The supporting reaction is elicited by holding the infant vertically and allowing his feet to make firm contact with a table top or other firm surface. The "standing" posture includes some flexion of the hip and knee. Automatic stepping may also be observed when the newborn is inclined forward while being supported in this position. During the first 4 months of life, the crouching position gradually diminishes; this is followed by increase in support, so that normal infants will usually support a substantial proportion of their weight by 10 months (Paine, 1964). Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

8 Traction Response Physicians test the traction response by placing the infant in supine, then drawing him up by the hands to a sitting position. Normally, assistance by the shoulder muscles can be felt and seen. The newborn's head lags behind and drops forward suddenly when the upright posture is reached. Even in the newborn period, however, there should be sufficient head control to bring it back upright, and greater control is expected with age. The nurse in testing the neonate may gently raise the infant from supine in this way, in order to note the presence, absence, or asymmetry of response; but she should avoid reaching the midline point, which causes the head to drop forward suddenly.

9 The first physical reflexes
Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

10 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

11 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

12 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months





17 Birth to 1 Month Developmental Milestones
Physical Growth 20g/day (1.5 lbs/month) weight gain 2 cm/month length increase Movement and Activity More deliberate movements Limbs more extended Can lift head temporarily when lying on stomach Some delay in raising head when pulled to a sitting position from lying on back Hands tightly fisted most of the time Sensory Follows moving object with eyes Social Smiles involuntarily Responds to sounds Communication Throaty noises, gurgles Physical There is significant growth during the first month of life. At this time, reflexive movements dominate, and infants have little, if any purposeful physical activity. Growth Weight decreases by 10% immediately after birth and returns to birth weight by 2 weeks of age Gains 1 oz/day; 2 lbs/month Length increases 3.5 cm/ month Movement and Activity Head droops without support Limbs flexed Purposeless movement Grasps objects placed in hands Sucks objects placed in mouth Sleeps about 16 hours/day Sensory Nearsighted; can see objects clearly 8-12 inches from face Fixated gaze; cannot follow objects (like a doll's eyes) Social Hearing is preferential to the female voice Easily startled

18 2 to 3 Month Developmental Milestones 2 MONTHS OLD Physical
Growth Growth rate is still significant, but not as rapid as in the first 2 months Posterior fontanelle ("soft spot") closes Movement and Activity Lifts head (45°) for a sustained time when lying on stomach Continued lag on raising head when pulled to sitting position from lying on back Hands fisted half of the time Sensory Will follow objects, consciously turn head 180° Social Smiles voluntarily ("social smile") in response to appropriate stimuli (familiar faces or voices) Recognizes facial expressions Communication Cries approximately 3 hours/day Coos, makes single-syllable sounds 3 MONTHS OLD Physical Gains 1¼ lbs/month Length inc. 2 cm/month Minimal delay on raising head when pulled to sitting position from lying on back (bobbing) Will reach for objects but misses while lying on back; waves at objects Lifts head and chest when lying on stomach; rests on arms Rolls side-to-side Hands mostly unfisted Small circular limb movements Sleeping approximately 14 hours/day, with 9-10 occurring at night Explores own body Cognitive Will look at area where an object used to be (no sense of object permanency) Social/Emotional Increased eye contact Listens to music Appropriate facial expressions in response to emotions (anger, fear, joy) Mimics others' facial expressions Increased awareness/interest in surroundings Distracted during nursing Shows different emotions (anger, fear, joy) Varied types of crying Says "ahh"

19 4 to 5 Month Developmental Milestones 4 MONTHS OLD Physical
Growth Gains 1 lb/month Movement and Activity No head lag when pulled to sitting position from lying on back Reaches and grasps objects, brings to them to mouth while lying on back Holds objects indefinitely Stands when held Plays with hands and feet Social/Emotional Shows displeasure at withdrawal of social contact Excited at the sight of food Communication Remains silent while others speak, then vocalizes 5 MONTHS OLD Physical Transfers object from hand to mouth to opposite hand Begins to teethe Plays with mirror image Imitates speaker Sing-song quality to voice Makes raspberry sound

20 Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective
Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

21 Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective
Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months

22 6 to 8 Month Developmental Milestones 6 MONTHS OLD Physical
Growth 1 lb/month 1.5 cm/month Lower central incisors erupt Movement and Activity Drinks from a cup with help Holds own bottle Moves objects hand-to-hand directly Rolls over Sits briefly, leans forward, supports self with arms Social/Emotional Discriminates between parents and strangers ("stranger anxiety") Copies facial expressions Communication Babbles 7 MONTHS OLD Physical Upper central incisors erupt Lower lateral incisors erupt Sits unsupported, pivots while sitting Pivots and crawls while lying on stomach Lifts head indefinitely while lying on back May stand, bounce Reaches out, grasps object with palm Bangs, shakes objects Puts feet in mouth Prefers mother Anxious when away from mother (Separation Anxiety) Pats mirror image Responds to changes in social contact/context 8 MONTHS OLD Upper lateral incisors erupt Crawls easily on stomach Pulls self to stand using furniture Feeds self with hands Will take 2 objects and hold 1 in each hand 6 to 8 Month Developmental Milestones 6 MONTHS OLD Physical Sensory Vision close to fully developed Cognitive Begins to understand objects' uses (drink from a cup, brush hair with a brush) Realizes size differences between objects Social/Emotional Performs "tricks" No longer automatically accepts feedings, will turn spoon away Communication Multisyllabic babbling

23 My baby is only happy when I'm within arm's reach
My baby is only happy when I'm within arm's reach. If I dare to leave the room, she cries as if I've left the country! I can't even so much as take a shower these days, let alone leave the house without her. My mother-in-law says it's because I've spoiled her. Is she right? Have I made her so clingy? Nothing you've done has "made" your baby develop separation anxiety. It's a perfectly normal and important developmental adaptation. Nearly all children experience separation anxiety between the ages of seven and 18 months. Some have more intense reactions than others, and for some, the stage lasts longer than others, but almost all babies have it to some degree.
  Separation anxiety is pretty easy to spot, and you're probably reading this section because you've identified it in your baby. The following are behaviors typically demonstrated by a baby with normal separation anxiety:
   Clinginess  Crying when a parent is out of sight  Strong preference for only one parent  Fear of strangers  Waking at night crying for a parent  Easily comforted in a parent's embrace

24 9 to 10 Month Developmental Milestones 9 MONTHS OLD Physical
Growth Gains 12g/day, 13oz/month Length inc. 1.2 cm/month Movement and Activity Grasps object between thumb and forefinger ("pincer grasp") Cognitive Will search for an object when it is taken away, understands that it exists even though it can no longer be seen ("object constancy") Social/Emotional Communication Single syllable "words" ("ma", "da") Understands "no" Inflection with babbling 10 MONTHS OLD Physical First molars erupt Sits up alone and indefinitely Crawls on hands and knees Crawls up stairs Walks while holding on to furniture (cruising) Walks with 2 hands held Understands simple phrases Follows simple directions Associates "mama" with mother and "dada" with father Can find objects by name when asked Waves Plays "peek-a-boo" Tests autonomy (crawls away from mother and checks for her reaction) First "real" words ("mama", "baba") Conversational babbling

25 Lately, you may be reading the same book to your baby over and over again. It's not that your child doesn't remember what happened to the Hungry Caterpillar, it's just that repetition is the name of the game these days. Babies feel secure seeing and hearing familiar things repeatedly (not unlike your secret soap opera addiction) Baby Milestones Inspire your baby's imagination by letting her pick up the phone and pretend to talk to someone. Alternately, give baby the phone when you're talking to your mother and she starts asking you about when you're going to have a second baby. Play pretend games with your baby using a stuffed animal. Make it talk to your baby, tickle her and give hier kisses. Funny voices are essential to the game, so buff up on your best cartoon impressions and ham it up. Hand puppets are also a fun way to engage your baby at this stage. Let the puppet sing a song to your baby, tell her all about the proper technique for eating an Oreo or just read her a book. Smooches and tummy tickles will also be greatly appreciated. Your baby may already know how to shake her head no to answer you (lucky you!). Some parents like to take advantage of this time by teaching their babies "baby sign language". Simple signs like "more" or "milk" might help the two of you communicate, though we're willing to bet she doesn't give up that "no" head shake anytime soon!

26 Will my baby enjoy being more sociable now?
Your baby's personality is really emerging now. His social skills are blossoming and he may well give broad smiles to everyone he meets. Or he may be a little shy, hiding his face when well-meaning strangers try to engage him. Your baby will also repeat sounds, gesture for your attention and may even wave goodbye when he sees you head for the door. He's developing a mind of his own, which you've probably already noticed when he protests at being put in his car seat or pushchair. Your baby's babbles are sounding more like real words. Show interest in what he has to say and he will keep talking. When he tries to say a word, such as "ock" for sock, it will help if you repeat the word back to him correctly, "Yes, that's your sock."

27 11 months our baby will understand simple instructions, and know what you mean when you say "no". This doesn't mean she will do as you ask! Try and only use the word "no" if what she is doing is dangerous or you may find yourself saying it all the time. Bright, colourful books will capture her attention. Your local library will be full of them so you can enjoy some new books along with the old favourites. Is my baby more independent now? Now that your baby is only one month short of her first birthday, she's no longer that helpless infant who couldn't do anything without you. She still needs plenty of care and support, but her growing independence is becoming apparent, as she learns to stand, stoop and squat. She may be able to walk while gripping your hand, and she'll hold out her arm or leg to help you dress her.

28 11 to 12 Month Developmental Milestones 11 MONTHS OLD Physical
Movement and Activity Stands alone and unsupported Walks with 1 hand held Drink from cup without help Social/Emotional Plays alongside others, but not with others (parallel play) Communication Uses words meaningfully 12 MONTHS OLD Physical Growth Weight has tripled since birth Length has doubled since birth First steps Feeds self with a spoon Transfer object from self to other with pincer Attempts to stack 2 blocks Helps with dressing by adjusting posture Identifies self in mirror Attempts simple conversations

29 Enhancing Development Through Play
Children use play not simply as a fun past-time or a way to amuse themselves for a little while but as research into the world around them. When they are born, children can do very little for themselves and know very little about the world or their places in it. As they play, children come to understand more about the world and themselves and develop the physical, cognitive, emotional and social skills that they will need to live independently later in life. Through quiet, creative, active, cooperative and dramatic play children get the chance to work on these skills and more.

30 Piaget’s development stages
Sensorimotor: (birth to about age 2) Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7) Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence) Formal Operations: (adolescence) This stage brings cognition to its final form. This person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments. At his point, he is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. Teaching for the adolescent may be wide ranging because he'll be able to consider many possibilities from several perspective

31 Criticisms of Piaget: Problems With Formal Operations Research has disputed Piaget's argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations. Underestimates Children's Abilities Most researchers agree that children posses many of the abilities at an earlier age that Piaget suspected. Recent research on theory of mind has found that children of 4- or 5-years old have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.

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