Presentation on theme: "Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective"— Presentation transcript:
1 Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 monthsLesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
2 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months This baby is now full term and is ready to begin its journey down the birth channel. From the 32 week the baby can open and close its eyes.Birth- the baby is fully developed and ready to be born at 40 weeks. However, a baby can be born quite normally from 37 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation.Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
3 We have looked at Chromosomes and genes – to recap quickly Have people ever said to you, "It's in your genes?" They were probably talking about a physical characteristic, personality trait, or talent that you share with other members of your family. We know that genes play an important role in shaping how we look and act and even whether we get sick. Now scientists are trying to use that knowledge in exciting new ways, such as preventing and treating health problems.Once the baby is born it will be made up of all millions of pieces of genetic information past on from its parents. This means everything from the colour of the eyes, hair, shape of hands, nails, height the baby will grow to and any other inherited weaknesses – such as illness – also emotions, intelligence and so on.L/O The moment of conception – lesson objective to learn what happens during the first moments of human development and how chromosome and genetic information can often predetermine our life chances.Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
4 Infancy 0-2 years -Once a baby is born – what can they do? New born babies have a number of reflexes at birth, they can use to each to help survive the first few months of life.the suck-swallow reflex – this helps the baby to suck from the nipple or teat and swallow the milk smoothlythe rooting reflex – a baby turns its mouth towards a nipple or teatLesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
5 Moro reflexThe asymmetrical tonic neck reflex appears "when the infant, lying on the back, turns the head to one side or if the head is passively rotated to one side." The infant tends to assume a "fencing" position-with his face toward the extended arm, while the other arm flexes at the elbow. The lower limbs respond in a similar manner.A sudden jolting movement, such as that produced by striking the mattress or table on both sides of the infant, will usually cause the startle response. Occasionally a loud noise may precipitate the reflex. Extension of the head relative to the trunk or a sudden strong stimulus appear to be the most reliable means of eliciting the reflexLesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
6 "Palmar and Plantar Grasp Palmar and plantar grasp are strong automatic reflexes in full-term newborns. They are elicited by the observer placing a finger firmly in the child's palm or at the base of the child's toes. The palmar grasp response weakens as the hand becomes less continuously fisted, merging, sometime after 2 months, into the voluntary ability to release an object held in the hand. The plantar response disappears at about 8 or 9 months, though it may persist during sleep for a while thereafter.Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
7 Supporting ReactionThe supporting reaction is elicited by holding the infant vertically and allowing his feet to make firm contact with a table top or other firm surface. The "standing" posture includes some flexion of the hip and knee. Automatic stepping may also be observed when the newborn is inclined forward while being supported in this position. During the first 4 months of life, the crouching position gradually diminishes; this is followed by increase in support, so that normal infants will usually support a substantial proportion of their weight by 10 months (Paine, 1964).Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
8 Traction ResponsePhysicians test the traction response by placing the infant in supine, then drawing him up by the hands to a sitting position. Normally, assistance by the shoulder muscles can be felt and seen. The newborn's head lags behind and drops forward suddenly when the upright posture is reached. Even in the newborn period, however, there should be sufficient head control to bring it back upright, and greater control is expected with age. The nurse in testing the neonate may gently raise the infant from supine in this way, in order to note the presence, absence, or asymmetry of response; but she should avoid reaching the midline point, which causes the head to drop forward suddenly.
9 The first physical reflexes Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
10 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
11 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
12 Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
17 Birth to 1 Month Developmental Milestones Physical Growth20g/day (1.5 lbs/month) weight gain2 cm/month length increaseMovement and ActivityMore deliberate movementsLimbs more extendedCan lift head temporarily when lying on stomachSome delay in raising head when pulled to a sitting position from lying on backHands tightly fisted most of the timeSensoryFollows moving object with eyesSocialSmiles involuntarilyResponds to soundsCommunicationThroaty noises, gurglesPhysical There is significant growth during the first month of life. At this time, reflexive movements dominate, and infants have little, if any purposeful physical activity. GrowthWeight decreases by 10% immediately after birth and returns to birth weight by 2 weeks of ageGains 1 oz/day; 2 lbs/monthLength increases 3.5 cm/ monthMovement and ActivityHead droops without supportLimbs flexedPurposeless movementGrasps objects placed in handsSucks objects placed in mouthSleeps about 16 hours/daySensoryNearsighted; can see objects clearly 8-12 inches from faceFixated gaze; cannot follow objects (like a doll's eyes)SocialHearing is preferential to the female voiceEasily startled
18 2 to 3 Month Developmental Milestones 2 MONTHS OLD Physical GrowthGrowth rate is still significant, but not as rapid as in the first 2 monthsPosterior fontanelle ("soft spot") closesMovement and ActivityLifts head (45°) for a sustained time when lying on stomachContinued lag on raising head when pulled to sitting position from lying on backHands fisted half of the timeSensoryWill follow objects, consciously turn head 180°SocialSmiles voluntarily ("social smile") in response to appropriate stimuli (familiar faces or voices)Recognizes facial expressionsCommunicationCries approximately 3 hours/dayCoos, makes single-syllable sounds3 MONTHS OLDPhysicalGains 1¼ lbs/monthLength inc. 2 cm/monthMinimal delay on raising head when pulled to sitting position from lying on back (bobbing)Will reach for objects but misses while lying on back; waves at objectsLifts head and chest when lying on stomach; rests on armsRolls side-to-sideHands mostly unfistedSmall circular limb movementsSleeping approximately 14 hours/day, with 9-10 occurring at nightExplores own bodyCognitiveWill look at area where an object used to be (no sense of object permanency)Social/EmotionalIncreased eye contactListens to musicAppropriate facial expressions in response to emotions (anger, fear, joy)Mimics others' facial expressionsIncreased awareness/interest in surroundingsDistracted during nursingShows different emotions (anger, fear, joy)Varied types of cryingSays "ahh"
19 4 to 5 Month Developmental Milestones 4 MONTHS OLD Physical GrowthGains 1 lb/monthMovement and ActivityNo head lag when pulled to sitting position from lying on backReaches and grasps objects, brings to them to mouth while lying on backHolds objects indefinitelyStands when heldPlays with hands and feetSocial/EmotionalShows displeasure at withdrawal of social contactExcited at the sight of foodCommunicationRemains silent while others speak, then vocalizes5 MONTHS OLDPhysicalTransfers object from hand to mouth to opposite handBegins to teethePlays with mirror imageImitates speakerSing-song quality to voiceMakes raspberry sound
20 Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
21 Life Stage Infancy – 0-2 years Lesson objective Lesson Objective – to learn how a child develops from the age of 0 to 12 months
22 6 to 8 Month Developmental Milestones 6 MONTHS OLD Physical Growth1 lb/month1.5 cm/monthLower central incisors eruptMovement and ActivityDrinks from a cup with helpHolds own bottleMoves objects hand-to-hand directlyRolls overSits briefly, leans forward, supports self with armsSocial/EmotionalDiscriminates between parents and strangers ("stranger anxiety")Copies facial expressionsCommunicationBabbles7 MONTHS OLDPhysicalUpper central incisors eruptLower lateral incisors eruptSits unsupported, pivots while sittingPivots and crawls while lying on stomachLifts head indefinitely while lying on backMay stand, bounceReaches out, grasps object with palmBangs, shakes objectsPuts feet in mouthPrefers motherAnxious when away from mother (Separation Anxiety)Pats mirror imageResponds to changes in social contact/context8 MONTHS OLDUpper lateral incisors eruptCrawls easily on stomachPulls self to stand using furnitureFeeds self with handsWill take 2 objects and hold 1 in each hand6 to 8 Month Developmental Milestones 6 MONTHS OLD PhysicalSensoryVision close to fully developedCognitiveBegins to understand objects' uses (drink from a cup, brush hair with a brush)Realizes size differences between objectsSocial/EmotionalPerforms "tricks"No longer automatically accepts feedings, will turn spoon awayCommunicationMultisyllabic babbling
23 My baby is only happy when I'm within arm's reach My baby is only happy when I'm within arm's reach. If I dare to leave the room, she cries as if I've left the country! I can't even so much as take a shower these days, let alone leave the house without her. My mother-in-law says it's because I've spoiled her. Is she right? Have I made her so clingy?Nothing you've done has "made" your baby develop separation anxiety. It's a perfectly normal and important developmental adaptation. Nearly all children experience separation anxiety between the ages of seven and 18 months. Some have more intense reactions than others, and for some, the stage lasts longer than others, but almost all babies have it to some degree. Separation anxiety is pretty easy to spot, and you're probably reading this section because you've identified it in your baby. The following are behaviors typically demonstrated by a baby with normal separation anxiety: Clinginess Crying when a parent is out of sight Strong preference for only one parent Fear of strangers Waking at night crying for a parent Easily comforted in a parent's embrace
24 9 to 10 Month Developmental Milestones 9 MONTHS OLD Physical GrowthGains 12g/day, 13oz/monthLength inc. 1.2 cm/monthMovement and ActivityGrasps object between thumb and forefinger ("pincer grasp")CognitiveWill search for an object when it is taken away, understands that it exists even though it can no longer be seen ("object constancy")Social/EmotionalCommunicationSingle syllable "words" ("ma", "da")Understands "no"Inflection with babbling10 MONTHS OLDPhysicalFirst molars eruptSits up alone and indefinitelyCrawls on hands and kneesCrawls up stairsWalks while holding on to furniture (cruising)Walks with 2 hands heldUnderstands simple phrasesFollows simple directionsAssociates "mama" with mother and "dada" with fatherCan find objects by name when askedWavesPlays "peek-a-boo"Tests autonomy (crawls away from mother and checks for her reaction)First "real" words ("mama", "baba")Conversational babbling
25 Lately, you may be reading the same book to your baby over and over again. It's not that your child doesn't remember what happened to the Hungry Caterpillar, it's just that repetition is the name of the game these days. Babies feel secure seeing and hearing familiar things repeatedly (not unlike your secret soap opera addiction)Baby MilestonesInspire your baby's imagination by letting her pick up the phone and pretend to talk to someone. Alternately, give baby the phone when you're talking to your mother and she starts asking you about when you're going to have a second baby.Play pretend games with your baby using a stuffed animal. Make it talk to your baby, tickle her and give hier kisses. Funny voices are essential to the game, so buff up on your best cartoon impressions and ham it up.Hand puppets are also a fun way to engage your baby at this stage. Let the puppet sing a song to your baby, tell her all about the proper technique for eating an Oreo or just read her a book. Smooches and tummy tickles will also be greatly appreciated.Your baby may already know how to shake her head no to answer you (lucky you!). Some parents like to take advantage of this time by teaching their babies "baby sign language". Simple signs like "more" or "milk" might help the two of you communicate, though we're willing to bet she doesn't give up that "no" head shake anytime soon!
26 Will my baby enjoy being more sociable now? Your baby's personality is really emerging now. His social skills are blossoming and he may well give broad smiles to everyone he meets. Or he may be a little shy, hiding his face when well-meaning strangers try to engage him. Your baby will also repeat sounds, gesture for your attention and may even wave goodbye when he sees you head for the door. He's developing a mind of his own, which you've probably already noticed when he protests at being put in his car seat or pushchair.Your baby's babbles are sounding more like real words. Show interest in what he has to say and he will keep talking. When he tries to say a word, such as "ock" for sock, it will help if you repeat the word back to him correctly, "Yes, that's your sock."
27 11 monthsour baby will understand simple instructions, and know what you mean when you say "no". This doesn't mean she will do as you ask! Try and only use the word "no" if what she is doing is dangerous or you may find yourself saying it all the time. Bright, colourful books will capture her attention. Your local library will be full of them so you can enjoy some new books along with the old favourites.Is my baby more independent now?Now that your baby is only one month short of her first birthday, she's no longer that helpless infant who couldn't do anything without you. She still needs plenty of care and support, but her growing independence is becoming apparent, as she learns to stand, stoop and squat. She may be able to walk while gripping your hand, and she'll hold out her arm or leg to help you dress her.
28 11 to 12 Month Developmental Milestones 11 MONTHS OLD Physical Movement and ActivityStands alone and unsupportedWalks with 1 hand heldDrink from cup without helpSocial/EmotionalPlays alongside others, but not with others (parallel play)CommunicationUses words meaningfully12 MONTHS OLDPhysicalGrowthWeight has tripled since birthLength has doubled since birthFirst stepsFeeds self with a spoonTransfer object from self to other with pincerAttempts to stack 2 blocksHelps with dressing by adjusting postureIdentifies self in mirrorAttempts simple conversations
29 Enhancing Development Through Play Children use play not simply as a fun past-time or a way to amuse themselves for a little while but as research into the world around them. When they are born, children can do very little for themselves and know very little about the world or their places in it. As they play, children come to understand more about the world and themselves and develop the physical, cognitive, emotional and social skills that they will need to live independently later in life. Through quiet, creative, active, cooperative and dramatic play children get the chance to work on these skills and more.
30 Piaget’s development stages Sensorimotor: (birth to about age 2)Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7)Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence)Formal Operations: (adolescence) This stage brings cognition to its final form. This person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments. At his point, he is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. Teaching for the adolescent may be wide ranging because he'll be able to consider many possibilities from several perspective
31 Criticisms of Piaget:Problems With Formal Operations Research has disputed Piaget's argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.Underestimates Children's Abilities Most researchers agree that children posses many of the abilities at an earlier age that Piaget suspected. Recent research on theory of mind has found that children of 4- or 5-years old have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.