2Nature Vs. NurtureWhat roles do nature and nurture play in the development of an infant?Babies are born with certain innate behaviors and responses. Some of these behaviors begin as normal newborn reflexes, most of which disappear within the first year. However, the behaviors aren’t gone for good; they merely morph into childhood and adult behaviors.
3Stage 1 - NewbornNewborn stage is the first 4 weeks or first month of life. It is a transitional period from intrauterine life to extra uterine environment.Physical growthThey loose 5 % to 10 % of weight by 3-4 days after birth as result of :Withdrawal of hormones from mother.Loss of excessive extra cellular fluid.Passage of meconium (feces) and urine.Limited food intake.Boys average Ht = 50 cmGirls average Ht = 49 cmNormal range for both ( cm)Head circumference33-35 cmHead is ¼ total body lengthSkull has 2 fontanels (anterior & posterior)
4Size of the Infant Physical development At birth, the newborn’s brain is 25% of its adult weightBody weight is only 5% of its adult weightNewborns enter the world with an estimated 100 billion neuronsAfter birth, the brain continues to develop rapidlyThe number of dendrites increases dramatically during the first two years of lifeThe axons of many neurons acquire myelin:the white, fatty covering that increases a neuron’s communication speedJust like adults, newborns come in a range of healthy sizes. Most full-term babies (born between 37 and 40 weeks) weigh somewhere between 5 pounds 8 ounces (2,500 grams) and 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams)
5Size of an Infant depends on many things Size of ParentsMultiple BirthsBirth OrderGenderMother’s HealthNutrition during pregnancyBaby’s Health
6Reflexes Grasping Reflex- a response to a touch on the palm of the hand.Rooting Reflex- If an alert newborn is touched anywhere around the mouth he/shewill move its head toward the sourceof the touchSucking- In infancy, the sucking reflex is essential for eating, but it’s also a way for a baby to comfort himself. Ever wonder why older kids suck their thumbs and why some adults chew pens or smoke? They’re just soothing their nerves. (Freud’s Oral Fixation)
7Reflexes Startling. Every now and then, an infant will “startle”—that is, he’ll tense up, thrust hisarms out to the side, and make a fearful face,almost as though he’s falling. Adults have asimilar type of reaction whenthey’re faced with true danger.Babies reflexively withdraw from painful stimuli.They pull up their legs and arch their backs inresponse to sudden sounds or bumps.As children develop, many reflexes such as rooting and sucking disappear.Other reflexes such as elimination of wastes, come under voluntary control.- Gaze aversion. How can you tell when a baby has had enough of your goo-goo-gaa-gaa-ing? He’ll avoid making eye contact with you, a behavior that’s referred to as gaze aversion. Surprise, surprise—adults do the same thing to indicate boredom or displeasure.
8VisionIn addition, the newborn’s senses – vision, hearing, smell, and touch – are keenly attuned to people, helping the infant quickly learn to differentiate between the mother and other humansVision is the least developed sense at birthOptimal viewing distance for the newborn is about 6-12 inchesThe perfect distance for a nursing baby to easily focus on his mother’s face and make eye contact
95 to 10 week old babies look longest at patterns that are fairly complex. They are interested in the variety and complexity of the pattern.Eyesight is not fully developed at this age.Age 15 to 20 weeks, patterns begin to matter.Babies tend to stare longer at face-like patterns.This occurs when an infant has had more experiences with people.Vision is only one type of perception.
10The newborn’s world is not a blooming, buzzing confusion The newborn’s world is not a blooming, buzzing confusion. Newborns can see and may be able to differentiate red and white, but an adult-like colour system does not appear until two months of age. Infants only two days old looked longer at patterned stimuli, such as faces, than at single-colour discs.
11Perceptual SystemsAll three perceptual constancies such as size, shape and brightness are present in infants by three months of age. Infants as young as six months have depth perception. Infants develop expectations about future events in their world by the time they are three months of age.Watch video:Click picture
12HearingNewborns respond with increased alertness to the sound of human voicesHearing is much better developed at birth than is their eyesight.They respond more to high-pitched sounds than to low-pitched ones.They seem to be soothed by the sounds of someone singing softly or speaking in a low-pitched tone.
13Skin ColourA baby's skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby's age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health.
14Birth DefectsBirth defects are defined as abnormalities of structure, function, or body metabolism that are present at birth. Major birth defects are abnormalities that lead to developmental or physical disabilities or require medical or surgical treatment.Birth defects can be caused by genetic, environmental, or unknown factors. For most birth defects, the cause is believed to be an interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors.EXAMPLES:
15SIDS (Crib Death)Sudden infant death syndrome is the unexpected, sudden death of a child under age one in which an autopsy does not show an explainable cause of death.Unknown causes, which makes it the most frighteningInfant shows no sign of pain/struggleMost deaths due to SIDS occur between 2 and 4 months of ageone out of every 2,000 in Canada each year3 Babies a week are affected by SIDS every week in Canada
16RISK FactorsAfrican-American infants are twice as likely and Native American infants are about three times more likely to die of SIDS than Caucasian infants. More boys than girls fall victim to SIDS.smoking, drinking, or drug use during pregnancypoor prenatal careprematurity or low birth weightmothers younger than 20tobacco smoke exposure following birthoverheating from excessive sleepwear and beddingstomach sleeping
17Physical development Physical development The basic sequence of motor skill development during infancy is universal, but average ages can be a little deceptiveEach infant has his or her own:genetically programmed timetable of physical maturation anddevelopmental readiness to master different motor skillsLike rolling over, sitting up, and standing
18Physical DevelopmentCephalocaudal- means to develop from head to tail. This happens in the first 2 years of life, primarilyExamples: brain/head development earlier coordination than in arms and legs; head larger relative to rest of body, lower parts of body must do more growing to reach adult size.Proximal Distal- means to develop from the inside out (not internal, but closest to the center)Example brain/spinal cord (central nervous system) and organ systems in trunk develop before arms and legs.
19At 2 monthsHold head erects in mid-position.Turn from side back.At 3 monthsHold head erects and steadyOpen or close hand looselyHold object put in handAt 4 monthsSit with adequate support.Roll over from front to back.Hold head erect and steady while in sitting position.Bring hands together in midline and plays with fingers.Grasp objects with both hands.At 5 MonthsBalance head well when sitting.Site with slight support.Pull feet up to mouth when supine.Grasp objects with whole hand (Rt. or Lt.).Hold one object while looking at anotherAt 6 MonthsSit alone briefly.Turn completely over ( abdomen to abdomen ).Lift chest and upper abdomen when prone.Hold own bottle.
20At 12 MonthsStand-alone for variable length of time.Site down from standing position alone.Walk in few steps with help or alone (hands held at shoulder height for balance).Pick up small bits of food and transfers them to his mouthAt 7 MonthsSit alone.Hold cup.Imitate simple acts of others.At 8 MonthsSite alone steadily.Drink from cup with assistance.Eat finger food that can be held in one hand.At 9 MonthsRise to sitting position alone.Crawl (i.e., pull body while in prone position).Hold one bottle with good hand-mouth coordinationAt 10 MonthsCreep well (use hands and legs).Walk but with help.Bring the hands together.At 11 MonthsWalk holding on furniture.Stand erect with minimal support
21Importance of Nutrition: Stunted Growth and Poor Immunity: Without the right nutrition, infants and young children are more likely to suffer from stunted growth. Up to 27 percent of children under age 5 in developing countries are underweight, and being underweight can lead to a lifetime of short stature.Brain Development: What you feed your child may influence her brain development. According to 2008 research published in the "Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine," infants and children who receive poor nutrition are less likely to do well on learning, thinking and memory tests when they become adults.
22ContinuedOverweight: Poor nutrition can also mean getting too much of the wrong types of food. The risks start as early as infancy. Babies who are overfed and gain excessive weight may be at greater risk of weight problems when they become children.Habit Setting: Small children can't understand the significance of proper nutrition, but left to their own devices, they will choose whatever is tasty whether or not it is good for them. Children who don't get the right amount of the right nutrients before they enter school may have already established habits that set them up for a lifetime of unhealthy eating
25Intellectual Cognitive Development Object Permanence- This is a giant step in intellectual development. The child realizes that people and objects are independent of his/her action. This new scheme, might be expressed: “Things continue to exist even though I cannot see or touch them.” (They figure out Peek-a-boo)Representational thought- Now children can represent things in their mind. “Thinking with actions”
26What is the process of cognitive development during infancy? According to Piaget, sensorimotor intelligence develops through six, successive stages, each characterized by a somewhat different way of understanding the world:
27PiagetBirth to 2 yrsSensorimotorUses senses and motor skills, items known by use; Object permanence2 - 7 yrsPre-operationalSymbolic thinking, language used; egocentric thinking, imagination/ experience grow, child de-centersyrsConcrete operationalLogic applied, objective/rational interpretations; conservation, numbers, ideas, classifications11 yrs onFormal operationalThinks abstractly, hypothetical ideas; ethics, politics, social/moral issues explored
28Kohlberg’s Theory Moral development Gilligan critical of Kohlberg’s research results – had her own theoryMorality as Individual SurvivalMorality as Self-SacrificeMorality as Equality
29Kohlberg’s theory of moral development Level I:Preconventional moral reasoningStage 1“might makes right”Punishment/obedience orientation: self-interestStage 2“look out for number one”Instrumental/relativist orientation: quid pro quoLevel II:Conventional moral reasoningStage 3“good girl,nice boy”Proper behavior for the social approvalStage 4“law and order”Proper behavior of the dutiful citizen, obey lawsLevel III:Postconventional moral reasoningStage 5“social contract”Mutual benefit to all, obey society’s rulesStage 6“universal ethical principles”Defend right/wrong, not just majority, all life is sacred (reflective)
30Intellectual Cognitive Development Schemes- Constructions, or plans for knowing and understanding the world.Assimilations- We try to fit the world into our scheme.Accommodations- We change our scheme to fit the characteristics of the world.
31Separation Anxiety why does It happen? Separation anxiety is a normal emotional stage of development that starts when babies begin to understand that things and people exist even when they're not present – something called "object permanence.“Babies can show signs of separation anxiety as early as 6 or 7 months, but the crisis age for most babies peaks between 10 to 18 months.
32How do infants learn to speak and understand a language? What was your first word?
33LanguageAt birth: From the very start, the baby is learning the power of communication: He cries, you make him feel better. Your response to his noise-making lays the foundation for language.At 2 months old: The baby can respond to your cues. So when you say sweet nothings while looking into his eyes, he can gaze back and coo in return. He's making a connection between what he hears and what he does with his mouth. And the high-pitched, singsong way you probably speak keeps your baby riveted so he can start to decipher sentences and words.
34Language continuedAt 6 to 8 months old: Get ready for all the adorable babbling! Your baby makes vowel sounds now, and will add consonants, too. Within months he may imitate the sounds he hears when you speak.Encouraging baby talkGive everything a name. At bath time, for instance, say, "This is the shampoo," as you reach for it. Your baby will build her vocabulary.Read together. At first she won't understand what you're saying, but you'll stimulate her senses and build a lifelong love of books.
35Speech Milestones 1-2 months: coos 2-6 months: laughs and squeals 8-9 months babbles: mama/dada as sounds10-12 months: “mama/dada specific18-20 months: 20 to 30 words – 50% understood by strangers22-24 months: two word sentences, >50 words, 75% understood by strangers30-36 months: almost all speech understood by strangersSpeech Milestones
36The infant usually progresses into saying labels or commands, that sound like words ( Baa (ball)) Late in the first year, the strings of babbles begin to sound more like the language that the child hears. Children imitate the speech of their parents or siblings. This is how the children learn to speak in their native language.By the time a child is two they have a vocabulary of about 50 words, and have began expressing themselves by joining words together. From about 18 months to 5 years of age children are adding 5-10 words a day to their vocabularyTelegraphic speech- they leave out words but get the same message across.
37How you can help!Be silly. Games like "so big" or peekaboo reinforce listening, turn-taking, and imitation -- prerequisites for conversation.Sing. Babies naturally love music, and singing is a great way to introduce a range of sounds.Babble back. When your baby says "goo goo," say something similar in return, like "Hey, boo boo, how are you?" The play on sounds makes language fun. Before you babble on, pause to let her "talk" so she gets a feel for the rhythm of real conversation.Your child will probably say his first word right around his first birthday (what a nice present for Mom!). Most early words are repeated: You say "spaghetti" and she says "geddy." By 16 months, she'll be able to say a handful of words -- an average of 50 for girls and 30 for boys. (Boys tend to develop speech about a month or two later.)
39What do Temperament and Personality mean? - Researchers who study adult personality have also searched for the basic temperamental dimensions that underlie personality in humans everywhere. Through a series of statistical calculations they have found what are called the “big five” dimensions of temperament:
40• extroversion: the tendency to be outgoing, assertive, and active • agreeableness: the tendency to be kind, helpful, and easygoing• conscientiousness: the tendency to be organized, deliberate, and conforming• neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, moody, and self-punishing• openness: the tendency to be imaginative, curious, artistic and welcoming of new experiences
41Basic temperaments of babies Because temperament is fundamental in determining the kind of individuals we become and how we interact with others, many researchers have set out to describe and measure the various dimensions of temperament. According to the researcher's initial findings, in the first days and months of life, babies differ in nine characteristics:
42• Activity level: Some babies are active • Activity level: Some babies are active. They kick a lot in the uterus before they are born, they move around a great deal in their bassinets and as toddlers, they are nearly always running.• Rhythmicity: Some babies have regular cycles of activity. They eat, sleep, and defecate on schedule almost from birth.• Approach-withdrawal: Some babies delight in everything new; others withdraw from every new situation.• Adaptability: Some babies adjust quickly to change. Others are unhappy at every disruption of their normal routine.
43• Threshold of responsiveness: Some babies seem to sense every sight, sound and touch. For instance, they awaken at a slight noise or turn away from a distant light. Others seem blissfully unaware, even of bright lights, loud street noises, or wet diapers.• Quality of mood: Some babies seem constantly happy, smiling at almost everything. Others seem chronically unhappy, they are ready to protest at any moment.• Distractibility: All babies fuss when they are hungry but some will stop if someone gives them a pacifier or sings them a song. Others will keep fussing. Similarly, some babies can easily be distracted from a fascinating but dangerous object and diverted to a safer plaything. Others are more single-minded, refusing to be distracted.• Attention span: Some babies play happily with one toy for a long time. Others quickly drop one activity for another.
44TemperamentCharacteristic ways of responding to the environment that vary from infant to infant(Data from Thomas, et al., 1970)
45Development During Infancy and Childhood Attachment: forming emotional bondsAttachment – the emotional bond that forms between infant and caregivers, especially the motherAccording to attachment theory, an infant’s ability to thrive physically and psychologically depends in part on the quality of attachmentIn all cultures, the emotional bond between between infants and caregivers is an important relationship:although there are cultural differences in how the attachment relationship is conceptualized and encouragedInfants can form multiple attachmentsDevelopment During Infancy and Childhood
46Development During Infancy and Childhood Depending on the parents, infants can form secure or insecure attachmentsSecure attachment – occurs when parents are consistently warm, responsive, and sensitive to their infant’s needsInsecure attachment – may develop when an infant’s parents are neglectful, inconsistent, or insensitive to the infant’s moods or behaviorsThe most commonly used procedure to measure attachment, called the “Strange Situation”, was developed by Ainsworth. This is typically used with infants between 1-2 years oldThe mother stays with the child for a few moments,She then departs, leaving the child with the strangerAfter a few minutes, mother returns, spends a few minutes in the room,She then leaves, and returns againPsychologists assess attachment by observing the infant’s behavior toward the mother during the Strange Situation procedure
47The securely attached infant will use the mother as a “secure” base from which to explore the new environment, periodically returning to her side;Will show distress when mother leaves and will greet her warmly when she returns.The mothers easily soothe securely attached babiesAn insecurely attached infant is less likely to explore the environment, even when the mother is present and may appear either very anxious or completely indifferentSuch infants tend to ignore or avoid their mothers when they are presentSome become extremely distressed when the mother leaves the room and, when reunited,they are hard to soothe and:may resist their mothers’ attempt to comfort them
48Child Abuse and Neglect Why do some parents abuse or neglect their children?Stress—particularly the stress of unemployment and povertyA history of child abuse in at least one parent’s family of originAcceptance of violence as a way of coping with stressLack of attachment to the childSubstance abuseRigid attitudes about child rearingChildren who are abused run a higher risk of developing psychological problems than children who did not grow up in an abusive environment.These children are more likely to suffer from a variety of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.As adults, they are more likely to act in violent ways toward their dates or spouses.Child abuse tends to run in families.Children often adopt their parents’ strict ideas about discipline.Abused children may come to see severe punishment as normal.Not all people who were abused as children will in turn become abusers themselves.
49Self-EsteemSelf-esteem is the value or worth that people attach to themselves.Self-esteem helps to protect people against the stresses and struggles of life.High self-esteem gives people the confidence to know that they can overcome their difficulties.What factors influence self-esteem?Secure attachmentYoung children who are securely attached to their parents are more likely to have high self- esteem.The way parents react to their childrenChildren with high self-esteem tend to be closer to their parents and their parents are involved in their lives.They teach and expect appropriate behavior and encourage them to become competent individualsChapter 10