5Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Focus on development of how children perceive and mentally represent the worldPIAGET’S HYPOTHESISCognitive processes develop in an orderly sequence of stagesRate of development is variable to individuals but sequence remains constantTERMS AND CONCEPTSSchemesChildren’s concepts of the worldAssimilationIncorporating new events into existing schemesAccommodationIf assimilation does make sense of new events, children try to modify existing schemes through accommodation.
6Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Piaget’s FOUR STAGES of cognitive development:Sensorimotor: B-2 yrsPreoperational: 2-7 yrsConcrete operational: 7-11 yrsFormal operational: 12 yrs - adultIn this chapter we will be discussing the 1st Stage only. Sensorimotor- as it applies to Infancy
7Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor StageThe first 2 years of cognitive developmentIt is divided into six sub-stages.Simple ReflexesPrimary Circular ReactionsSecondary Circular ReactionsCoordination of Secondary SchemesTertiary Circular ReactionsInvention of New Means through Material CombinationsEach Sub-stage will be addressed individually on separate slides.
8Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor StageSub-stage 1 – Simple ReflexesB-1 monthDominated by assimilation of stimuli into reflexesWithin first few hours, infants began to modify reflexes as a result of experiencesThere seems to be no connection between stimuli from different sensory modalitiesMaking no effort to grasp objects they visually track
9Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor StageSub-stage 2 – Primary Circular Reactions1-4 monthsBeginning to coordinate different schemesFocus on the infant’s own body rather than external stimuli3-months: infants examine objects intenselyNo longer simply looking but “looking in order to see”Sensorimotor coordination is self-reinforcing because they repeat actions that allow them to “see.”The desire to prolong stimulation is seen as a “basic” drive much like hunger and thirst.
10Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor StageSub-stage 3 – Secondary Circular Reactions4-8 monthsFocus shifts from self to objects and environmental eventsPatterns of activity are repeated because of their effect on the environmentInfants may now lean to shake a rattle
11Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor StageSub-stage 4 – Coordination of Secondary Schemes9-12 monthsCan now coordinate schemes to attain specific goalsBegin to show intentional, goal-directed behaviorGain capacity to imitate gestures and sounds they previously ignored
12Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor StageSub-stage 5 – Tertiary Circular Reactions12-18 monthsInfants now engage in tertiary circular reactions or purposeful adaptation of established schemes to specific situationsBecome “budding scientists” experimenting with their actions dozens of times in deliberate trial-and-error testing to learn how things work
13Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor StageSub-stage 6 – Invention of New Means Through Mental Combinations18-24 monthsTransition stage between sensorimotor development and the development of symbolic thoughtExternal exploration is replaced by mental explorationBy 18 mos, child may also use imitation to symbolize a plan of actionAlso begin to exhibit concept of deferred imitationImitation of an action that may have occurred hours, days, or even weeks earlier
14Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Development of Object PerformanceAwareness that an object or person continues to exist when out of sightObject permanence is tied to the development of the infant’s working memory and reasoning abilityNewbornsShow no tendency to respond to objects not within their immediate graspAnswer to T-F? # 1 - For 2-month-old infants,”out of sight” is “out of mind”. TRUE - Two-month-olds have not yet developed object permanence.
15Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Development of Object Performance2 - 6 monthsAt 2 months they may show surprise at missing objects but make no attempt to search for themTypically infants at this stage behave as if object is gone if out of sightBut by 6 months infants will tend to look for objects they have droppedmonths (sub-stage 4)Baby now seeks to find objects that have been hidden from their sight.“A not B” error: baby will continue to seek lost object in the place where they have found it before, even if they see it has not been placed thereBy 9-10 months this error no longer occurs if the retrieval is immediate; if having to wait 5 or more seconds they tend to revert to the error behavior
16Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory ProsStill provides a comprehensive model of cognitive developmentConfirmation of patterns and sequences observed in many other cultures worldwideConsProcess appears to be more gradual; not tied to discrete stagesOverlooks the importance of interpersonal influencesSeems to underestimate competency of infantsInfants seem to display object permanence earlier than (s)he thoughtDeferred Imitation also occurs earlier than (s)he indicated (9 mos instead of 18 mos)Just a note for thought on the “cons” to open for class discussion. Is the earlier maturation due to error in his observation, or is it perhaps a function of faster development in our children today as opposed to 50 years ago?
19Information Processing Tools for processing include:Imitation“Infant see, infant do” Imitation is basis for much of human learning.Some studies show neonates only 0.7 to 71 hrs. old display imitation of adult gestures other have not.The key may be up to 2 wks imitation appears to be a reflex and it typically disappears as reflexes “drop out” and re-emerge later.These early imitations could be an evolutionary response to assist survival by helping to form infant/caregiver bonding.
21Individual Differences in Intelligence Among Infants Cognitive development does not proceed the same in all infants.Measuring cognition/intelligence in infants is very different from adults.Bayley Scales of Infant DevelopmentOriginally developed in 1933Current updated version consists of:178 mental scale itemsVerbal, perceptual, problem-solving, learning, memory skills111 motor scale itemsGross skills: standing, walking, climbing; Fine: hand, finger dexterityBehavior rating (based on examiner observations)1. Attention Span2. Goal directedness3. Persistence4. Social and Emotional development
22Table 6.1 - Items from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
24Individual Differences in Intelligence Among Infants Use of Visual Recognition MemoryAbility to discriminate previously seen object from new ones (based on habituation)Infants with greater visual recognition later attained higher IQ scoresIn Sum:Scales of infant development may prove useful as screening devices, or for research or descriptive purposes but their predictive power is not valid.
26Language Development in Infancy Early VocalizationsPrelinguistic VocalizationsActual words are symbols of objects and events; prelinguistic vocalizations do NOT represent objects or events.NewbornsUtilize crying as an effective form of verbal expression2 monthsCooing (happy sounds)Use tongue more; sounds are more articulated; linked to pleasure or excitement; not associated with hunger or painAnswer to T-F? # 4 - Infant crying is a primitive form of language. FICTION - Not so; cries do not represent objects or events. Therefore, crying is a pre-linguistic event, not a form of language at all.
27Language Development in Infancy Prelinguistic Vocalizations6-9 monthsBabbling (first sounds resembling human speech)8 mos cooing decreases and babbling beginsFrequently combining consonant and vowel sounds; ( ba ba - ma ma - da da)10-12 monthsEcholalia (begin to repeat syllables at length)Ah bah bah bah bah bahIntonation (begin to use patterns of rising and falling tones)
28Table 6.2 – Milestones in Language Development In Infancy Source: Table items adapted from Lenneberg (1967, pp. 128–130).Note: Ages are approximations. Slower development does not necessarily indicate language problems. Albert Einstein did not talk until the age of 3.
30Language Development in Infancy Development of Vocabulary, con’tChild’s First Words (a milestone in development)Usually between monthsRange of 8-18 months considered normalBrief, one or two syllablesAcquisition slow at first; taking 3-4 months to achieve wordsBy 18 months, producing up to 50 words65% of first words are:General nominals: names and classes of objectsSpecific nominals: proper nounsWords expressing movement are also common18-24 months: rapid burst, increasing from 50 to 300 wordsA.K.A. “naming explosion” because 75% are nounsGrowth continues with acquisition of average of 9 new words a day
31Language Development in Infancy Development of Vocabulary, con’tReferential language styleUses language primarily to label object in the environmentExpressive language styleUses language primarily for engaging in social interactionsUses more pronouns and words involved in social routinesMore children use expressive style; most use a combinationOverextensionExtending the meaning of one word to refer to things and actions for which they have no words yetGenerally based on perceived similarities in function or form between original object or action and the new oneOverextensions gradually correct as child’s vocabulary and classification skills improve
32Language Development in Infancy Development of SentencesTypically one-word utterances but express complete ideasTelegraphic SpeechBrief expressions that have the meaning of sentencesHolophrase: single words used to express complex meaningsTwo-Word Utterances: brief and telegraphic but show understanding of syntax (proper word order); start around months (when vocabulary reaches words)Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)The average number of morphemes used in a sentenceMorphemes: the smallest units of meaning in a languagePatterns in rate of increase in MLU are similar for each child.
34Theories of Language Development Views that Emphasize NurtureRole of ImitationParents are models with children learning in part from observation and imitation.But some language is spontaneous and resistant to adult correction.Role of ReinforcementSkinner theorized cooing and babbling may be innate but due to reinforcement they lead to language.Extinction of foreign sounds and adherence to native tongue language takes place through shaping (moving a desired behavior toward a goal by gradual progressive reinforcement).Selective reinforcement of pronunciation can also “backfire”Children whose parents reward proper pronunciation but correct poor pronunciation develop vocabulary slower than those whose parents are more tolerant of errors.Answer to T-F? # 5 - You can advance children’s development of pronunciation by correcting their errors. FICTION - Selective reinforcement of a child’s pronunciation can actually backfire by delaying language development.
35Theories of Language Development Views that Emphasize Nurture, con’t.Learning theory also cannot account for invariant sequences and spurts in acquisition.Types of questions, passive vs. active sentences, etc. all emerge in the same orderBut some aspects of environment do influence and enhance language development, such as:Use of “Motherese” a simplified form of speechUsing questions that engage child in conversationMaking positive responses to child’s expressive language attemptsJoining in child’s play and paying attention to their interestsMaking gestures to help child understandDescribing aspects of environment that have gained child’s attentionReading to the childTalk to the child a great dealNext slide will be inserted box on topic of Motherese
36Theories of Language Development Views that Emphasize NatureNativist View: holds inborn factors cause children to attend to and acquire language in certain ways:Evolutionary Theory:Structures that enable humans to perceive and produce language evolved in bits and pieces.Individuals endowed with those were more likely to reach maturity and transmit their genes because communication ability increased their chances of survival.Next slide will be inserted box on topic of Motherese
37Theories of Language Development Views that Emphasize Nature, con’t.Psycholinguistic Theory: (Noam Chomsky)Language acquisition involves interaction between various environmental influences and an inborn tendency to acquire language.Chomsky labeled this innate tendency a language acquisition device (LAD).Evidence for support is found in:Universality of language abilities; Regularity of early sounds (even among deaf children); Commonality of sequencing in all languagesInborn tendency primes the nervous system to learn grammar:Surface Structure: languages vary greatlyDeep Structure: but all variations share a “universal grammar”Chomsky believes children are pre-wired to attend to language and deduce rules for making sentences from ideas.Answer to T-F? # 6 - Children are “pre-wired” to listen to language in such a way that they come to understand rules of grammar. TRUE - This pre-wiring has been termed a language acquisition device (LAD).
38Theories of Language Development Views that Emphasize Nature, con’t.Brain Structures Involved in LanguageLeft Hemisphere of Cerebral CortexBroca’s AreaLocated near section of motor cortex controlling muscles of tongue, throat, and other areas of face involved in speechIf damaged the ability to speak is compromised but can still understand speech of others: Broca’s AphasiaWernicke’s AreaLocated near auditory cortex; connected to Broca’s area by nervesIf damaged can still speak, but have trouble finding words to express thoughts, and in understanding speech of others: Wernicke’s AphasiaAngular GyrusLocated between visual cortex and Wernicke’s AreaTranslates visual information (written words) into auditory information (sounds) and sends to Wernicke’s areaIf damaged can cause problems in reading.