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Some examples of Type I supernova light curves Narrow range of absolute magnitude at maximum light indicates a good Standard Candle B band absolute magnitude.

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Presentation on theme: "Some examples of Type I supernova light curves Narrow range of absolute magnitude at maximum light indicates a good Standard Candle B band absolute magnitude."— Presentation transcript:

1 Some examples of Type I supernova light curves Narrow range of absolute magnitude at maximum light indicates a good Standard Candle B band absolute magnitude No. of days since maximum light

2 Apparent brightness, or flux, falls off with the square of the distance, because the surface area of a sphere increases with the square of its radius Luminosity and flux Luminosity, (watts) Flux, (watts / square metre) Distance, (metres)

3 A Type I supernova has a luminosity times that of the Sun. As seen from the Earth, the supernova appears fainter than the Sun. How far away is the supernova? Luminosity, (watts) Flux, (watts / square metre) Distance, (metres)

4 Measuring the Hubble Constant – 3 Although the errors which caused Hubble to find were gradually eliminated, even by the late 1980s, the value of the Hubble constant was still controversial, because of disagreements over the different steps of the Distance Ladder. Some astronomers argued that Others that The Hubble Space Telescope launched in 1990 was to come to the rescue! H 0 ~ 500 kms -1 Mpc -1 H 0 ~ 100 kms -1 Mpc -1 H 0 ~ 50 kms -1 Mpc -1

5 H0?H0?

6 HST has ‘bypassed’ one stage of the Distance Ladder, by observing Cepheids beyond the Local Group of galaxies

7 HST Key Project, led by Wendy Freedman Measure Cepheid distances to ~30 nearby galaxies, Link Cepheids to Secondary distance indicators

8 Virgo Cluster galaxy M100, 60 million light years distant…..

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10 HST has ‘bypassed’ one stage of the Distance Ladder, by observing Cepheids beyond the Local Group of galaxies This has dramatically improved measurements of H 0

11 A Type I supernova has a luminosity times that of the Sun. As seen from the Earth, the supernova appears fainter than the Sun. How far away is the supernova? Luminosity, (watts) Flux, (watts / square metre) Distance, (metres)

12 Morphological Segregation Analysis of galaxy redshift surveys reveals that elliptical galaxies are preferentially found in the cores of rich clusters, while spirals are generally not found there. This morphological segregation is a consequence of how galaxies formed: Spirals existed briefly in galaxy clusters, but their disks could not survive the strong tidal forces there. Early population of cluster spirals torn apart. Many may have been ‘cannibalised’ by the giant elliptical galaxies in the centre of the clusters.

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16 Active Galaxies Galaxies whose luminosity is significantly greater than that solely due to the stars which they contain are known as active galaxies. Their cores are known as active galactic nuclei (AGN). All types of active galaxies are observed predominantly at high redshift, indicating they are very distant. Light travels at a finite speed, so we see active galaxies as they were in the remote past. This suggests that they represent a phase in the early history of galaxy formation, which is now over.

17 Active Galaxies We will consider three types of Active Galaxy: o Radio galaxies o Seyfert galaxies o Quasars

18 Properties of Radio Galaxies

19 Cygnus A: radio map

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21 Properties of Radio Galaxies

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24 Synchrotron radiation

25 Properties of Seyfert Galaxies

26 NGC7742

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28 Properties of Seyfert Galaxies

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30 Suppose gas moves in a circular orbit. From Kepler’s third law: But so Hence

31 Properties of Seyfert Galaxies

32 Increasing exposure time Seyfert galaxy nuclei

33 Properties of Seyfert Galaxies

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37 Properties of Quasars

38 Hydrogen  emission line

39 Hydrogen Spectral Line Series n = 1 n = 2 n = 4 (ground state) n = 3 Lyman Balmer Paschen Brackett Energy difference (eV) m = 2,3,4,…n = 1 n = 2m = 3,4,5,… m = 4,5,6,…n = 3 m = 5,6,7,…n = 4 Ionised above 13.6 eV Shown here are downward transitions, from higher to lower energy levels, which produce emission lines. The corresponding upward transition of the same difference in energy would produce an absorption line with the same wavelength.

40 Properties of Quasars Lec 2

41 z = 2.0 Light travel time = 10.3 billion years

42 z = 2.1 Light travel time = 10.5 billion years

43 z = 2.2 Light travel time = 10.6 billion years

44 z = 2.3 Light travel time = 10.8 billion years

45 z = 2.4 Light travel time = 10.9 billion years

46 z = 2.5 Light travel time = 11.0 billion years

47 z = 2.6 Light travel time = 11.1 billion years

48 z = 2.7 Light travel time = 11.2 billion years

49 z = 2.8 Light travel time = 11.3 billion years

50 z = 2.9 Light travel time = 11.4 billion years

51 z = 3.0 Light travel time = 11.5 billion years

52 z = 3.1 Light travel time = 11.6 billion years

53 z = 3.2 Light travel time = 11.6 billion years

54 z = 3.3 Light travel time = 11.7 billion years

55 z = 3.4 Light travel time = 11.8 billion years

56 z = 3.6 Light travel time = 11.9 billion years

57 z = 3.7 Light travel time = 11.9 billion years

58 z = 3.8 Light travel time = 12.0 billion years

59 z = 4.0 Light travel time = 12.1 billion years

60 z = 4.1 Light travel time = 12.1 billion years

61 z = 4.3 Light travel time = 12.2 billion years

62 z = 4.4 Light travel time = 12.2 billion years

63 z = 4.5 Light travel time = 12.3 billion years

64 z = 4.6 Light travel time = 12.3 billion years

65 z = 5.0 Light travel time = 12.5 billion years Exit Re-run

66 Properties of Quasars

67 Hydrogen  emission line

68 Absorption lines produced by atoms in young galaxies between us and the quasar

69 Properties of Quasars

70 Quasars: Galaxies in Infancy o Conclusive evidence that quasars are at cosmological distances: HST observed ‘host’ galaxies at same redshift

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72 Quasars: Galaxies in Infancy o Conclusive evidence that quasars are at cosmological distances: HST observed ‘host’ galaxies at same redshift o How can such a high luminosity be produced in such a small volume? Quasar powered by a supermassive black hole at its center. Infalling material releases large amounts of energy as it is swallowed up by the black hole. No other satisfactory model can provide such a luminous source of energy. Amount of energy released is of order

73 Suppose a quasar ‘consumes’ the equivalent of 1 solar mass per year, and it converts 20% of this mass into energy. What is the luminosity of the quasar?

74 Quasars: Galaxies in Infancy Standard Model: o Quasar is the core of a very young galaxy. Black hole forms at center during chaotic early collapse of protogalactic cloud. o Infalling matter forms an accretion disk around the black hole o Energy released by infalling matter accelerates electrons in beams, moving close to speed of light, which stream out from the disk. The electrons in turn produce synchrotron radiation

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77 Quasars: Galaxies in Infancy Standard Model: o Quasar is the core of a very young galaxy. Black hole forms at center during chaotic early collapse of protogalactic cloud. o Infalling matter forms an accretion disk around the black hole o Energy released by infalling matter accelerates electrons in beams, moving close to speed of light, which stream out from the disk. The electrons in turn produce synchrotron radiation o Radio galaxies and Seyferts powered by same mechanism, but less energetic and/or viewed from different orientation.

78 The Milky Way was very likely once an active galaxy. Sgr A: very strong radio source at the galactic center; remnant of an AGN.

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