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Chapter 4 The Developing Person.

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1 Chapter 4 The Developing Person

2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Developmental Psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span

3 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides

4 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein Genome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes

5 Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Mutations random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides the source of all genetic diversity

6 Evolutionary Psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection Gender in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female

7 Behavior Genetics Behavior Genetics Environment
study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior Environment every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

8 Behavior Genetics Identical Twins Fraternal Twins
Same sex only Same or opposite sex Identical Twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms Fraternal Twins develop from separate eggs genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment

9 Behavior Genetics Temperament Heritability
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

10 Behavior Genetics Interaction Molecular Genetics
the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity) Molecular Genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

11 Environmental Influence
Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

12 Environmental Influence
Personal Space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Memes self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person

13 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
X Chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men and women females have two; males have one an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child Y Chromosome the sex chromosome found only in men when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

14 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones both males and females have it additional testosterone in males stimulates growth of male sex organs in the fetus development of male sex characteristics during puberty Role a set of expectations (norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave

15 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Gender Role a set of expected behaviors for males and females Gender Identity one’s sense of being male or female Gender-typing the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

16 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Social Learning Theory theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished Gender Schema Theory theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

17 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Life is sexually transmitted

18 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Zygote the fertilized egg enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division develops into an embryo Embryo the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month Fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

19 Prenatal Development and the Newborn

20 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
40 days days months 4 months

21 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Teratogens agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking symptoms include misproportioned head

22 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Rooting Reflex tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheek Preferences human voices and faces facelike images--> smell and sound of mother preferred

23 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

24 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Having habituated to the old stimulus, newborns preferred gazing at a new one

25 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience At birth 3 months 15 months Cortical Neurons

26 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997).

27 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information Assimilation interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas

28 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Accommodation adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

29 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning

30 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Object Permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

31 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

32 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Egocentrism the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view Theory of Mind people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Autism a disorder that appears in childhood Marked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others’ states of mind

33 Social Development Stranger Anxiety Attachment
fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age Attachment an emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation

34 Social Development Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments
Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother

35 Social Development Critical Period Imprinting
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

36 Social Development Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.

37 Social Development Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) Self-Concept
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Self-Concept a sense of one’s identity and personal worth

38 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Infancy Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. Toddler Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year) and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Elementary Competence vs Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years- inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior.

39 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Adolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to 20’s) form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60’s and despair adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure.

40 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices
Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.” Permissive submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment Authoritative both demanding and responsive set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion Uninvolved Parenting An uninvolved parenting style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child's basic needs, they are generally detached from their child's life. In extreme cases, these parents may even reject or neglect the needs of their children.

41 Adolescence Adolescence Puberty
the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence Puberty the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction

42 Adolescence Primary Sex Characteristics Secondary Sex Characteristics
body structures that make sexual reproduction possible ovaries--female testes--male external genitalia Secondary Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics female--breast and hips male--voice quality and body hair Menarche (meh-NAR-key) first menstrual period

43 Adolescence In the 1890’s the average interval between a woman’s menarche and marriage was about 7 years; now it is over 12 years 10 20 7.2 Year Interval 12.5 Year Interval Age 1890, Women 1995, Women

44 Adolescence Height in centimeters 190 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Age in years Boys Girls Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14.

45 Body Changes at Puberty

46 Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles As moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world. Postconventional level Conventional level Morality of law and social rules: to gain approval or avoid disapproval Preconventional level Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

47 Adolescence: Social Development
Identity one’s sense of self the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Intimacy the ability to form close, loving relationships a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

48 Adulthood: Physical Development
Menopause the time of natural cessation of menstruation also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines Alzheimer’s Disease a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning

49 Adulthood: Physical Development
The Aging Senses 1.00 0.75 Proportion of normal (20/20) vision when identifying letters on an eye chart 0.50 0.25 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

50 Adulthood: Physical Development
The Aging Senses 90 Percent correct when Identifying smells 70 50 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

51 Adulthood: Physical Development
The Aging Senses 90 Percent correct when identifying spoken words 70 50 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

52 Adulthood: Physical Development
Fatal accident rate Slowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older. 12 10 Fatal accidents per 100 million miles 8 Fatal accidents per 10,000 drivers 6 4 2 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 and over Age

53 Adulthood: Physical Development
Incidence of Dementia by Age Risk of dementia increases in later years Age Group 40% 30 20 10 Percentage with dementia

54 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
100 Older age groups have poorer performance Recalling new names introduced once, twice, or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones (Crook & West, 1990). Percent of names recalled 90 80 After three introductions 70 60 50 After two introductions 40 30 20 After one introductions 10 18 40 50 60 70 Age group

55 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Number Of words remembered In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall new information declined during early and middle adulthood, but the ability to recognize new information did not. 24 20 Number of words recognized is stable with age 16 12 8 Number of words recalled declines with age 4 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age in years

56 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Reasoning ability score Cross-sectional method suggests decline Cross-Sectional Study a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another Longitudinal Study a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period 60 55 50 Longitudinal method suggests more stability 45 40 35 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 74 81 Age in years Cross-sectional method Longitudinal method

57 Adulthood- Cognitive Development
Intelligence (IQ) score Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989). Verbal scores are stable with age 105 100 95 90 Nonverbal scores decline with age 85 80 75 20 25 35 45 55 65 70 Verbal scores Nonverbal scores Age group

58 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Crystallized Intelligence one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age Fluid Intelligence ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late adulthood

59 Adulthood: Social Development
Early-forties midlife crisis? Females Males No early 40s emotional crisis Age in Years 24% 16 8 Emotional instability

60 Adulthood: Social Changes
Social Clock the culturally preferred timing of social events marriage parenthood retirement

61 Adulthood: Social Changes
Multinational surveys show that age differences in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart, 1990). Percentage “satisfied” with life as a whole 80 60 40 20 15 25 35 45 55 65+ Age group

62 Chapter 4 Part Two The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior

63 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides

64 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein Genome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes

65 Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Mutations random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides the source of all genetic diversity

66 Evolutionary Psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection Gender in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female

67 Behavior Genetics Behavior Genetics Environment
study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior Environment every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

68 Behavior Genetics Identical Twins Fraternal Twins
Same sex only Same or opposite sex Identical Twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms Fraternal Twins develop from separate eggs genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment

69 Behavior Genetics Temperament Heritability
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

70 Behavior Genetics Interaction Molecular Genetics
the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity) Molecular Genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

71 Environmental Influence
Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

72 Environmental Influence
Personal Space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Memes self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person

73 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
X Chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men and women females have two; males have one an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child Y Chromosome the sex chromosome found only in men when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

74 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones both males and females have it additional testosterone in males stimulates growth of male sex organs in the fetus development of male sex characteristics during puberty Role a set of expectations (norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave

75 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Gender Role a set of expected behaviors for males and females Gender Identity one’s sense of being male or female Gender-typing the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

76 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Social Learning Theory theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished Gender Schema Theory theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly


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