2Nature, Nurture, & Prenatal Development Learning OutcomesCompare and contrast the influence of nature versus nurtureDescribe developmental research techniquesDiscuss prenatal developmentDevelopmental psychology: branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.
3Nature, Nurture, & Prenatal Development Nature-nurture issue: the issue of the degree to which environment (nurture) and heredity (nature) influence behaviorNo longer a question of nature versus nurture because both factors interact to produce developmental patterns and outcomesNow we ask, how and to what degree do nature and nurture produce their effects?Developmental psychology studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.The question is: How can we distinguish between the environmental causes of behavior (parents, siblings, family, etc.) and hereditary causes (based on genetic make-up)?“Nature” refers to the hereditary factors and “nurture” refers to the environmental factors. Developmental psychologists today agree that both nature and nurture interact to produce specific developmental patterns and outcomes.
4Nature vs. NurtureExperimentally control genetic makeup of laboratory animals, then study environmental influencesIdentical twins (share 100% of their genetic makeup) and non-twin siblings raised apart: similarities as adults show importance of heredityAdopted children: similarities with biological children in same family show importance of environmentIf identical twins (those who are genetically identical) display different patterns of development, those differences have to be attributed to variations in the environment in which the twins were raised.Researchers can also take the opposite tack. Instead of concentrating on people with similar genetic backgrounds who are raised in different environments, they may consider people raised in similar environments who have totally dissimilar genetic backgrounds (adopted and biological children in the same family group).
5Developmental Research Techniques Cross-sectional research: comparing people of different ages at the same point in timeLongitudinal research: studying the same people as they ageSequential research: combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal; considers different age groups, examined at several points in timeCross-sectional research has limitations. For example, we can’t be sure that the differences in IQ scores we might find in a group are due to age differences; they may reflect differences in the educational attainment of the cohorts represented.A cohort is a group of people who grow up at similar times, in similar places, and in similar conditions.To make up for the limitations in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research, an alternative strategy has been developed. Sequential research combines the two other techniques. This technique allows developmental psychologists to tease out the specific effects of age changes from other possibly influential factors.
6Prenatal Development Basics of genetics Chromosomes: rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information; 23 pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the mother and one from the fatherGenesZygote: the new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm
8Prenatal DevelopmentEmbryo: a developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organsFetus: a developing individual, from eight weeks after conception until birthAge of viability: the point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely (about 22 weeks)
9Prenatal DevelopmentSensitive/critical periods: during prenatal development, time when the fetus is particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli
10Genetic Influences on the Fetus Phenylketonuria (PKU): child cannot produce enzyme needed for normal development; causes intellectual disabilitiesSickle-cell anemia: causes abnormally shaped red blood cellsDown syndrome: zygote receives extra chromosome at moment of conception; one of the causes of mental retardation
11Prenatal Environment Influences Teratogens: environmental agents (drugs, chemicals, etc.) that produce a birth defectMother’s nutritionMother’s illnessAlcohol & nicotine useFetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
12Infancy and Childhood Learning Outcomes Describe the major competencies of newbornsExplain the milestones of physical, social, and cognitive development during childhoodNeonate: a newborn child
13The Extraordinary Newborn Reflexes: automatic, involuntary responses to incoming stimuliNeonate born with rooting, sucking, gag, startle, & Babinski reflexesSensory development: neonates can follow moving objects within their field of vision, show some depth perception, discriminate facial expressions, recognize their mothers’ voices at 3 days old, and recognize different tastes and smellsA newborn is known as a neonate. While a baby doesn’t look like the perfect picture of a newborn right after birth, the neonate makes a remarkable change during the first two weeks after birth, as it takes on the more familiar appearance.Even more astounding are the capabilities the neonate displays from the moment of birth. These capabilities grow at an amazing rate over the ensuing months. Many of the reflexes that a neonate is born with are critical to survival and unfold naturally as part of an infant’s ongoing maturation.
14Infancy through Middle Childhood Attachment: positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual, usually a caregiver (Harlow’s research with monkeys)Classified as secure, avoidant, ambivalent, or disorganized-disorientedFather’s role: nature of attachment is similar to mother’s, but type of play/interaction may be different (fathers engage in more physical activities, while mothers are more verbal)
15Infancy through Middle Childhood Child care outside the home can be beneficial, especially for children from disadvantaged homes, if it is a high-quality programParenting stylesAuthoritarian: rigid, punitive, demand obedience, require a lot from their childrenPermissive: relaxed or inconsistent direction, require little from their children
16Infancy through Middle Childhood Parenting Styles (cont’d)Authoritative: firm, set limits, use reasoning, explain things, encourage independenceUninvolved: show little interest, emotionally detached, believe parenting is only providing food, clothing, and shelterSpecific kinds of parenting styles may, in part, be brought about by the child’s temperament (basic, innate disposition with which the child is born)
17Infancy through Middle Childhood Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development: change in our interactions and understanding of each other and our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society; passing through each stage necessitates resolution of a crisis or conflictTrust vs. mistrust (birth – 1 ½): develop trust if physical and psychological needs are metAutonomy vs. shame-and-doubt (1 – 3): develop autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged
19Erikson’s Theory (cont’d) Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 6): resolved positively if parents react positively to children’s attempts at independenceIndustry vs. inferiority (6 – 12): resolved positively if child shows increased competency in social interactions and academic skillsCognitive development: the process by which a child’s understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience; intellectual developmentErickson suggests that passage through each of the stages necessitates the resolution of a crisis or conflict. Although each crisis is never resolved entirely – life becomes increasingly complex as we grow older – it has to be resolved sufficiently to equip us to deal with demands during the following stage of development.Some theorists have suggested that children cannot understand certain ideas and concepts until they reach a particular stage of cognitive development. In contrast to the theories of physical and social development such as those of Erikson, theories of cognitive development seek to explain the quantitative and qualitative intellectual advances that occur during development.
20Infancy through Middle Childhood Piaget’s theory of cognitive developmentSensorimotor stage (birth – 2): understanding comes from touching, sucking, chewing, and manipulating objects; around 9 months, develop object permanence (the awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight)Preoperational stage (2 – 7): development of language and use of symbols; still use egocentric thought (views the world entirely from his or her own perspective)No theory of cognitive development has had more impact than that of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget (1970) suggested that children around the world proceed through a series of 4 stages in a fixed order.He maintained that these stages differed not only in the quantity of the information acquired in each stage but in the quality of knowledge and understanding as well.He suggested that movement from one stage to the next occurs when a child reaches an appropriate level of maturation and is exposed to relevant types of experiences. Without having such experiences, said Piaget, children can’t reach their highest level of cognitive growth.
21Infancy through Middle Childhood Piaget’s theory (cont’d)Concrete operational stage (7 – 12): loss of egocentric thinking, logical thought develops, but difficulty understanding abstract, hypothetical questions; beginning marked by understanding of conservation (amount, volume, or length of an object doesn’t change when its shape changes; ex.: amount of liquid in short, fat glass = amount in tall, skinny glass)Formal operational stage (12 – adulthood): abstract, formal, logical thought
22Infancy through Middle Childhood Many psychologists believe changes in information processing (the way in which people take in, use, and store information) are how children develop their cognitive abilitiesMetacognition: an awareness and understanding of one’s own cognitive processes
23Infancy through Middle Childhood Vygotsky’s view of cognitive developmentCulture in which we are raised significantly affects cognitive developmentZone of proximal development (ZPD): the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own; if information falls within the ZPD, children can master it
24Adolescence: Becoming an Adult Learning OutcomesSummarize the major physical transitions that characterize adolescenceExplain moral and cognitive development in adolescentsDiscuss social development in adolescentsAdolescence: the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood.The physical changes that occur at the start of adolescence result largely from the secretions of various hormones, and they affect virtually every aspect of an adolescent’s life.Not since infancy has development been so dramatic. Weight and height increase rapidly because of a growth spurt that typically begins around age 10 for girls and age 12 for boys.Adolescents may grow as much as 5 inches in one year.
25Physical DevelopmentPuberty: the period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, beginning at about age 11 or 12 for girls (start of menstruation) and 13 or 14 for boys (spermarche: first ejaculation)
26Moral and Cognitive Development Developmental psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg theorized that people move through a 3-level sequence of moral reasoning in a fixed order. However, he contended that few people ever reach the highest level of moral reasoning.
27Social DevelopmentErikson’s theory of psychosocial development: the last four stagesIdentity vs. role confusion (adolescence): a time of major testing to determine one’s unique qualities; an attempt to discover their identity (who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of)Intimacy vs. isolation (early adulthood): resolved positively if the person develops intimate relationships on physical, intellectual, and emotional levels
28Social Development Erikson’s theory (cont’d) Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood): taking stock of one’s contributions to family and society; resolved successfully if the person feels positive about the continuity of lifeEgo-integrity vs. despair (later adulthood until death): reviewing life’s accomplishments and failures; resolved successfully if one feels a sense of accomplishment and has no regretsMost young people go through adolescence without the stereotypical turmoil
29Social DevelopmentSuicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents in the U.S.Males are five times more likely to commit suicide than females, but females attempt suicide more oftenRate higher among whites than nonwhitesPossible causes: depression, social anxiety, family background, adjustment difficulties, parental conflict, alcohol and drug abuse
30Adulthood Learning Outcomes Explain physical development in adulthood Discuss social development in adulthoodState the impact of marriage, children, and divorce on familiesDiscuss the later years of adulthoodPsychologists generally agree that early adulthood begins around age 20 and lasts until about age 40 – 45, with middle adulthood beginning then and continuing until around age 65.Despite the enormous importance of these periods of life in terms of both the accomplishments that occur in them and their overall length (a total span of about 45 years), they have been studied less than has any other stage.
31Adulthood Learning Outcomes (cont’d) Explain the physical changes that occur in late adulthoodIdentify the cognitive changes that occur in late adulthoodDiscuss the social aspects of late adulthoodDescribe how people can adjust to death
32Physical DevelopmentMenopause: usually occurring in late 40s or early 50s, the period during which women stop menstruating and are no longer fertileSymptoms can be treated through hormone therapy (HT), replacing estrogen and progesterone, but it can be dangerous: increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and coronary heart diseaseFor most people, early adulthood marks the peak of physical health. From about 18 – 25 years of age, people’s strength is greatest, their reflexes are quicker, and their chances of dying from disease are quite slim. In addition, reproductive capabilities are at their highest level.During middle adulthood, people gradually become aware of changes in their bodies. People often experience weight gain, the sense organs become less sensitive, and reactions to stimuli are slower.The major biological change that occurs in middle adulthood pertains to reproductive capabilities. On average, during their late 40s or early 50s, women begin menopause, during which they stop menstruating and are no longer fertile.For men, the aging process during middle adulthood is somewhat more subtle. No male menopause exists and in fact, men remain fertile and are capable of fathering children until well into late adulthood.
33Social DevelopmentMidlife transition: for some, a time of questioning their lives, they are influenced by the idea that life will end & question past accomplishments; generally happens in early 40sSome experience a midlife crisis (dissatisfaction with life), but most go through middle age relatively smoothly
34Marriage, Children, and Divorce Average age of marriage is higher; more cohabitation before marriageAbout half of all first marriages end in divorceAlmost 75% of married women with school-age children are employed outside the home; 55% of those with children under age 6
35The Later Years: Growing Old Gerontology: the study of older adults & agingGerontologists focus on the period of life that starts around age 65. They are making important contributions to clarifying the capabilities of older adults. Their work is demonstrating that significant developmental processes continue even during old age.
36Physical Changes in Late Adulthood Genetic preprogramming theories of aging: human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction; after a certain time they are no longer able to divideWear-and-tear theories of aging: mechanical functions of the body stop working efficiently as you ageMany physical changes are brought about by the aging process. The most obvious are those in appearance: hair thinning and turning grey; skin wrinkling and folding, and sometimes a slight loss of height as the spine grows more fragile.More subtle changes also occur in the body’s biological functioning. For example, sensory capabilities decrease as a result of aging: vision, hearing, smell, and taste become less sensitive. Reaction time slows, and physical stamina changes.
37Cognitive ChangesFluid intelligence (information-processing skills such as memory, calculations, and analogy solving) shows decline in late adulthood, but crystallized intelligence (accumulation of information, skills, and strategies learned through experience) remain steadyMemory loss is not inevitable with aging
38Cognitive ChangesAlzheimer’s disease: progressive brain disorder that leads to gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities
39The Social World of Late Adulthood Disengagement theory of aging: aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levelsActivity theory of aging: successful aging means maintaining the interests and activities you had during middle ageLife review: process by which people examine and evaluate their livesJust as the view that old age predictably means mental decline has proved to be wrong, so has the view that late adulthood inevitably brings loneliness.People in late adulthood most often see themselves as functioning members of society, with only a small number reporting that loneliness is a serious problem.Late adulthood brings significant challenges. People who’ve spent their adult lives working enter retirement. Many people must face the death of their spouse. There are also significant changes in economic well-being.There is no single way to age successfully. People in late adulthood are not just marking time until death. Rather, old age is a time of continued growth and development, as important as any other period in life.
40Adjusting to DeathElisabeth Kubler-Ross’s five stages of dealing with one’s own impending deathDenial: resist the idea they are dyingAnger: angry at people in good health around them, at medical professionals, at GodBargaining: trying to postpone deathDepression: bargaining will not work; “preparatory grief” for their own deathAcceptance: made peace with themselves; usually unemotional and uncommunicative