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1 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. DevelopmentDevelopment Chapter 8

2 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Nature, Nurture, & Prenatal Development Learning Outcomes – Compare and contrast the influence of nature versus nurture – Describe developmental research techniques – Discuss prenatal development Learning Outcomes – Compare and contrast the influence of nature versus nurture – Describe developmental research techniques – Discuss prenatal development

3 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Nature, Nurture, & Prenatal Development Nature-nurture issue: the issue of the degree to which environment (nurture) and heredity (nature) influence behavior –No longer a question of nature versus nurture because both factors interact to produce developmental patterns and outcomes –Now we ask, how and to what degree do nature and nurture produce their effects? Nature-nurture issue: the issue of the degree to which environment (nurture) and heredity (nature) influence behavior –No longer a question of nature versus nurture because both factors interact to produce developmental patterns and outcomes –Now we ask, how and to what degree do nature and nurture produce their effects?

4 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Nature vs. Nurture Experimentally control genetic makeup of laboratory animals, then study environmental influences Identical twins (share 100% of their genetic makeup) and non-twin siblings raised apart: similarities as adults show importance of heredity Adopted children: similarities with biological children in same family show importance of environment Experimentally control genetic makeup of laboratory animals, then study environmental influences Identical twins (share 100% of their genetic makeup) and non-twin siblings raised apart: similarities as adults show importance of heredity Adopted children: similarities with biological children in same family show importance of environment

5 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Developmental Research Techniques Cross-sectional research: comparing people of different ages at the same point in time Longitudinal research: studying the same people as they age Sequential research: combination of cross- sectional and longitudinal; considers different age groups, examined at several points in time Cross-sectional research: comparing people of different ages at the same point in time Longitudinal research: studying the same people as they age Sequential research: combination of cross- sectional and longitudinal; considers different age groups, examined at several points in time

6 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Prenatal Development Basics of genetics – Chromosomes: rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information; 23 pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the mother and one from the father Genes Zygote: the new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm Basics of genetics – Chromosomes: rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information; 23 pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the mother and one from the father Genes Zygote: the new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm

7 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7

8 8 Prenatal Development Embryo: a developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs Fetus: a developing individual, from eight weeks after conception until birth Age of viability: the point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely (about 22 weeks) Embryo: a developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs Fetus: a developing individual, from eight weeks after conception until birth Age of viability: the point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely (about 22 weeks)

9 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Prenatal Development Sensitive/critical periods: during prenatal development, time when the fetus is particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli

10 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Genetic Influences on the Fetus Phenylketonuria (PKU): child cannot produce enzyme needed for normal development; causes intellectual disabilities Sickle-cell anemia: causes abnormally shaped red blood cells Down syndrome: zygote receives extra chromosome at moment of conception; one of the causes of mental retardation Phenylketonuria (PKU): child cannot produce enzyme needed for normal development; causes intellectual disabilities Sickle-cell anemia: causes abnormally shaped red blood cells Down syndrome: zygote receives extra chromosome at moment of conception; one of the causes of mental retardation

11 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Prenatal Environment Influences Teratogens: environmental agents (drugs, chemicals, etc.) that produce a birth defect Mother’s nutrition Mother’s illness Alcohol & nicotine use –Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol effects (FAE) Teratogens: environmental agents (drugs, chemicals, etc.) that produce a birth defect Mother’s nutrition Mother’s illness Alcohol & nicotine use –Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol effects (FAE)

12 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Infancy and Childhood Learning Outcomes – Describe the major competencies of newborns – Explain the milestones of physical, social, and cognitive development during childhood Learning Outcomes – Describe the major competencies of newborns – Explain the milestones of physical, social, and cognitive development during childhood

13 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 The Extraordinary Newborn Reflexes: automatic, involuntary responses to incoming stimuli –Neonate born with rooting, sucking, gag, startle, & Babinski reflexes Sensory development: neonates can follow moving objects within their field of vision, show some depth perception, discriminate facial expressions, recognize their mothers’ voices at 3 days old, and recognize different tastes and smells Reflexes: automatic, involuntary responses to incoming stimuli –Neonate born with rooting, sucking, gag, startle, & Babinski reflexes Sensory development: neonates can follow moving objects within their field of vision, show some depth perception, discriminate facial expressions, recognize their mothers’ voices at 3 days old, and recognize different tastes and smells

14 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Infancy through Middle Childhood Attachment: positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual, usually a caregiver (Harlow’s research with monkeys) – Classified as secure, avoidant, ambivalent, or disorganized-disoriented – Father’s role: nature of attachment is similar to mother’s, but type of play/interaction may be different (fathers engage in more physical activities, while mothers are more verbal) Attachment: positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual, usually a caregiver (Harlow’s research with monkeys) – Classified as secure, avoidant, ambivalent, or disorganized-disoriented – Father’s role: nature of attachment is similar to mother’s, but type of play/interaction may be different (fathers engage in more physical activities, while mothers are more verbal)

15 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Infancy through Middle Childhood Child care outside the home can be beneficial, especially for children from disadvantaged homes, if it is a high-quality program Parenting styles – Authoritarian: rigid, punitive, demand obedience, require a lot from their children – Permissive: relaxed or inconsistent direction, require little from their children Child care outside the home can be beneficial, especially for children from disadvantaged homes, if it is a high-quality program Parenting styles – Authoritarian: rigid, punitive, demand obedience, require a lot from their children – Permissive: relaxed or inconsistent direction, require little from their children

16 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Infancy through Middle Childhood Parenting Styles (cont’d) –Authoritative: firm, set limits, use reasoning, explain things, encourage independence –Uninvolved: show little interest, emotionally detached, believe parenting is only providing food, clothing, and shelter Specific kinds of parenting styles may, in part, be brought about by the child’s temperament (basic, innate disposition with which the child is born) Parenting Styles (cont’d) –Authoritative: firm, set limits, use reasoning, explain things, encourage independence –Uninvolved: show little interest, emotionally detached, believe parenting is only providing food, clothing, and shelter Specific kinds of parenting styles may, in part, be brought about by the child’s temperament (basic, innate disposition with which the child is born)

17 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Infancy through Middle Childhood Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development: change in our interactions and understanding of each other and our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society; passing through each stage necessitates resolution of a crisis or conflict –Trust vs. mistrust (birth – 1 ½): develop trust if physical and psychological needs are met –Autonomy vs. shame-and-doubt (1 – 3): develop autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development: change in our interactions and understanding of each other and our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society; passing through each stage necessitates resolution of a crisis or conflict –Trust vs. mistrust (birth – 1 ½): develop trust if physical and psychological needs are met –Autonomy vs. shame-and-doubt (1 – 3): develop autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged

18 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Figure 3

19 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Erikson’s Theory (cont’d) –Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 6): resolved positively if parents react positively to children’s attempts at independence –Industry vs. inferiority (6 – 12): resolved positively if child shows increased competency in social interactions and academic skills Cognitive development: the process by which a child’s understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience; intellectual development Erikson’s Theory (cont’d) –Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 6): resolved positively if parents react positively to children’s attempts at independence –Industry vs. inferiority (6 – 12): resolved positively if child shows increased competency in social interactions and academic skills Cognitive development: the process by which a child’s understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience; intellectual development

20 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Infancy through Middle Childhood Piaget’s theory of cognitive development –Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2): understanding comes from touching, sucking, chewing, and manipulating objects; around 9 months, develop object permanence (the awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight) –Preoperational stage (2 – 7): development of language and use of symbols; still use egocentric thought (views the world entirely from his or her own perspective) Piaget’s theory of cognitive development –Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2): understanding comes from touching, sucking, chewing, and manipulating objects; around 9 months, develop object permanence (the awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight) –Preoperational stage (2 – 7): development of language and use of symbols; still use egocentric thought (views the world entirely from his or her own perspective)

21 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Infancy through Middle Childhood Piaget’s theory (cont’d) –Concrete operational stage (7 – 12): loss of egocentric thinking, logical thought develops, but difficulty understanding abstract, hypothetical questions; beginning marked by understanding of conservation (amount, volume, or length of an object doesn’t change when its shape changes; ex.: amount of liquid in short, fat glass = amount in tall, skinny glass) –Formal operational stage (12 – adulthood): abstract, formal, logical thought Piaget’s theory (cont’d) –Concrete operational stage (7 – 12): loss of egocentric thinking, logical thought develops, but difficulty understanding abstract, hypothetical questions; beginning marked by understanding of conservation (amount, volume, or length of an object doesn’t change when its shape changes; ex.: amount of liquid in short, fat glass = amount in tall, skinny glass) –Formal operational stage (12 – adulthood): abstract, formal, logical thought

22 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Infancy through Middle Childhood Many psychologists believe changes in information processing (the way in which people take in, use, and store information) are how children develop their cognitive abilities –Metacognition: an awareness and understanding of one’s own cognitive processes Many psychologists believe changes in information processing (the way in which people take in, use, and store information) are how children develop their cognitive abilities –Metacognition: an awareness and understanding of one’s own cognitive processes

23 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Infancy through Middle Childhood Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development –Culture in which we are raised significantly affects cognitive development –Zone of proximal development (ZPD): the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own; if information falls within the ZPD, children can master it Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development –Culture in which we are raised significantly affects cognitive development –Zone of proximal development (ZPD): the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own; if information falls within the ZPD, children can master it

24 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Adolescence: Becoming an Adult Learning Outcomes – Summarize the major physical transitions that characterize adolescence – Explain moral and cognitive development in adolescents – Discuss social development in adolescents Learning Outcomes – Summarize the major physical transitions that characterize adolescence – Explain moral and cognitive development in adolescents – Discuss social development in adolescents

25 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Physical Development Puberty: the period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, beginning at about age 11 or 12 for girls (start of menstruation) and 13 or 14 for boys (spermarche: first ejaculation)

26 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Moral and Cognitive Development

27 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Social Development Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development: the last four stages –Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence): a time of major testing to determine one’s unique qualities; an attempt to discover their identity (who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of) –Intimacy vs. isolation (early adulthood): resolved positively if the person develops intimate relationships on physical, intellectual, and emotional levels Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development: the last four stages –Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence): a time of major testing to determine one’s unique qualities; an attempt to discover their identity (who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of) –Intimacy vs. isolation (early adulthood): resolved positively if the person develops intimate relationships on physical, intellectual, and emotional levels

28 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Social Development – Erikson’s theory (cont’d) – Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood): taking stock of one’s contributions to family and society; resolved successfully if the person feels positive about the continuity of life – Ego-integrity vs. despair (later adulthood until death): reviewing life’s accomplishments and failures; resolved successfully if one feels a sense of accomplishment and has no regrets Most young people go through adolescence without the stereotypical turmoil – Erikson’s theory (cont’d) – Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood): taking stock of one’s contributions to family and society; resolved successfully if the person feels positive about the continuity of life – Ego-integrity vs. despair (later adulthood until death): reviewing life’s accomplishments and failures; resolved successfully if one feels a sense of accomplishment and has no regrets Most young people go through adolescence without the stereotypical turmoil

29 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Social Development Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents in the U.S. –Males are five times more likely to commit suicide than females, but females attempt suicide more often –Rate higher among whites than nonwhites –Possible causes: depression, social anxiety, family background, adjustment difficulties, parental conflict, alcohol and drug abuse Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents in the U.S. –Males are five times more likely to commit suicide than females, but females attempt suicide more often –Rate higher among whites than nonwhites –Possible causes: depression, social anxiety, family background, adjustment difficulties, parental conflict, alcohol and drug abuse

30 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 AdulthoodAdulthood Learning Outcomes – Explain physical development in adulthood – Discuss social development in adulthood – State the impact of marriage, children, and divorce on families – Discuss the later years of adulthood Learning Outcomes – Explain physical development in adulthood – Discuss social development in adulthood – State the impact of marriage, children, and divorce on families – Discuss the later years of adulthood

31 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 AdulthoodAdulthood Learning Outcomes (cont’d) – Explain the physical changes that occur in late adulthood – Identify the cognitive changes that occur in late adulthood – Discuss the social aspects of late adulthood – Describe how people can adjust to death Learning Outcomes (cont’d) – Explain the physical changes that occur in late adulthood – Identify the cognitive changes that occur in late adulthood – Discuss the social aspects of late adulthood – Describe how people can adjust to death

32 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Physical Development Menopause: usually occurring in late 40s or early 50s, the period during which women stop menstruating and are no longer fertile –Symptoms can be treated through hormone therapy (HT), replacing estrogen and progesterone, but it can be dangerous: increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and coronary heart disease Menopause: usually occurring in late 40s or early 50s, the period during which women stop menstruating and are no longer fertile –Symptoms can be treated through hormone therapy (HT), replacing estrogen and progesterone, but it can be dangerous: increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and coronary heart disease

33 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 33 Social Development Midlife transition: for some, a time of questioning their lives, they are influenced by the idea that life will end & question past accomplishments; generally happens in early 40s Some experience a midlife crisis (dissatisfaction with life), but most go through middle age relatively smoothly Midlife transition: for some, a time of questioning their lives, they are influenced by the idea that life will end & question past accomplishments; generally happens in early 40s Some experience a midlife crisis (dissatisfaction with life), but most go through middle age relatively smoothly

34 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 34 Marriage, Children, and Divorce Average age of marriage is higher; more cohabitation before marriage About half of all first marriages end in divorce Almost 75% of married women with school- age children are employed outside the home; 55% of those with children under age 6 Average age of marriage is higher; more cohabitation before marriage About half of all first marriages end in divorce Almost 75% of married women with school- age children are employed outside the home; 55% of those with children under age 6

35 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 35 The Later Years: Growing Old Gerontology: the study of older adults & aging

36 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 36 Physical Changes in Late Adulthood Genetic preprogramming theories of aging: human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction; after a certain time they are no longer able to divide Wear-and-tear theories of aging: mechanical functions of the body stop working efficiently as you age Genetic preprogramming theories of aging: human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction; after a certain time they are no longer able to divide Wear-and-tear theories of aging: mechanical functions of the body stop working efficiently as you age

37 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 37 Cognitive Changes Fluid intelligence (information-processing skills such as memory, calculations, and analogy solving) shows decline in late adulthood, but crystallized intelligence (accumulation of information, skills, and strategies learned through experience) remain steady Memory loss is not inevitable with aging Fluid intelligence (information-processing skills such as memory, calculations, and analogy solving) shows decline in late adulthood, but crystallized intelligence (accumulation of information, skills, and strategies learned through experience) remain steady Memory loss is not inevitable with aging

38 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 38 Cognitive Changes Alzheimer’s disease: progressive brain disorder that leads to gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities

39 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 39 The Social World of Late Adulthood Disengagement theory of aging: aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels Activity theory of aging: successful aging means maintaining the interests and activities you had during middle age Life review: process by which people examine and evaluate their lives Disengagement theory of aging: aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels Activity theory of aging: successful aging means maintaining the interests and activities you had during middle age Life review: process by which people examine and evaluate their lives

40 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 40 Adjusting to Death Elisabeth Kubler-Ross’s five stages of dealing with one’s own impending death –Denial: resist the idea they are dying –Anger: angry at people in good health around them, at medical professionals, at God –Bargaining: trying to postpone death –Depression: bargaining will not work; “preparatory grief” for their own death –Acceptance: made peace with themselves; usually unemotional and uncommunicative Elisabeth Kubler-Ross’s five stages of dealing with one’s own impending death –Denial: resist the idea they are dying –Anger: angry at people in good health around them, at medical professionals, at God –Bargaining: trying to postpone death –Depression: bargaining will not work; “preparatory grief” for their own death –Acceptance: made peace with themselves; usually unemotional and uncommunicative


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