Presentation on theme: "Welcome back—only 117 total days until the national test and 92 school days until graduation. This is going to be a smokin’ semester!! To begin the spring."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome back—only 117 total days until the national test and 92 school days until graduation. This is going to be a smokin’ semester!! To begin the spring semester: Go over Fall Final exams Chapter 8 Review Exercise Tomorrow, we’ll begin Chapter 9
Chapter project (two parts): Interview a parent about YOUR personal Interview a parent about YOUR personal development as a baby: physically, intellectually, development as a baby: physically, intellectually, socially and morally. Determine 7-10 “highlights” socially and morally. Determine 7-10 “highlights” between birth and when you started kindergarten between birth and when you started kindergarten (i.e. your first words—what and when, your first (i.e. your first words—what and when, your first steps—age) steps—age) Interview a parent or grandparent about his/her life Interview a parent or grandparent about his/her life as an adult—how he/she has changed physically, as an adult—how he/she has changed physically, socially, intellectually, and emotionally, how socially, intellectually, and emotionally, how he/she feels about those changes, and how he/she he/she feels about those changes, and how he/she views his/her later life. views his/her later life. Summarize in a 2-3 page paper Summarize in a 2-3 page paper DUE DATE: Jan 25, 2010
Hi! We’re the Hitch twins, or, as Simoncini calls us, wombmates. We’re identical twins. That’s right, Caitlin. According to Bourchard, 80% of our similarities are hereditary. And as people who know us can tell you, we are very similar in our intelligence, temperament, gestures, posture and pace of speech.
But everyone who really knows us realizes that in many ways we are NOT identical. Right again, Caitlin. Our behavior is not always identical. And the older we have gotten, the less alike we have become. So true, Bailey; but because we look alike people often treat us alike—the text indicates that that fact may actually cause twins to behave alike.
Yeah, sure! But those of us who know you also note extraordinary similarities in your personalities, attitudes, facial expressions and temperament. That’s right, Tara, they are very much alike, although Caitlin is a much better driver—at least she didn’t back into the garage door ON HER WAY TO HER DRIVER’S TEST!!! Very funny! This from the girl who can’t walk across a room without tripping or running into something.
The specialized study of how an individual’s physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development occurs in sequential interrelated stages throughout the life cycle
Some researchers consider developmental psychology an applied research topic. Does anyone know the reason why? Researchers apply findings and theories from other areas of psychology to the specific topic of human development—for example, learning, memory or motivation Often-used research techniques: longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies Remembering back to Chapter 2, what research techniques do you think are most often used?
Longitudinal studies Study the same group at regular intervals over a period of years to determine if their behavior or feelings have changed and, if so, how. Example: study the blondecheerleaders every 2 years until 2029 to determine if ditzinesscontinues
Cross-Sectional Studies People are organized into groups that are cross- sections of the population. Then the groups are randomly sampled and the members of each group are surveyed, tested, or observed simultaneously. Example: age cross-sections TeenagersYoung Adults Elderly Middle-Aged
Cohort-sequential study—better data Take a cross section of the population, then follow each cohort or group for a short period. Less susceptible to bias; more accurate data
Identical twins: same genotype effects of heredity should show up more strongly. Fraternal twins: on average 50% of genes in common; studies of fraternal twins serve as a type of control group
Genes: contribute to intelligence, sexual orientation, temperament and impulsive orientation, temperament and impulsive behavior behavior
Continuity: change is gradual—children become more skillful in thinking, talking or acting in more skillful in thinking, talking or acting in much the same way that they grow taller much the same way that they grow taller Discontinuity: development is more abrupt— development can occur in bursts or stages development can occur in bursts or stages (the “terrible twos”); those stages define (the “terrible twos”); those stages define periods of life initiated by distinct transitions periods of life initiated by distinct transitions or changes in physical or psychological or changes in physical or psychological functioning—people go through the same functioning—people go through the same stages in the same order, but not stages in the same order, but not necessarily at the same rate. necessarily at the same rate.
Genetic links: sexual orientation; risky behavior; basic temperament and personality; basic temperament and personality; Huntington’s disease, depression, Huntington’s disease, depression, schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndrome schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndromeTourette’s syndromeTourette’s syndrome
To begin the next segment of this chapter, you will take on the roles of child psychologists. Take out a writing implement and some paper and be prepared to take notes on the films you are about to see. Record specific behaviors you note at the various ages shown. The Green Mile Rule is in effect—no discussion of these tapes outside of this classroom. Physical Physical Motor Motor Cognitive Cognitive Social Social Emotional Emotional Language Language
Peter—3 hours old; Niki—3 years old Peter—4 months old; Niki—3 years old Niki—1 year old Niki—18 months old Peter—2 years old; Niki—5 years old Niki—2 ½ years old; friends—2 ½ & 3 Peter—3 years old Peter—11 months old; Niki—4 years old
People learn faster and learn more in their early years than at any other time in their lives. Developmental psychology: the study of changes that occur as people grow up and older.
Differentiation: Differentiation: the process by which an embryo’s cells begin to specialize as components of particular organ systems
Embryonic stem cells: certain cells that, before differentiation, are capable of forming into any organ of the body
7-week old human embryo The embryonic path The embryonic path
250,000 new neurons per minute; 100 billion new neurons produced by birth
Birth: from total protection to a world of lights, sounds, touches and temperature extremes. Grasping reflex— stimulus of touch on palm of baby’s hand. Inherited, automatic, coordinated reflexes that help us survive.
Inherited, automatic, coordinated reflexes. Rooting reflex: if baby is touched anywhere near the mouth, move if baby is touched anywhere near the mouth, move head and mouth toward source of the touch. Part of the feeding process
Inherited, automatic, coordinated reflexes. Sucking reflex: baby baby can suck, breathe air and swallow milk twice a second without getting confused. Direct gazes toward bright patterns and faces—optimal focus of 12 inches; distance vision is poor (20/500)
Infancy Infancy: a period that lasts until approximately 18-24 months in age—when speech becomes well developed
A neuron transmits its impulses or messages to another neuron across the synapse by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters Examples: endorphin—inhibits pain; Acetylcholine—movement & memory Dopamine—learning, emotional arousal & movement movement SomaSoma
Social interaction skills: distinguish mother’s voice; associate caregiver with certain odors; quickly learn to manipulate parents (cooing, smiling, crying); imitate simple facial expressions
Synchronicity: close coordination between the gazing, vocalizing, touching and smiling of mothers and infants—babies respond and learn, but also send out messages to those willing to listen and love them
Emotional Development Konrad Lorenz—pioneer in the field. field. 1973 Nobel prize for medicine or physiology Used animals and their behavior to study human emotional development.
Emotional Development Discovered that infant geese become attached to their mothers in a sudden, virtually permanent learning process called imprinting. Within a few hours of hatching, follow first thing they see that moves; treat as their mother.
Emotional Development Lorenz--goslings learned most easily during the critical period: 13-16 hours after birth
Emotional Development Lorenz substituted himself or a toy goose, drug across the ground
Emotional Development Lorenz--goslings learned most easily during the critical period: 13-16 hours after birth If goslings had been imprinted with a human or toy, the goslings would prefer the human or toy company to other geese.
Mary Ainsworth Securely attached children: felt close to mothers, safe, and more willing to explore or tolerate a novel experience Insecurely attached children: react to strange situations with anxiety and ambivalence or with avoidance Most children (about 66%) were securely attached
Emotional Development Harry Harlow studied rhesus monkeys Who can remember Harlow’s experiment? Later experiments: monkeys raised without real mothers grew up with serious emotional problems.
Emotional Development: Harlow’s Experiments Would not play, mate, or defend themselves. When frightened by a strange human, would attack their own bodies rather than make threatening signs of aggression.
Emotional Development Babies begin to form an attach- ment to mothers or surrogate mothers at about 6 months. When they can distinguish one person from another and are beginning to develop object permanence
Emotional Development Attachment especially strong: 6 months to 3 years. Three years—child able to remember and imagine his/her mother and retain a relationship with her even if she is absent
Separation anxiety 10-12 months—upset when mother takes to someone’s house and leaves without them. Emotional Development
Theories differ on affects of maternal separation. One theory: children separated from mothers 6 months--3 years may never be able to form attachments to other people. Institutionalization—possible intellectual & psychological damage to the child.
Psychosocial dwarfism Psychosocial dwarfism and failure to thrive failure to thrive Psychosocial dwarfism failure to thrive Psychosocial dwarfism: The lack of a close, loving relationship in infancy can affect physical growth—slower growth and bone development Failure to thrive: lack of parental love and nurturing causes wasted-looking, withdrawn and apathetic infants
The Maturation Process The infant will generally: Lift head at 3 months Smile at 4 months Grasp objects at 5-6 months months
The Maturation Process Crawl at 8-10 months Pull self into standing position also at 8-10 position also at 8-10 months months Walk 3-4 months after pulling into a after pulling into a standing position standing position
Maturation process: internally internally programmed growth. Month Activity 0 Fetal posture 1 Chin up 2 Chest up 3 Reach and miss
Month Activity 4 Sit with support 5 Sit on lap; grasp object grasp object 6 Sit on high chair; grasp dangling object grasp dangling object 7 Sit alone
Month Activity 8 Stand with help 9 Stand holding furniture 10 Creep 11 Walk when led 12 Pull to stand by furniture furniture
Month Activity 13 Climb stairs 14 Stand alone 15 Walk alone
Remember, the maturational plan inside each child is unique. No two babies are exactly alike, and no two mature according to the same time table.
Saltation: alternation between active and inactive growth phases Several days showing no growth Several days showing no growth Sudden growth spurt (as much as Sudden growth spurt (as much as a half inch in 24 hours) a half inch in 24 hours) APGAR score APGAR score
Anna Mulrine, “Are Boys The Weaker Sex?” U. S. News and World Report, July 30, 2001 U. S. News and World Report, July 30, 2001
“Are Boys the Weaker Sex?” 70% of Ds and Fs70% of Ds and Fs Two thirds of “learning disabled” studentsTwo thirds of “learning disabled” students 90% of alcohol and drug violations90% of alcohol and drug violations 4/5 of crimes in juvenile court4/5 of crimes in juvenile court 80% of high school dropouts & ADD80% of high school dropouts & ADD diagnoses diagnoses 2007: universities—9.2 million women2007: universities—9.2 million women 6.9 million men 6.9 million men OHS Class of 2009 top 15: 9 G; 6 BOHS Class of 2009 top 15: 9 G; 6 B
“Are Boys the Weaker Sex?” Real biological differences making boys Real biological differences making boys More impulsiveMore impulsive More vulnerable to benign neglectMore vulnerable to benign neglect Less efficient classroom learnersLess efficient classroom learners Girls ahead of boys in almost every measure of well-being measure of well-being Average 11 th grade boy writes with Average 11 th grade boy writes with the proficiency of an 8 th grade girl the proficiency of an 8 th grade girl
“Are Boys the Weaker Sex?” Male fetus at greater risk of peril from Male fetus at greater risk of peril from almost all obstetric complications almost all obstetric complications By the time a baby boy is born—trailingBy the time a baby boy is born—trailing average girl developmentally by 6 weeks average girl developmentally by 6 weeks Boys more attuned and more sensitiveBoys more attuned and more sensitive than previously thought than previously thought
“Are Boys the Weaker Sex?” Brains—males less gray matter than Brains—males less gray matter than females; more white matter females; more white matter Females—thicker corpus callosums Females—thicker corpus callosums Two-lane highway vs. narrow path Two-lane highway vs. narrow path Females—more facile in verbal skills Females—more facile in verbal skills Boys—more white matter (excel at gross Boys—more white matter (excel at gross motor skills) motor skills) Male emotional brain—more primitive Male emotional brain—more primitive
Learning Do things that produce rewards and avoid doing things that produce punishments. Imitate other people Respond to the environment.
Intellectual Development Jean Piaget Swiss psychologist Studied intellectual development of children Most influential of child psychologists
Intellectual Development Intelligence, or the ability to understand, develops gradually as the child grows. Children aren’t “dumb” in the sense of lacking a given amount of information.
Intellectual Development Rather, they think a different way than older children and adults—they use a different kind of logic. Thus, intellectual develop- ment involves quantitative changes (growth in the amount of information)...
... as well as qualitative changes (differences in the manner of thinking.) Understanding the world involves the construction of schemas, or mental representations of the world.
Assimilation—we try to fit the world into our schema. Accommodation— change our schema to fit the characteristics of the world.
Intellectual Development Piaget: newborns have a set of ready-made responses: Blink in bright light Grasp objects Suck things put near their mouths Sequence: same; speed: variable
Piaget: four stages of cognitive development development Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years Thinking displayed in action action 18 months—understands concept of object permanence
Intellectual Development Object Permanence If you hide a toy of an infant, she acts as if it had ceased to exist—grabs whatever else she might find.
Intellectual Development If you hide a toy of a 7-12 month of a 7-12 month old, while she is watching, she will search for it, near where she saw you hide it. If you do more than once and hide it once behind your back, she will continue to search in the original place.
Intellectual Development Object Permanence If you hide a toy of a 12-18 month of a 12-18 month old, she will search in the last place she saw it. But if you try to conceal it as you pretend to hide it, the child will act surprised but continue to search in other places. She knows that it must be some- where.
Intellectual Development Object Permanence Latter step is major-- the child has the child has progressed from a stage where her own actions were “the center of the world” to one where she realizes that people and objects are independent of her actions.
Intellectual Development Object Permanence: “Things “Things continue to exist even though I cannot see or touch them.” When a child achieves object permanence, Piaget says she has begun to engage in representational thought.
Intellectual Development That sure is a cool car that our neighbors bought.
Representational thought: the child’s intelligence is no longer one of action only; the child can now picture (or represent) things in her mind. Piaget’s daughter and the temper tantrum— an excellent imitation using symbols.
Piaget: four stages of cognitive development development Preoperational Stage 2-7 years Beginning of symbolic representation representation First language; drawing of pictures that represent things pictures that represent things Problem solving: cannot do in head in head
Piaget: four stages of cognitive development development Preoperational Stage Egocentrism—self-centered focus Animistic thinking Centration Irreversibility
Piaget: four stages of cognitive development development Concrete Operational Stage 7-11 years Can think of several dimensions at same time Elementary arithmetic problems
Intellectual Development Principle of Conservation The principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed. Most children acquire around ages 5-7
Intellectual Development Principle of Conservation Children under 5 do not generally think about 2 dimensions They do not seem to understand that a change in width can be compensated for by a change in height
Intellectual Development Principle of Conservation Children 7 and older will be able to determine that the second jar contains the same amount as the first.
Between 5 & 12, children develop a working knowledge of the world— cognitive advancement. Intellectual Development But, their thinking is very “concrete”—must physically work out problems—can’t solve in their heads or use abstract reasoning.
Other issues in intellectual development Sexual identity 4-5 years—boys want to play with boys; girls with girls 4 years—children believe that people can change their sex by wearing clothes designed for the other sex & similar external changes
Socialization Learning the rules of behavior of the culture in which you are born and grow up in. Acceptable and unacceptable behavior in living with others.
Socialization Some social rules are clear and inflexible. Example: incest Most social rules: room for individual decisions or gray areas between right and wrong. Some rules change from situation to situation
Socialization Some rules apply to certain categories of people (boys & Girls) Children must learn the rules of society and when to apply them
Socialization The second dimension of sociali- zation: acquiring an identity as a member of a particular society and as an individual
Socialization The third dimension of socialization is learning to live with other people and with yourself Others have rights You have limits
Theory of Mind: Theory of Mind: an awareness that other people’s behavior may be influenced by people’s behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one’s own—those mental processes from one’s own—those mental processes underlie behavior underlie behavior
Smiling Essential to human communication— the baby’s first smile is probably generated automatically by genetically controlled processes; smiles are signs of positive feelings and are also due to expectations of others
Jerome Kagan’s theory of temperament temperament Temperament is an individual’s characteristic manner of characteristic manner of behavior or reaction—strong behavior or reaction—strong genetic basis genetic basis Ten-fifteen percent of babies are born bold or born shy; because of the baby’s bold or born shy; because of the baby’s temperament, people are less likely to temperament, people are less likely to interact and be playful with a shy baby, interact and be playful with a shy baby, accentuating the child’s initial disposition accentuating the child’s initial disposition
The Four Parenting Styles and Their Effects Authoritative: Authoritative: children: confident, self-reliant, enthusiastic, happier, less enthusiastic, happier, less troublesome, more successful troublesome, more successful Parents tend to take a more involved, interactive role, forming a stronger social-emotional attachment with children vis-à-vis parents using other styles
Mixed messages of day care Most children thrive intellectually and socially; poor quality facilities: children tend to be aggressive, depressed, maladjusted—generally poorest, most disorganized, most highly stressed families
Gender differences in socialization Play: boys more aggressive than girls; girls: small, cooperative groups; boys: larger groups with hierarchical structure with frequent aggressive behavior
Freud & Psychosocial Development All children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. Controlling urges leads to a sense of right and wrong. Boys & girls differ in development
Freud & Psychosocial Development First years of life boys and boys and girls: similar experiences girls: similar experiences Erotic pleasure through the mouth: sucking on mother’s breast Weaning—period of frustration. Child first experiences not getting what he/she wants The Oral Stage
Freud & Psychosocial Development Stage 2: Anal Stage of development Anus: source of erotic pleasure Child enjoys holding in or pushing out feces Toilet training curbs freedom; child learns social control Failure to resolve: anal retentiveness; an obsession with control and order
Freud & Psychosocial Development Stage 3: Phallic Stage Major conflict: ages 3-5 Child discovers he/she can obtain pleasure through genitals Child becomes aware of differences between genders
Freud & Psychosocial Development Rivalry established between child and parent of same gender for affections of parent of opposite gender Unconscious struggle struggle
Freud & Psychosocial Development Son for mother: Oedipal conflict conflict Oedipus Rex Hates, but also fears, dad To prevent punishment (castration) the boy buries sexual feelings & tries to emulate the father
Freud & Psychosocial Development Boy’s process: identification with the aggressor—assumes the father’s values and moral principles As he learns to behave like a man, he internalizes his father’s morality Father’s voice: voice of conscience
Girls experience Electra Complex Freud & Psychosocial Development Wants to possess father and exclude mother exclude mother To escape punishment and possess father, she begins to identify with her mother
Freud & Psychosocial Development Girls experience mother’s triumphs and failures as if her own Experiences penis envy: suspects that her mother has removed the penis she once had. To make up for this “deficiency,” desires to marry a man like dad.
Freud & Psychosocial Development Stage 4: Latency Stage Age 5 Sexual desires pushed into background—explore world and learn new skills Sublimation: redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks impulses into learning tasks
Freud & Psychosocial Development How the child resolves the Oedipal/ Electra complex influences his/her relationships with opposite gender throughout life.
Freud & Psychosocial Development Stage 5: Genital Stage Adolescence Equal satisfaction giving and receiving pleasure and receiving pleasure Freud: Adolescence = completion of development of development
Erik Erikson Socialization is neither so sudden nor so emotionally violent as Freud claims Psychosocial develop- ment—social approval— just as important as a child’s sexual and aggressive urges
Erik Erikson Development is a lifelong process People develop depending on how other people respond to their efforts Develop sense of autonomy if efforts are applauded; doubts value of achievements if ignored or punished
Erik Erikson Eight sequential stages of psychosocial development Age 0-1: Trust vs. mistrust Age 1-3: Autonomy vs. doubt/shame Age 3-6: Initiative vs. guilt Age 6-12: Competence vs. Inferiority
Transition from childhood to adulthood... adulthood... involves changes in patterns of reasoning and moral thinking, and adjustments in personality and sexual behavior.
There certainly are, Joycelyn. The main ones are those of G. Stanley Hall and Margaret Mead. Hall (1904): Adolescence is a transitional stage of life; a time of “storm and stress.” Teens are marginal beings, confused, troubled, and highly frustrated. Uh, Simoncini, are there actually psychological theories of adolescence?
Margaret Mead In some cultures, adolescence is a highly enjoyable time of life and not at all marked by storm and stress. She proposed that storm and stress were byproducts of an industrialized society Most psychologists agree that there is some stress during adolescence. Havinghurst—must master many developmental tasks (p. 95)
Watch the following clip from the 1985 commercial film, The Breakfast Club. Record the themes discussed in the scene. Are they themes of “storm and stress?” Be prepared to discuss if they are similar to issues faced by teens in Oakdale in 2008.
So, in this section we shall study the various types of adolescent development: physical, sexual, cognitive, moral, identity, and social and look, in depth, into some key problems facing teenagers today.
Physical growth End of childhood: Puberty Puberty (sexual maturation) Hormones Trigger a series of internal and external changes and external changes Males/females: different growth patterns patterns
Some cultures: children move directly into adulthood through rituals. Rights of passage American culture: acquiring a driver’s license or high school graduation
Boys Age 12: pubic hair and larger genitals and larger genitals Ages 12-13—first ejaculation (spermarche) ejaculation (spermarche) Growth spurt: 24-27 months later than girls—lasts 3 years longer than girls—lasts 3 years longer
Boys’ Secondary Sex Characteristics Lose fat/gain muscle Voices deepen Facial, leg, chest hair Time of greatest physical difference between boys and girls
Girls Age 10—begin to grow Fat tissue develops before growth spurt. As they get older, they retain As they get older, they retain the fat tissue, and even add to it. the fat tissue, and even add to it.
Girls Grow 2-3.5 inches Breasts and hips fill out out Growth of pubic hair Usually between 11-15: menarche—first menstrual period Within 12-18 months, periods will become regular—capable of conceiving a child
Puberty can be awkward time for both boys and girls. Hands and feet may be too large for rest of the body Asynchrony—condition of uneven growth or maturation of bodily parts
Adolescents tend to be desperate for peer acceptance. Conform to peer ideals of dress, how to act, and how to look I feel so ugly. Me too. Hey! We’re not alone: 44% of American girls and 23% of boys feel ugly. Strong correlation between a negative body image and feelings of depression.
What teen girls tend to look most for in boys (according to research) Intelligence Attractiveness Ability to hold a conversation conversation
What teen boys tend to look most for in girls (according to research) AttractivenessFriendliness Intelligence
Teens of both genders tend to be sensitive about traits they consider sex-inappropriate Boys: “underdeveloped” genitalia or fatty breasts; or fatty breasts; Girls: “underdeveloped” breasts or dark facial hair dark facial hair Individual differences in growth significantly affect personality of young adolescents.
Research indicates that boys who mature early are at an advantage.
Later-maturing boys tend to be at a disadvantage—losing self-confidence, often with feelings of inadequacy. Some withdraw or rebel Mountain man Kyle; note lack of facial hair and baby face.
Effects of late maturing in males often last well into adulthood Research: early maturing boys have higher occupational and social status compared to those who matured later. Situation lasts into the forties
Opposite situation for girls Girls who mature early may feel embarrassed rather than proud of their height and figure at first. Some date older boys and become bossy with peers Later-maturing girls tend to be less quarrelsome and tend to get along with peers more easily.
Why does physical growth have such powerful psychological effects? Theory of the self-fulfilling prophecy Later-maturing people may believe they do not meet culture’s ideal and, therefore, may not pursue success as doggedly. Belief actually brings about failure the person feared.
Piaget: four stages of cognitive development development Formal Operational Stage 11-adult Thinking: more abstract and hypothetical Able to consider many alternative solutions to problems solutions to problems Contemplate future; form values
Profound physical changes High levels of estrogen and testosterone and testosterone Frontal lobes: remodeling: newcircuits
Profound physical changes Because of those physical changes, we tend to experience increases in sensation-seeking and risk- taking behaviors. That’s right, Pete. We also have an increasing preoccupation with our body images, sex and social-emotional issues.
Adolescence: Identity vs. role confusion Identity vs. role confusion Erik Erikson I’m comfort- able with who I am. I’m so confused!!!
Identity Development According to Erikson, building an identity is a task that is unique to adolescence To achieve some sense of themselves, teens must go through an identity crisis: a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
The task of a teen is to become a unique individual with a valued sense of self in society Adolescents need to organize their needs, abilities, talents, interests, background, culture, peer demands, etc., to find a way to express themselves through an identity in a socially acceptable way.
What do you think a major criticism of Erikson’s theory would be? Crisis is not the normal Crisis is not the normal state of affairs for teens. state of affairs for teens. Crises that do occur are Crises that do occur are most often triggered by external factors, such as a divorce or moving, rather than internal, identity upheaval
Cognitive Development Thinking patterns characteristic of adults emerge Respond to hypothetical questions understand abstract principles that deal with analogies & methphors Deal with overpowering emotional feelings through rationalization Process where individual seeks to explain an often unpleasant emotion or behavior in a way that will preserve his/her self-esteem
Cognitive Development Variations in cognitive maturity Some are more introspective Egocentrism—tendency to be overly concerned with sudden changes in lives OK, in my last speech, I didn’t argue my main point well enough. The next time, I’ll try a different approach.
Cognitive Development Some can develop a sense of self-efficacy: a sense that they possess an internal locus of control—the belief that one can control events in his/her life through his/her actions Changes in thinking patterns usually accompanied by changes in personality and social interactions Become idealistic; grow rebellious
Messiah Complex: believe can Save the world from evil Impatient with adult generation’s failures David Elkind (1984) described some problems stemming from teen immaturity coupled with the development of abstract thought processes
David Elkind (1984) Finding fault with authority figures Argumentativeness Indecisiveness Apparent hypocrisy Self-consciousness Invulnerability
Social Development While families are very important in teenage development, one of the principal developmental tasks for teens is becoming independent of their families. Can often lead to crises, not the least of which is a teen’s unpredictablebehavior
Peers are very important in teenage social development Trust peers not to treat like children Friends help teens define themselves High school groups are important Fairly rigid hierarchy: everyone knows who belongs to which group and what people in that group do with their time
Belonging to a clique—a group within a group --is very important to most --is very important to most teens because it fills a need for closeness with others and gives the teen a means of defining herself/himself
Cliques may help teens achieve self-confidence, develop a sense of independence, clarify values, and experiment with new roles; but one draw back is, due to a fear of being disliked, a teen may move toward conformity:...acting in accordance with some specified authority, often the glue that holds a peer group together Peers tend to set standards on matters such as fashion & tastes in music
But in basic matters (religion, marriage, politics, etc.) teens tend to accept their parents’ beliefs and follow their advice. Some basic values (sexual behavior & alcohol use, for example): some differences, but they change as teens become adults/parents.
Peer groups do not tend to pose threats to parental authority Teens of both sexes tend to choose friends with values close to those of their parents; so peer groups aid the teen in making the transition from dependent child to independent adult.
Judith Rich Harris (1998) peer groups, not parents, teach children how to behave in the world. So, the parents’ main influence over the child’s development is in providing the environment in which children meet peers. Many psychologists disagree with Harris claiming there is a strong relationship between parenting styles and social development of youth
James Marcia (1966): teens struggle with crisis and commitment in four different ways: Identity moratorium adolescents: Identity moratorium adolescents: seriously consider issues but no seriously consider issues but no commitment commitment Identity foreclosure adolescents: firm Identity foreclosure adolescents: firm commitments on issues based on commitments on issues based on suggestions of others suggestions of others
James Marcia (1966): teens struggle with crisis and commitment in four different ways: Identity confused or diffused teens: Identity confused or diffused teens: not yet given any serious thought to making decisions and have no clear sense of identity Identity achievement adolescents: Identity achievement adolescents: considered many possible identities and have freely committed themselves to occupations and other important life matters
For some, adolescence can be a time of moderate to great difficulty. Two of those difficulties deal with sex, on one hand, and life in general on the other. We are now going to study those issues in depth over the next two days. First, we are going to discuss Anna Mulrine’s article “Risky Business,” (U. S. News and World Report, May 27, 2002)
Yummy! I don’t care about the risks—she is HOT!!! How much can I tease Evan right now? The GOOD couple!!!
Key Points from Mulrine Article Kids from all walks of life are having sex Kids from all walks of life are having sex at younger ages: 1 in 10 reports losing at younger ages: 1 in 10 reports losing virginity before 13 virginity before 13 16% of high school sophomores: 4+ 16% of high school sophomores: 4+ sexual partners sexual partners 1 in 4 sexually active teens: STD 1 in 4 sexually active teens: STD 20% of sexually active girls 15-19 get 20% of sexually active girls 15-19 get pregnant each year pregnant each year
Key Points from Mulrine Article Girls 15-19: higher rates of gonorrhea Girls 15-19: higher rates of gonorrhea than any other age group—gonorrhea than any other age group—gonorrhea of the throat is one variant of the throat is one variant ½ of teens ages 13-19 have had oral sex ½ of teens ages 13-19 have had oral sex Early initiation into sexual behaviors is Early initiation into sexual behaviors is taking a toll on teens’ mental health— taking a toll on teens’ mental health— dependency, depression, lack of goals dependency, depression, lack of goals Less intercourse; but many don’t view Less intercourse; but many don’t view other sexual behaviors as real sex other sexual behaviors as real sex
Key Points from Mulrine Article 24% of teens consider anal sex as 24% of teens consider anal sex as abstinent behavior abstinent behavior Early sex and self-esteem are linked; but Early sex and self-esteem are linked; but opposite effects on boys and girls: boys opposite effects on boys and girls: boys doing what society expects; girls—a doing what society expects; girls—a sign of bad behavior sign of bad behavior Pledges of abstinence: delay age of Pledges of abstinence: delay age of sexual debut by 18 months, but when sexual debut by 18 months, but when those people did have sex, less likely to those people did have sex, less likely to use contraception use contraception
Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg—six stages of moral development Stage 1: Egocentricity—do not consider other people’s points consider other people’s points of view; no sense of right & of view; no sense of right & wrong wrong Main concern: avoiding punishment
Kohlberg & Moral Development Stage 2: Marketplace Orientation Help someone if he helps you; hurt someone if he hurts you hurt someone if he hurts you Stage 3: Acute sensitivity to what other people want and think— other people want and think— want social approval; they apply want social approval; they apply rules of others literally & rigidly rules of others literally & rigidly
Kohlberg & Moral Development Stage 4: Law and Order Law=moral rule—obeyed because of a strong belief in established authority Moral thinking at this stage is very rigid; many people remain at Stage 4 their entire lives
Kohlberg & Moral Development Stage 4: Law and Order You big jerk! Remember what Simoncini says: “No means no!”
Kohlberg & Moral Development Stage 5: Main concern—is a law fair or just? Laws are never absolute; must change as society changes Stage 6: Acceptance of ethical principles that apply to all. The Golden Rule: moral laws can’t be changed—more important than any written law
Those who get past Stage IV Law=moral rule—obeyed because of a strong belief in established authority adolescence is a period of the most profound moral development Kohlberg & Moral Development
Reaching Kohlberg’s higher levels of moral thinking involves the ability to abstract—to see a situation from another’s viewpoint. That is why such moral development tends to occur in adolescence, when individuals gain the capacity for formal operations thinking. But (Kohlberg & Tunel, 1971) only about 1/10 teens actually show higher levels of moral reasoning
Overall, psychologists agree that a person’s moral development depends on many factors, especially the kind of relationship that the individual has with his or her parents or significant others.
Criticizing Kohlberg Kohlberg’s higher stages have not been found in all cultures—the emergence of Stages 5 and 6 appears to be associated with high levels of verbal ability and formal education Carol Gilligan (1982): Kohlberg’s theory has a male bias and ignores uniquely feminine conceptions of morality—for women morality is embedded in social relationships and personal caring, indicating a plateau at Stage 3
To begin our study of adulthood and old age, we are going to watch a film clip from the 1991 film City Slickers, about the mid-life crisis in men. Observe the characters Ed, Phil and Mitch and take notes about how each is dealing with middle age.
Next, we are going to take a survey to see how much you know about adulthood. Answer True or False to the following 10 questions. 1. Older people are more likely than younger people to attend church. younger people to attend church. 2. Older people are more cautious & less likely to make risky decisions less likely to make risky decisions than younger people. than younger people. 3. As people age, they tend to become more alike. become more alike. 4. Older people have more difficulty than younger people in adapting to than younger people in adapting to a changing environment. a changing environment. 5. A decrease in life satisfaction is usually experienced by older people. usually experienced by older people. 6. The majority of people over 65 live in nursing-home type institutions. in nursing-home type institutions. 7. Mental disorders occur more frequently among older people than frequently among older people than among younger people. among younger people. 8. Depression is more common in older people than in younger people. older people than in younger people. 9. Decreasing intelligence as measured by IQ tests and other measured by IQ tests and other measures of cognitive functions is measures of cognitive functions is one of the inevitable changes that one of the inevitable changes that occur with age. occur with age. 10. Aging of the brain leads the way for deterioration of other bodily for deterioration of other bodily systems and functions. systems and functions. Assume “younger” as under 65 and “older” as past the 65 th birthday.
You recently interviewed a significant adult in your life. Looking at the chart below, and recalling things that individual told you, let’s briefly discuss what happens to adults the older they get. AgeStrengthAppearanceHealthSensesIntellectEmotionsPersonalityOther 20s 30s 40s 50s
Next, we are going to watch a film clip from the 1995 commercial film, Father of the Bride II. Observe the characters George and Nina and be prepared to record your thoughts on how they deal with the mid-life transition.
Erik Erikson Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. isolation Intimacy: capacity to make a full commitment to another person; must resolve the conflict between wanting to establish closeness to another and fearing the vulnerability and risks closeness can bring
Challenging Erikson’s sequence Trend of living together beforeTrend of living together before marriage marriage Struggles with identity issuesStruggles with identity issues Multiple marriagesMultiple marriages Divorce rate is 4 times Divorce rate is 4 times greater than that 50 years ago greater than that 50 years ago Cohabitation rather than marriageCohabitation rather than marriage
Factors in high divorce rate Seeking intimacy before resolving identitySeeking intimacy before resolving identity Unrealistic expectations:Unrealistic expectations:Partners What constitutes What constitutes ideal marriage and ideal marriage and family structure family structure
Factors of modern day marriages See as partners and friendsSee as partners and friends Less likely to feel constrained byLess likely to feel constrained by old social stereotypes (male boss; old social stereotypes (male boss; female doing “women’s work”) female doing “women’s work”) Peer marriagesPeer marriages Key: communication—both feelKey: communication—both feel free to openly express hopes & free to openly express hopes & fears fears Life-long works in progressLife-long works in progress
John Gray, Ph.D. Copyright 1992, HarperCollinsPublishers, New York, NY “The classic guide to understanding the opposite (gender).” And remember, everyone, Dr. Gray’s work is a theory; but one based on years of research.
OK, you psychology students. What is the most frequently expressed complaint that women have about men? Dr. Gray, that’s an easy one: men don’t listen. When I want empathy, he thinks I want solutions.
Miss Becky, that is exactly what my research has discovered. OK, then, what is the most frequently expressed complaint men have about women? Dr. Gray, I believe it is that women are always trying to change us men.
Hey! We feel responsible for assisting you guys grow—to help you improve the way you do things. I, an open-minded person, appreciate that point. Research, however, shows that while women think they are nurturing us, men feel that women are trying to control them. What men really want is acceptance.
Both Mr. and Mrs. Simoncini are right in their points. So how can we solve those two problems? Well, we must first understand why men offer solutions and women seek to improve. To do that, we need to explore life on both planets. Let’s first head to Mars.
Martians value power, competency, efficiency, and achievement. They like to do things to improve themselves and develop their power and skills. A man’s sense of self is defined through his ability to achieve results.
So when a woman innocently shares upset feelings or explores out-loud the problems of her day… …a man mistakenly assumes she is looking for some advice. Once he has offered a solution, however, and she continues to be upset, it becomes increasingly difficult for him to listen because his solution is being rejected and he feels increasingly useless.
Now we’ll travel to Venus; and we’ll find that Venusians have different values from Martians. Venusians value love, beauty, communication, and relation- ships. They spend a lot of time supporting, helping and nurturing one another.
A woman’s sense of self is defined through her feelings and the quality of her relationships. That’s so true, Dr. Gray. We Venusians are more concerned with living together in harmony, community and loving cooperation. Communication is of primary importance. To share personal feelings is much more important than achieving goals and success.
Wow!, Dr. Gray. That’s hecka hard for a guy to understand. I know it is, Pete. Just think of the difference this way: men are goal oriented, while women are relationship oriented—they are more concerned with expressing their goodness, love and caring.
Words Women Use Fine: the word women use to end an argument when they are right and the man needs to shut up. Five Minutes: if she is getting dressed, this is half an hour; 5 minutes is only five minutes if you have just been given 5 more minutes to watch the game before helping out around the house. Nothing: this is the calm before the storm. It means “something” and the man should be on his toes. Arguments that begin with “nothing” usually end in “fine.”
Words Women Use Go ahead: this is a dare, not permission; Guys: DON’T DO IT!!! Loud sigh: although not actually a word, the loud sigh is often misunderstood by men. A loud sigh means she thinks you are an idiot and wonders why she is wasting her time standing here and arguing with you over “nothing.”
That’s OK: this is one of the most dangerous statements that a woman can make to a man. “That’s OK” means that she wants to think long and hard before deciding how and when you will pay for your mistake. Thanks: This is the least used of all words in the female vocabulary. If a woman is thanking you, do not question it. Just say: “You’re welcome” and back slowly out of the room.
Note the happy couple to my left (your right.) By paying attention to my theories you will have a better chance of love like theirs NOT turning into the following story.
Erik Erikson Middle Age: Generativity vs. Stagnation Stagnation Generativity: desire to use one’s accumulated wisdom to guide future generations Stagnation: hangs on to the past, becomes preoccupied with health, or is bitter about his life’s direction
Erik Erikson Later Adulthood: Ego Integrity v. despair Increasing awareness of one’s own mortality and the changes in one’s body, behavior, and social roles will set the stage for late adulthood; Ego integrity: ability to look back on life without regrets and enjoy a new sense of wholeness Despair: futility, self-destruction due to unfulfilled aspirations
Developmental Sequence Model 0-17: Childhood and adolescence 17-22: Early Adult Transition
Developmental Sequence Model—Early Adult Era 22-28—Entering the Adult World 28-30—Age 30 Transition 33-44: Settling down
Developmental Sequence Model—Middle Adult Era 40-45—Mid-Lifetransition 45-50—EnteringMiddleAdulthood 50-55 Age 50 Trans. 55-60: Culmination of Middle Adulthood
Developmental Sequence Model—Late Adult Era 60-65: Late Adult Transition 65 Late Adult Era What happens to former high school psychology teachers
Three major eras: 17-40: Early adulthood 40-60: Middle adulthood 60 on: Late adulthood
22-28: Novice in adult world Resolve the conflict between the need to explore options of the adult world and the need to establish a stable life structure.
The Age 30 Crisis: a major transition Many questions about the choices of a marriage partner, career, and life goals are reopened. Begins settling down, carving his niche in society and Becoming One’s Own Man (BOOM phase).
Age 40: Mid-life transition “What have I done with my life?” life?” “What have I accomplished?” “What do I still wish to accomplish?” Relationship with wife becomes a significant factor—have they grown together or apart?
Late 40s: true adulthood can be achieved. More sensitive; more tolerant; willing to balance need for friends and need for privacy. But can also be a time of extreme frustration and unhappiness
Far less research on women’s mid-life development Many welcome more personal freedom Many go back to college, re-enter the workforce, or begin new careers. For many, a time of For many, a time of opportunity; not one of crisis opportunity; not one of crisis
Tend to be more conscious of aging process than men Often must adjust to a different self-image: less attractive Empty nest syndrome—departure of the last child. Many reorganize their lives by focusing on new interests and activities.
Some, however, do not experience a sense of new freedom Women 2-6 times more likely than men to suffer from middle-aged depression. Some experience a sense of loss and personal worthlessness Can be exacerbated by menopause
By: Bernadine Healy, M.D. U. S. News and World Report
Thanks to Anna Hild Class of 2005 Itchy, Forgetful, Sweaty, Sleepy, Bloated, Bitchy & Psycho The Seven Dwarfs of Menopause
Current female life expectancy: 80 Current female life expectancy: 80 Menopause: when women stop Menopause: when women stop menstruating menstruating Disappearance of a woman’s eggs from ovaries eggs from ovaries Baby girl: 2 million immature eggs Baby girl: 2 million immature eggs 400 Menstrual cycles in life By 12 (menarche): 300,000-600,000 Late 30s: 25,000
Average age of menopause: 51 Average age of menopause: 51 Range of ages: 45-55 Range of ages: 45-55 Smoking: comes 1-2 years sooner Meat & alcohol: later menopause Hypothalamus: “cascade of neuro- Hypothalamus: “cascade of neuro- hormonal events” hormonal events” Unpredictable hot flashes (1-2 years) Disturbances in sleep
Changes to the body: Breasts become less firm Breasts become less firm Fat redistributes to abdomen Fat redistributes to abdomen Skin thins Skin thins Bones lose great amounts of calcium Bones lose great amounts of calcium Cardiovascular system—prone to Cardiovascular system—prone to hardening of the arteries, stroke hardening of the arteries, stroke and heart attack and heart attack Possible affect on brain (Alzheimer’s) Possible affect on brain (Alzheimer’s)
When people with terminal illnesses learn about them, they and their families must cope with a truth that many of us do not want to face. Elizabeth Kulber-Ross (1969) studied how the terminally ill react to their impending deaths
Kubler-Ross’s studies led to the establishment of thanatology—the study of death and dying. She identified five stages of psychological adjustment. Stage 1: Denial First reaction to news is shock, numbness, then denial
Kubler-Ross Model Stage 2: Anger “Why me?” Likely to alienate themselves from others—no one can relieve their anger.
Kubler-Ross Model Stage 3: Bargaining Change attitude and try to bargain with fate May try to make a bargain with God This stage is relatively short
Kubler-Ross Model Stage 4: Depression Become aware of losses they are incurring...... and of the losses that are to come—everybody and everything Helpful for others to let these people express their sadness
Kubler-Ross Model Stage 5: Acceptance Recognition that the struggle is over—sense of calm In some cases, the approach of death feels peaceful or appropriate
Kubler-Ross Model Not all terminal patients progress through all of the stages of the Kubler-Ross Model—some die in the denial stage: some can’t psychologically get past denial; for others, the disease proceeds too fast
Kubler-Ross Model An addendum to the Kubler-Ross model in light of the 2005 Terri Schiavo situation
Book written by: Mitch Albom Movie directed by: Mick Jackson
Professor of Sociology and Psychology at Brandeis University, Waltham, MA Morrie Schwartz
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig’s Disease What is ALS?
ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that attacks nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually lead to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ability of the brain to initiate and control muscle movement is lost. Therefore in the later stages of the disease, patients become totally paralyzed.
For more information about ALS, Log on to The ALS Association Website www.alsa.org www.alsa.orgwww.alsa.org Morrie Schwartz wrote several books His disease and his wisdom made famous by the book: Tuesdays With Morrie: an old man, a young man, and life’s greatest Lesson, by Mitch Albom
Albom’s book made into the movie: Oprah Winfrey Presents: Tuesdays With Morrie, in 1999, directed by Mick Jackson and starring Jack Lemon and Hank Azaria
Assignment: write a reaction to Oprah Winfrey Presents: Tuesdays With Morrie, describing how you believe the movie was or was not a good encapsulation of what we learned in our study of developmental psychology. Ensure that your essay includes references to specific issues or scenes from the film. One page; due tomorrow.