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Ch 12 - 1 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 12 - 1 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Life-Span Development 1.Prenatal Development 2.Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood 3.Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood 4.Social Development in Infancy and Childhood 5.Development of Gender Roles 6.Moral Development 7.Adolescence 8.Adulthood and Old Age

3 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Prenatal Development  Stages of Prenatal Development  Threats to Normal Prenatal Development

4 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Stages of Prenatal Development PhaseApproximate AgeHighlights PrenatalConception - birthRapid physical growth InfancyBirth - 2 yrsMotor development Childhood1 ½ - 12 yrsAbstract reasoning Adolescence yrsIdentity crisis Adulthood20 – 65 yrsLove, marriage, career Old Age65 yrs to deathReflection on life’s work

5 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Differentiation and development of the sex organs F 12.1

6 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Threats to Normal Prenatal Development  Malnutrition  Teratogens  Medications  Cigarette smoke  Alcohol  Narcotics and Psychoactive drugs

7 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood  Motor Development  Perceptual Development

8 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Motor Development: Milestones F Adapted from Shirley, M. M. (1933). The first two years: Vol. 2. Intellectual development. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

9 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Perceptual Development: Vision F 12.3 From Salapatek, P. (1975). Pattern perception in early infancy. In Infant Perception: From Sensation to Cognition, Vol 1: Basic Visual Processes, edited by L. B. Cohen and P. Salapatek. New York: Academic Press. Copyright © Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

10 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Cognitive Development in Childhood  The Importance of a Responsive Environment  The Work of Jean Piaget  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development  Applying Information-Processing Models to Cognitive Development

11 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior The Importance of a Responsive Environment First PhaseSecond Phase Group A Head turning causes mobile to move Babies learn to move head Head turning causes mobile to move Babies continue to move head Group B Mobile remains stationaryHead turning causes mobile to move Babies do not learn to move head Group C Mobile moves intermittently on its own Head turning causes mobile to move Babies do not learn to move head

12 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior The Work of Jean Piaget PeriodApproximate AgeMajor Features SensorimotorBirth – 2 yrsObject permanence Preoperational2 - 6,7 yrsSymbolic thinking, no conservation Concrete Operational 6,7 – 11 yrsMasters conservation No abstract thinking Formal Operational 11+ yrsCan think abstractly

13 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Object Permanence F 12.4 Adapted from Bower, T. G. R. (1972). Development in infancy (2nd ed.). © 1982 by W. H. Freeman and Company. Used with permission.

14 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Conservation F 12.5

15 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Various Tests of Conservation F 12.6 Adapted from Of Children: An Introduction to Child Development, 4th ed., by Guy R. Lefrancois, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

16 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development  Believed culture was important for cognitive development  Around age 7 a child uses more inner speech which represents the internalization of words and concepts

17 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Applying Information-Processing Models to Cognitive Development  A recent trend  Believes a child’s capacity expands because of three factors  Brain maturation  Practice using schemas  Integration of schemas for different objects and events

18 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Social Development in Infancy and Childhood  Behaviors of the Infant That Foster Attachment  The Nature and Quality of Attachment  Interactions with Peers  Approaches to Childrearing

19 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Behaviors of the Infant That Foster Attachment  Sucking  Cuddling  Looking  Smiling  Crying

20 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior The Nature and Quality of Attachment  Stranger anxiety is when a child is wary and/or fearful in the presence of strangers  May be demonstrated by crying or clinging to their caregivers

21 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Interactions with Peers  Harlow and colleagues (1974) found that social contact with peers is essential to an infant monkey’s social development.  An infant monkey that is raised with only a cuddly surrogate mother can still develop into a reasonably normal adult if it has peers to play with

22 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Approaches to Childrearing  Authoritarian parents: “You know better than that! Don’t you ever play with a ball in the yard again. Now go to your bedroom and don’t come out until I tell you to. And I’m withholding your allowance until the window is paid for.”  Permissive parents: “Well, don’t worry about it. These things happen; it was an accident. I’ll talk to our neighbor.”

23 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Approaches to Childrearing  Authoritative parents: “You know better than that— you agreed not to play with the ball in the yard. Now you know why we made that rule. Go get the broom and the dustpan and offer to clean up this mess. When you finish, go to your bedroom and wait for me. I want to talk to you some more about how we’re going to pay for the window.”  Indifferent parents: “Now you’re in trouble. I don’t care what you do about it, but just don’t come crying to me about it!”

24 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Development of Gender Roles  The Nature of Gender Differences

25 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior The Nature of Gender Differences  Gender identity is one’s private sense of being male or female  Gender roles are the cultural expectation about the way in which men and women behave and think

26 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior The Nature of Gender Differences  Gender stereotypes are the beliefs about the differences in the behaviors, abilities, and personality traits of males and females

27 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Moral Development  Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development  Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development  Evaluation of Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development

28 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development  Moral realism is the first stage of Piaget’s theory of moral development  Includes egocentrism and blind adherence to rules  Morality of cooperation is the second stage of Piaget’s theory of moral development  Includes recognition of rules as social conventions

29 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development  Preconventional level  Morality of punishment and obedience  Morality of naïve instrumental hedonism  Conventional level  Morality of maintaining good relations  Morality of maintaining social order  Postconventional level  Morality of social contracts  Morality of universal ethical principles  Morality of cosmic orientation

30 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Evaluation of Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development  Critics of Piaget and Kohlberg point out that the stages of moral development are, to a certain degree, products of the measuring instruments

31 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Adolescence  Physical Development  Social Development  Cognitive Development

32 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Physical Development  Puberty is the period during which people’s reproductive systems mature, marking the beginning of the transition from childhood to adulthood

33 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Social Development  Marcia’s four identity statuses F 12.9

34 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Social Development  Sexuality  At least ½ of all males and females are sexually active by the end of grade 11 or 12  Friendships and relations with parents  The nature of friendship changes with adolescence  Adolescence brings conflict with parents

35 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Cognitive Development  Researchers suggest that there are two reasoning systems:  Analytic processing system  Experiential processing system  Klaczynski, 2004

36 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Adulthood and Old Age  Physical Development  Cognitive Development  Social Development

37 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Physical Development  Our physical abilities peak at around age 30 and decline gradually thereafter  By age 70, strength has declined by approximately 30 percent in both men and women

38 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Cognitive Development F From Schaie, K. W. In Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, 3rd ed., edited by J. E. Birren and K. W. Schaie. San Diego: Academic Press, Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

39 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Cross-Sectional vs. longitudinal Data in Verbal Ability F Based on Schaie, K. W., & Strother, C. R. (1968). A cross-sequential study of age changes in cognitive behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 675. Reprinted with permission from K. Warner Schaie.)

40 Ch Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Psychology: The Science of Behavior Social Development  Three main areas of interest:  Marriage and Family  Work  Death  Kübler-Ross (1981)


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