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Developmental Psychology Ch 10, 11, 12. Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology- branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology Ch 10, 11, 12. Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology- branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology Ch 10, 11, 12

2 Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology- branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifetime Developmental Psychology- branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifetime Maturation- automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental development Maturation- automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental development Relatively unaffected by experience Relatively unaffected by experience Growth Cycles- orderly patterns of development Growth Cycles- orderly patterns of development By age 8, 95% of the brain structure is complete but only 55% of the bodily structure is complete By age 8, 95% of the brain structure is complete but only 55% of the bodily structure is complete Girls have a faster growth cycle and mature earlier Girls have a faster growth cycle and mature earlier

3 Infancy Newborns prefer human voices and faces Newborns prefer human voices and faces Newborns prefer the sound and smell of their mother Newborns prefer the sound and smell of their mother Newborns become bored with repeated stimulus but their attention renews with new stimulus Newborns become bored with repeated stimulus but their attention renews with new stimulus Preferred ->

4 Infancy Babies as young at 3 months can learn that kicking and moving will move a mobile Babies as young at 3 months can learn that kicking and moving will move a mobile Development begins with reflexes Development begins with reflexes If you place your finger in the palm of an infant they will grasp it If you place your finger in the palm of an infant they will grasp it Reflexes go away over time as the brain begins to make decisions Reflexes go away over time as the brain begins to make decisions

5 Infancy Critical Period- specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can develop or a particular association can occur Critical Period- specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can develop or a particular association can occur For dogs it is the first 12 weeks For dogs it is the first 12 weeks Imprinting- biological process in which young species follow and become attached to their mother Imprinting- biological process in which young species follow and become attached to their mother Attachment- emotional tie with another person Attachment- emotional tie with another person Separation Anxiety- infants and young children show distress when removed from caregiver Separation Anxiety- infants and young children show distress when removed from caregiver Birds accept almost anything as a “mother” Birds accept almost anything as a “mother” AWAY_HOME/trailer/P htm AWAY_HOME/trailer/P htm

6 Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment Harry Harlow made 2 “mothers” Harry Harlow made 2 “mothers” One was made of wire, hard, cold– but had milk One was made of wire, hard, cold– but had milk The other was made of cloth, soft, fuzzy- but did not have milk The other was made of cloth, soft, fuzzy- but did not have milk Monkeys preferred the soft mother, even though “she” did not have what was needed for survival Monkeys preferred the soft mother, even though “she” did not have what was needed for survival ay?docid= # ay?docid= #

7 Infancy If learning during the critical period is missed, humans may not acquire this knowledge throughout the rest of their lives If learning during the critical period is missed, humans may not acquire this knowledge throughout the rest of their lives Humans and animals need constant amounts of touch during this time period Humans and animals need constant amounts of touch during this time period Children in orphanages in 3 rd world countries Children in orphanages in 3 rd world countries Feral Children- children reared by animals Feral Children- children reared by animals Genie Case Study Genie Case Study

8 Childhood Nuclear Family- parents and their children Nuclear Family- parents and their children Extended Family- nuclear family plus relatives (grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins) Extended Family- nuclear family plus relatives (grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins) Parenting Styles: Permissive, Authoritarian, Authoritative Parenting Styles: Permissive, Authoritarian, Authoritative Permissive- parents let children do whatever they want, few rules made/enforced Permissive- parents let children do whatever they want, few rules made/enforced Creates impulsive and irresponsible children Creates impulsive and irresponsible children Authoritarian- parents rigidly set rules and demand obedience Authoritarian- parents rigidly set rules and demand obedience Creates children who have low self esteem and can not make decisions Creates children who have low self esteem and can not make decisions Authoritative- parents seek input from children, parents are consistent yet flexible Authoritative- parents seek input from children, parents are consistent yet flexible Creates self-reliant and self-confident children Creates self-reliant and self-confident children

9 Childhood Parenting Styles Skit Parenting Styles Skit

10 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Jean Piaget Cognitive Development- ways in which thinking and reasoning grow and change Cognitive Development- ways in which thinking and reasoning grow and change Created 4 Stages of Cognitive Development Created 4 Stages of Cognitive Development Children must progress through each stage of development Children must progress through each stage of development

11 Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning

12 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Object Permanence- awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceivable (visible) Object Permanence- awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceivable (visible) Conservation- the idea that an objects characteristics can be changed while others remain the same Conservation- the idea that an objects characteristics can be changed while others remain the same Changing shape does not change volume Changing shape does not change volume 2 pieces of the same clay, roll one into a long cylinder, leave the other in a sphere shape– they are still the same mass/size 2 pieces of the same clay, roll one into a long cylinder, leave the other in a sphere shape– they are still the same mass/size

13 1. Objects placed in case. 2. Screen comes up. 3. Object is removed. 4. Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects. 4. Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object.

14 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Dev Cont Schema- framework to organize information Schema- framework to organize information Assimilation- interpreting one’s new experience in terms of existing schemas Assimilation- interpreting one’s new experience in terms of existing schemas Accommodation- adapting one’s schemas to incorporate new information (make a new schema) Accommodation- adapting one’s schemas to incorporate new information (make a new schema) Ex. Dogs and Cats Ex. Dogs and Cats All animals with 4 legs are dogs, see a cat, call it a dog All animals with 4 legs are dogs, see a cat, call it a dog Cats are not dogs so must make a new schema for cats Cats are not dogs so must make a new schema for cats Now they see a squirrel and say cat (assimilation) until they make a new schema for squirrels (accommodation) Now they see a squirrel and say cat (assimilation) until they make a new schema for squirrels (accommodation)

15 Kohlberg’s Ladder of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg 3 Levels- move from bottom to top 3 Levels- move from bottom to top Preconventional Level- 1 st stage, morality is based on the power of an outside authority Preconventional Level- 1 st stage, morality is based on the power of an outside authority Conventional Level- 2 nd stage, morality is based on the expectations of others Conventional Level- 2 nd stage, morality is based on the expectations of others Postconventional Level- 3 rd stage, morality is based on personal ethics and human rights Postconventional Level- 3 rd stage, morality is based on personal ethics and human rights

16 Adolescence Adolescence- period of development between childhood and adulthood Adolescence- period of development between childhood and adulthood

17 Erikson’s Theory of Social Development Erik Erikson developed a theory regarding how we develop socially (personality) Erik Erikson developed a theory regarding how we develop socially (personality) 8 stage theory that goes from birth to death 8 stage theory that goes from birth to death Obstacles at each stage you must overcome or you can not move on to the next stage Obstacles at each stage you must overcome or you can not move on to the next stage Battle between group identity and alienation for adolescence Battle between group identity and alienation for adolescence

18 Erikson’s Stages of Social Development Approximate ageStage Description of Task InfancyTrust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. ToddlerAutonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year)and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. PreschoolerInitiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. ElementaryCompetence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years-inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior.

19 Erikson’s Stages of Social Development Approximate age StageDescription of Task Adolescence Identity vs. roleTeenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusiontesting roles and then integrating them to 20’s)form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs.Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs.When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60’s and despairadult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure.

20 Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development James Marcia James Marcia 4 Stages of Identity Development for adolescents 4 Stages of Identity Development for adolescents Do not have to hit each stage or progress in a certain way through stages Do not have to hit each stage or progress in a certain way through stages

21 Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development Identity Achievement Identity Foreclosure - Adolescent is not currently searching and has developed an identity - Figured out on their own “who they are” - Adolescent is not currently searching but has developed an identity - Accepting what others have told them as “who they are” Identity Moratorium Identity Diffusion - Adolescent is currently searching but has not developed an identity - Will figure out “who they are” after searching - Adolescent is not currently searching and has not developed an identity - Does not care to figure out “who they are”

22 Adulthood Early Adulthood (20-39) Early Adulthood (20-39) Main things: Main things: Marriage (and possibly divorce) Marriage (and possibly divorce) Starting a family and having kids Starting a family and having kids Maintaining a career Maintaining a career Middle Adulthood (40-59) Middle Adulthood (40-59) Main things: Main things: Midlife transition Midlife transition Physical decline Physical decline Menopause Menopause Empty Nest Syndrome Empty Nest Syndrome

23 Adulthood Late Adulthood (60 and up) Late Adulthood (60 and up) Main things: Main things: Physical decline (heart problems, stroke, cancer) Physical decline (heart problems, stroke, cancer) Reaction time and mental sharpness decline (dementia and Alzheimer's) Reaction time and mental sharpness decline (dementia and Alzheimer's) Retirement and isolation (perhaps institutionalized) Retirement and isolation (perhaps institutionalized) Bereavement and grief Bereavement and grief

24 Death and Dying Thanatology- study of death Thanatology- study of death Grief Cycle- 5 step process developed by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Grief Cycle- 5 step process developed by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Must move through all stages to properly grieve Must move through all stages to properly grieve DABDA DABDA Denial- do not believe, in shock Denial- do not believe, in shock Anger- mad at self, others, God Anger- mad at self, others, God Bargaining- usually with God Bargaining- usually with God Depression- sadness, unable to talk about it or deal with it Depression- sadness, unable to talk about it or deal with it Acceptance- able to accept death and talk about it or deal with it Acceptance- able to accept death and talk about it or deal with it


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