2Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology- branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifetimeMaturation- automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental developmentRelatively unaffected by experienceGrowth Cycles- orderly patterns of developmentBy age 8, 95% of the brain structure is complete but only 55% of the bodily structure is completeGirls have a faster growth cycle and mature earlier
3Infancy Preferred -> Newborns prefer human voices and faces Newborns prefer the sound and smell of their motherNewborns become bored with repeated stimulus but their attention renews with new stimulusPreferred ->
4InfancyBabies as young at 3 months can learn that kicking and moving will move a mobileDevelopment begins with reflexesIf you place your finger in the palm of an infant they will grasp itReflexes go away over time as the brain begins to make decisions
5InfancyCritical Period- specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can develop or a particular association can occurFor dogs it is the first 12 weeksImprinting- biological process in which young species follow and become attached to their motherAttachment- emotional tie with another personSeparation Anxiety- infants and young children show distress when removed from caregiverBirds accept almost anything as a “mother”
6Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment Harry Harlow made 2 “mothers”One was made of wire, hard, cold– but had milkThe other was made of cloth, soft, fuzzy- but did not have milkMonkeys preferred the soft mother, even though “she” did not have what was needed for survival
7InfancyIf learning during the critical period is missed, humans may not acquire this knowledge throughout the rest of their livesHumans and animals need constant amounts of touch during this time periodChildren in orphanages in 3rd world countriesFeral Children- children reared by animalsGenie Case Study
8Childhood Nuclear Family- parents and their children Extended Family- nuclear family plus relatives (grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins)Parenting Styles: Permissive, Authoritarian, AuthoritativePermissive- parents let children do whatever they want, few rules made/enforcedCreates impulsive and irresponsible childrenAuthoritarian- parents rigidly set rules and demand obedienceCreates children who have low self esteem and can not make decisionsAuthoritative- parents seek input from children, parents are consistent yet flexibleCreates self-reliant and self-confident children
10Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Jean PiagetCognitive Development- ways in which thinking and reasoning grow and changeCreated 4 Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentChildren must progress through each stage of development
11Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotorExperiencing the world throughsenses and actions (looking,touching, mouthing)Object permanenceStranger anxietyAbout 2 to 6 yearsAbout 7 to 11 yearsAbout 12 throughadulthoodPreoperationalRepresenting thingswith words and imagesbut lacking logical reasoningPretend playEgocentrismLanguage developmentConcrete operationalThinking logically about concreteevents; grasping concrete analogiesand performing arithmetical operationsConservationMathematical transformationsFormal operationalAbstract reasoningAbstract logicPotential for moral reasoning
12Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Object Permanence- awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceivable (visible)Conservation- the idea that an objects characteristics can be changed while others remain the sameChanging shape does not change volume2 pieces of the same clay, roll one into a long cylinder, leave the other in a sphere shape– they are still the same mass/size
131. Objects placedin case.2. Screen comesup.3. Object is removed.4. Impossible outcome:Screen drops, revealingtwo objects.4. Possible outcome:one object.
14Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Dev Cont Schema- framework to organize informationAssimilation- interpreting one’s new experience in terms of existing schemasAccommodation- adapting one’s schemas to incorporate new information (make a new schema)Ex. Dogs and CatsAll animals with 4 legs are dogs, see a cat, call it a dogCats are not dogs so must make a new schema for catsNow they see a squirrel and say cat (assimilation) until they make a new schema for squirrels (accommodation)
15Kohlberg’s Ladder of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg3 Levels- move from bottom to topPreconventional Level- 1st stage, morality is based on the power of an outside authorityConventional Level- 2nd stage, morality is based on the expectations of othersPostconventional Level- 3rd stage, morality is based on personal ethics and human rights
16AdolescenceAdolescence- period of development between childhood and adulthood
17Erikson’s Theory of Social Development Erik Erikson developed a theory regarding how we develop socially (personality)8 stage theory that goes from birth to deathObstacles at each stage you must overcome or you can not move on to the next stageBattle between group identity and alienation for adolescence
18Erikson’s Stages of Social Development Approximateage Stage Description of TaskInfancy Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants(1st year) develop a sense of basic trust.Toddler Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and(2nd year) and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities.Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks(3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feelguilty about efforts to be independent.Elementary Competence vs Children learn the pleasure of applying(6 years- inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feelpuberty) inferior.
19Erikson’s Stages of Social Development Approximateage Stage Description of TaskAdolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by(teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to20’s) form a single identity, or they becomeconfused about who they are.Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation-(20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated.Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri-(40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through familyand work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his or her life, the older(late 60’s and despair adult may feel a sense of satisfaction orup) failure.
20Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development James Marcia4 Stages of Identity Development for adolescentsDo not have to hit each stage or progress in a certain way through stages
21Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development Identity AchievementIdentity ForeclosureAdolescent is not currently searching and has developed an identityFigured out on their own “who they are”Adolescent is not currently searching but has developed an identityAccepting what others have told them as “who they are”Identity MoratoriumIdentity DiffusionAdolescent is currently searching but has not developed an identityWill figure out “who they are” after searchingAdolescent is not currently searching and has not developed an identityDoes not care to figure out “who they are”
22Adulthood Early Adulthood (20-39) Main things: Marriage (and possibly divorce)Starting a family and having kidsMaintaining a careerMiddle Adulthood (40-59)Midlife transitionPhysical declineMenopauseEmpty Nest Syndrome
23Adulthood Late Adulthood (60 and up) Main things: Physical decline (heart problems, stroke, cancer)Reaction time and mental sharpness decline (dementia and Alzheimer's)Retirement and isolation (perhaps institutionalized)Bereavement and grief
24Death and Dying Thanatology- study of death Grief Cycle- 5 step process developed by Elisabeth Kubler-RossMust move through all stages to properly grieveDABDADenial- do not believe, in shockAnger- mad at self, others, GodBargaining- usually with GodDepression- sadness, unable to talk about it or deal with itAcceptance- able to accept death and talk about it or deal with it