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Developmental Psychology

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology

2 Developmental Psychology
Developmental Psychology- branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifetime Maturation- automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental development Relatively unaffected by experience Growth Cycles- orderly patterns of development By age 8, 95% of the brain structure is complete but only 55% of the bodily structure is complete Girls have a faster growth cycle and mature earlier

3 Infancy Preferred -> Newborns prefer human voices and faces
Newborns prefer the sound and smell of their mother Newborns become bored with repeated stimulus but their attention renews with new stimulus Preferred ->

4 Infancy Babies as young at 3 months can learn that kicking and moving will move a mobile Development begins with reflexes If you place your finger in the palm of an infant they will grasp it Reflexes go away over time as the brain begins to make decisions

5 Infancy Critical Period- specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can develop or a particular association can occur For dogs it is the first 12 weeks Imprinting- biological process in which young species follow and become attached to their mother Attachment- emotional tie with another person Separation Anxiety- infants and young children show distress when removed from caregiver Birds accept almost anything as a “mother”

6 Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment
Harry Harlow made 2 “mothers” One was made of wire, hard, cold– but had milk The other was made of cloth, soft, fuzzy- but did not have milk Monkeys preferred the soft mother, even though “she” did not have what was needed for survival

7 Infancy If learning during the critical period is missed, humans may not acquire this knowledge throughout the rest of their lives Humans and animals need constant amounts of touch during this time period Children in orphanages in 3rd world countries Feral Children- children reared by animals Genie Case Study

8 Childhood Nuclear Family- parents and their children
Extended Family- nuclear family plus relatives (grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins) Parenting Styles: Permissive, Authoritarian, Authoritative Permissive- parents let children do whatever they want, few rules made/enforced Creates impulsive and irresponsible children Authoritarian- parents rigidly set rules and demand obedience Creates children who have low self esteem and can not make decisions Authoritative- parents seek input from children, parents are consistent yet flexible Creates self-reliant and self-confident children

9 Childhood Parenting Styles Skit

10 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget Cognitive Development- ways in which thinking and reasoning grow and change Created 4 Stages of Cognitive Development Children must progress through each stage of development

11 Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning

12 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Object Permanence- awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceivable (visible) Conservation- the idea that an objects characteristics can be changed while others remain the same Changing shape does not change volume 2 pieces of the same clay, roll one into a long cylinder, leave the other in a sphere shape– they are still the same mass/size

13 1. Objects placed in case. 2. Screen comes up. 3. Object is removed. 4. Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects. 4. Possible outcome: one object.

14 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Dev Cont
Schema- framework to organize information Assimilation- interpreting one’s new experience in terms of existing schemas Accommodation- adapting one’s schemas to incorporate new information (make a new schema) Ex. Dogs and Cats All animals with 4 legs are dogs, see a cat, call it a dog Cats are not dogs so must make a new schema for cats Now they see a squirrel and say cat (assimilation) until they make a new schema for squirrels (accommodation)

15 Kohlberg’s Ladder of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg 3 Levels- move from bottom to top Preconventional Level- 1st stage, morality is based on the power of an outside authority Conventional Level- 2nd stage, morality is based on the expectations of others Postconventional Level- 3rd stage, morality is based on personal ethics and human rights

16 Adolescence Adolescence- period of development between childhood and adulthood

17 Erikson’s Theory of Social Development
Erik Erikson developed a theory regarding how we develop socially (personality) 8 stage theory that goes from birth to death Obstacles at each stage you must overcome or you can not move on to the next stage Battle between group identity and alienation for adolescence

18 Erikson’s Stages of Social Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Infancy Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. Toddler Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year) and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Elementary Competence vs Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years- inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior.

19 Erikson’s Stages of Social Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Adolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to 20’s) form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60’s and despair adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure.

20 Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development
James Marcia 4 Stages of Identity Development for adolescents Do not have to hit each stage or progress in a certain way through stages

21 Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development
Identity Achievement Identity Foreclosure Adolescent is not currently searching and has developed an identity Figured out on their own “who they are” Adolescent is not currently searching but has developed an identity Accepting what others have told them as “who they are” Identity Moratorium Identity Diffusion Adolescent is currently searching but has not developed an identity Will figure out “who they are” after searching Adolescent is not currently searching and has not developed an identity Does not care to figure out “who they are”

22 Adulthood Early Adulthood (20-39) Main things:
Marriage (and possibly divorce) Starting a family and having kids Maintaining a career Middle Adulthood (40-59) Midlife transition Physical decline Menopause Empty Nest Syndrome

23 Adulthood Late Adulthood (60 and up) Main things:
Physical decline (heart problems, stroke, cancer) Reaction time and mental sharpness decline (dementia and Alzheimer's) Retirement and isolation (perhaps institutionalized) Bereavement and grief

24 Death and Dying Thanatology- study of death
Grief Cycle- 5 step process developed by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Must move through all stages to properly grieve DABDA Denial- do not believe, in shock Anger- mad at self, others, God Bargaining- usually with God Depression- sadness, unable to talk about it or deal with it Acceptance- able to accept death and talk about it or deal with it

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