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Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Chapter 9 Psychological Development The Cat’s in the Cradle – Harry Chapin
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology – The study of how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 How Do Psychologists Explain Development? Development is a process of growth and change brought about by an interaction of heredity and the environment
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Nature-nurture issue – Long-standing discussion over relative importance of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) in their influence on behavior and mental processes
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Twin studies and Adoption Studies Developmental investigations in which twins, especially identical twins, are compared in the search for genetic and environmental effects Adoption studies – Studies in which the adopted child’s characteristics are compared to those of the biological family and the adoptive family Identical vs Fraternal Identical twins– A pair who started life as a single fertilized egg which later split into two distinct individuals Fraternal twins– A pair who started life as two separate fertilized eggs that happened to share the same womb
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Gradual versus Abrupt Change Continuity view vs. Discontinuity view Age Performance Continuity view Discontinuity view
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Gradual versus Abrupt Change Developmental stages – Periods of life initiated by significant transitions or changes in physical or psychological functioning
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Psychological Traits in Your Genes While psychological traits are formed by interaction of heredity and the environment, many traits have a strong genetic influence.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 What Capabilities Does the Child Possess? Newborns have innate abilities for finding nourishment, interacting with others, and avoiding harmful situations; the developing abilities of infants and children rely on learning
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Prenatal Development Prenatal period – The developmental period before birth Zygote – fertilized egg Embryo – 3 layers; 3 weeks Fetus – 8 weeks Placenta – An organ that develops between the embryo/fetus and the mother Teratogens – Toxic substances that can damage the developing organism
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Neonatal Period (from birth to one month) Sensory abilities Motor abilities Postural reflex Grasping reflex
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Rapid growth Many potential brain circuits are not fully connected (no memory of events prior to about age 3) Babies learn through classical conditioning Attachment Imprinting
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Humans apparently have an inborn need for attachment - Mary Ainsworth Secure attachment Anxious-ambivalent attachment Avoidant attachment
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Harry and Margaret Harlow Contact Comfort
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Psychosocial Dwarfism and failure to thrive (remember Danielle, the girl on Oprah?) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Maturation – The unfolding of genetically programmed processes of growth and development over time Be familiar with the maturation time line on page 374 in your textbook Children “mature” at their own rate. If there are significant delays (those doctors visits are important!), then a pediatric specialist should be consulted.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Childhood? Infants and children face especially important developmental tasks in the areas of cognition and social relationships – tasks that lay a foundation for further growth in adolescence and adulthood
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Cognitive development – The process by which thinking changes over time Schemas – Mental structures or programs that guide a developing child’s thoughts
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Accommodation – Adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. Taking in the new information and rearranging the existing schema. Cognitive Development Assimilation – Interpreting one’s new experiences in terms of one’s existing schemas. Asking how it fits into a current schema.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Is it assimilation or accommodation? Jessica grew up in the 80’s and knows what a walkman looks like. When she sees an mp-3 player for the first time she says, “That’s a funny looking walkman.” Now Jessica sees mp-3 players and says, “Cool mp-3 player. You know, when I was a kid they called those things walkmans?”
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Social and Emotional Development Theory of Mind – An awareness that other people’s behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one’s own Temperament – An individual’s characteristic manner of behavior or reaction
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Social and Emotional Development Lev Vygotsky: Zone of proximal development – The difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without any help or guidance Socialization – The lifelong process of shaping an individual’s behavior patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes and motives to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Social and Emotional Development Other factors influencing a child’s development may include: Effects of day care School influences Leisure influences
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Age/Period Principal Challenge 0 to 2 years Trust vs. mistrust 2 to 3 years Autonomy vs. self doubt 3 to 6 years Initiative vs. guilt 6 years to puberty Confidence vs. inferiority Adolescence Identity vs. role confusion Early adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Middle adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Late adulthood Ego-integrity vs. despair
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE ONE One = Bun Trust the Bun! EARLY INFANCY/MEETING BASIC NEEDS TRUST VS. MISTRUST FOR EVEN DEVELOPMENT, EACH CRISIS MUST BE MET ON TIME
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE TWO Two = Shoe A shoe can be used as an auto! AUTONOMY VS. SHAME AND DOUBT AGES 2–3 SELF-RELIANCE OR RELIANCE ON OTHERS
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE THREE Three = Tree Take the Initiative and plant a tree INITIATIVE VS. GUILT: AGES 3–6 SELF-ESTEEM: “AM I GOOD OR AM I BAD ?”
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE FOUR Four = Door I am Industrious and Confident that I can open the door! INDUSTRY/CONFIDENCE VS. INFERIORITY AGES 6–12 THE CHILD ASKS, “AM I SUCCESSFUL OR NO GOOD?”
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE FIVE Five = Alive I am alive, I have an identity! IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION EARLY TEENS/PEER PRESSURE QUESTION: “WHO AM I?”
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE SIX Six = Sticks Two sticks are better than one! INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION CHOOSING TO SHARE YOUR LIFE WITH ANOTHER OR LIVE ALONE
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE SEVEN Seven = Heaven I’m in heaven because I generated success in my life! GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION MIDDLE AGE/MID - LIFE CRISIS QUESTION: “AM I SUCCESFUL IN MY LIFE?”
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE EIGHT Eight = Mate/Date I have made my mark with my mate, and am ready for my date with the end of my life. EGO-IDENTITY VS. DESPAIR OLDER ADULTS QUESTION: “HAVE I LIVED A FULL AND COMPLETE LIFE?”
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 STAGE EIGHT( CONTINUED) FEELINGS OF ABANDONMENT AND ISOLATION CRITICISMS OF ERIKSON’S THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence? Adolescence offers new developmental challenges growing out of physical changes, cognitive changes, and socioemotional changes
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The Transitions of Adolescence Adolescence – Developmental period beginning at puberty and ending at adulthood Rites of passage – Social rituals that mark the transition between developmental stages, especially between childhood and adulthood
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Cognitive Development in Adolescence Formal operational stage – Piaget’s final stage of cognitive growth (abstract and complex thought) Hormones rise to high levels The frontal lobes undergo a “remodel” This leads to sensation seeking and risk taking, and preoccupation with body image and sex
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The increasing influence of peers Common social problems in adolescence Delinquency Sexual Identity comes into question Social and Sexual Identity in Adolescence Identity crisis
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning “Should Heinz have stolen the too expensive medicine to save his wife’s life?” I. Preconventional morality Stage 1: Pleasure/pain orientation – Avoid pain or avoid getting caught Stage 2: Cost/benefit orientation; reciprocity – Achieve/receive rewards or mutual benefits
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 II. Conventional morality Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Stage 3: “Good child” orientation – Gain Acceptance, avoid disapproval Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation – Follow rules, avoid penalties
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 III. Postconventional (principled) morality Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Stage 5: Social contract orientation – Promote the welfare of one’s society Stage 6: Ethical principle orientation – Achieve justice, be consistent with one’s principles, avoid self-condemnation
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Identify the Level He should steal the drug because he needs his wife to help him make a living. (Stage 2 – Cost benefit) He should steal the drug and the law should be interpreted to allow an exception in this case. (Stage 5 – Social Contract) Everyone would think he is bad if he let his wife die. (Stage 3 – Good Child)
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Culture and morality Gender and morality – Carol Gilligan Studies have found no close connection between people’s moral reasoning and their behavior. Most moral reasoning comes after people have intuitively decided how to act.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face? Nature and nurture continue to produce changes throughout life, but in adulthood these changes include both growth and decline
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross – Death and Dying Kubler-Ross identified 5 stages that terminally ill and/or dying individuals experience (video) Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 End of Chapter 9
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Psychological Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
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