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CHAPTER 4: Language Development of Infants and Toddlers Adapted by Dr. Laura Taddei Language Development in Early Childhood Education Fourth Edition Beverly.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4: Language Development of Infants and Toddlers Adapted by Dr. Laura Taddei Language Development in Early Childhood Education Fourth Edition Beverly."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 4: Language Development of Infants and Toddlers Adapted by Dr. Laura Taddei Language Development in Early Childhood Education Fourth Edition Beverly W. Otto

2 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-2 Understanding Schemata Activity Divide into groups of 3 or 4: Each group is assigned a different concept: subway, farm, ranch, wedding, vacation Draw a “semantic network or schema” of the assigned concept. (Refer to the example of a semantic network in Chapter 1, Figure 1.1 of the text.) Please assign the following roles: One person in the group should be the recorder, who draws the schema on chart paper. One person in the group should be the discussion leader, keeping the discussion on task and ensuring that all group members have a chance to contribute. You have about 20 minutes to work. Debrief – 10 to 15 minutes as a whole group

3 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-3 Early Communication Contexts Key interaction patterns Eye contact and shared reference and communication loop Focus on meaning in early interactions Turn taking and interactive dialogue Importance of adult responsiveness Critical periods for language development Variations within and between children

4 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-4 Importance of Adult Responsiveness  Higher levels of maternal responsiveness associated with development of speech later on  Children from more responsive homes had larger vocabulary, longer utterances than children from less responsive homes

5 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-5 Critical periods for language development  Language is learned through interaction in the environment  Timing is critical because some aspects of language development appear to be tied to critical periods.  Genie and Deprivation of Social and Emotional and Language Support Genie and Deprivation of Social and Emotional and Language Support  However, not all learners are affected by these critical periods and are able to acquire mastery after a critical period has ended.

6 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-6 Five Language Aspects – Development in Infants and Toddlers - Activity  Each group’s task is to list the linguistically-related behaviors of infants and toddlers that indicate development of that aspect of language knowledge.  See handout of chart

7 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-7 Phonological Development in Infancy In utero – can perceive sounds by the 25 th week of gestation; at 35 weeks, an infant’s hearing is similar to adults Early infancy – can perceive differences in sounds; prefer human voice over all other sounds; as early as 4 days old prefer mother’s voice Late-infancy- between 8 and 10 months infants pay more attention to phoneme- sound contrasts that exist in home language

8 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-8 Infants’ Speech Development Early vocalizations – initially reflexive (crying, coughing) and later on nonreflexive (cooing, babbling) Babbling – 4 to 6 months babbling appears Echolalic babbling – echo rhythm and phonation of adult’s language Develops into invented and conventional

9 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-9 Phonological Development in Toddlerhood Production of specific phonemes may vary from day to day Aware of sounds he/she cannot produce Awareness of sound similarities and patterns Health problems may interfere with phonological development

10 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-10 Ear Infections  All too frequent concern  Otitis media – inflammation of middle ear; 85 to 90% experience at least one ear infection by age 6  Second most frequent illness among children in US – first is common cold  Speech can be impaired; hearing can be impaired

11 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-11 Semantic Development in Infancy Early associations between speech and meaning – usually in response to infant’s cries (basic, anger and pain cry) Concept development and receptive semantic knowledge – when meaning is attached to words Direct and vicarious experiences Affective experiences – emotional bonds Symbol formation – objects with speech

12 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-12 Semantic Development in Infancy, continued Expressive Semantic Knowledge Invented words/idiomorphs Holophrastic stage – one word used to convey a whole thought Role of direct and indirect experiences Adult – child interactions

13 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-13 Semantic Development In Toddlerhood Receptive vocabulary exceeds expressive vocabulary Variations between children High interest in “naming game” with caregivers Fast mapping – learn some words quickly and few exposures

14 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-14 Semantic Development in Toddlerhood, continued Context of child’s speech provides clues to intended meaning Child actively explores environment Key role of adult-child interactions

15 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-15 Syntactic Development in Infancy Research indicates Infants perceive and process language in multiple word segments Infants attend to acoustic properties of speech Older infants use prosody to add meaning to their one-word utterances Role of adult interaction

16 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-16 Syntactic Development in Toddlerhood Telegraphic speech child’s use of two or three words in an utterance Syntactic patterns (see page 120) Acquisition of pronouns – complexity of pronoun use – starts toddlers extends to preschool Emergent literacy and syntactic knowledge

17 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-17 Morphemic Development in Infancy Infants Perceive sound distinctions associated with inflectional morphemes Listen to the speech of others in their home and community

18 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-18 Morphemic Development in Toddlerhood Using inflectional morphemes Plurality: cat-cats Verb tense: present progressive, --ing Possessive:dog’s ball

19 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-19 Pragmatic Development in Infancy Using gestures to communicate intent Symbolic gestures Dialogic turn-taking

20 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-20 Pragmatic Development in Toddlerhood Continued development of referential and symbolic gestures Language used for greater variety of purposes or intents Routine expressions Conversations Literacy-related interactions with adults

21 Otto. Language Development in Early Childhood Education, 4e. © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4-21 Infant Activities  Please begin to explore activities you can create for infants to encourage their language development.


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