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1 Infancy and Childhood Module 8. 2 Infancy and Childhood  Physical Development  Cognitive Development  Social Development.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Infancy and Childhood Module 8. 2 Infancy and Childhood  Physical Development  Cognitive Development  Social Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Infancy and Childhood Module 8

2 2 Infancy and Childhood  Physical Development  Cognitive Development  Social Development

3 3 Infancy and Childhood Infancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially. StageSpan Infancy Newborn to toddler Childhood Toddler to teenager

4 4 Maturation Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior - Preprogrammed Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.

5 5 Motor Development First, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence. Renee Altier for Worth Publishers Jim Craigmyle/ Corbis Phototake Inc./ Alamy Images Profimedia.CZ s.r.o./ Alamy Link

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7 7 Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years.

8 8 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development  Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee- Collier, 1989, 1997).

9 9 © Michael Newman/PhotoEdit

10 10 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Cognition  all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

11 11 Cognitive Development Piaget understood that cognitive processes followed a series of stages, and even though certain children may reach stages before other children, the order of stages is invariable. Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache

12 12 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Schema  a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information, they are building blocks of intellectual development  Schema example 2:23 Schema example

13 13 Schemas Schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.

14 14 Figure 8.4 An impossible object Myers: Exploring Psychology, Seventh Edition In Modules Copyright © 2008 by Worth Publishers

15 15 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Assimilation  interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas  Accommodation  changing one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information or experiences Flash animation of schema development: Jean Piaget with a subject Example linkExample link 1:16

16 16 Jean Piaget zPiaget’s cognitive development personality theory was based upon the premises of constructivism, and his interest in the root of knowledge drove him to focus his attention on the psychology of children. According to Piaget, people developed deliberate cognitive representations of their environment, which they could then manipulate.

17 17 Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Sensorimotor Birth to nearly 2 years Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety Some cause and effect Preoperational About 2 to 6 years Concrete operational About 7 to 11 years Formal operational About 12 through adulthood Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Think in symbols Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Abstract reasoning, speculationAbstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Stages

18 18 Piaget Stages Mnemonic zSmart People Cook Fish zSensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete- operational, Formal- operational

19 19 Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind. Doug Goodman Object permanence in dogs Object permanence in dogs 15:20

20 20 Sensorimotor  Stranger Anxiety  fear of strangers that infants commonly display  beginning by about 8 months of age

21 21 Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas. However, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think and count. 1.Children understand the basic laws of physics. They are amazed at how a ball can stop in midair or disappear.

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23 23 Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms 2. Children can also count. Wynn (1992, 2000) showed that children stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones.

24 24 Impossible Display

25 25 Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations.

26 26 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Conservation  the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

27 27 Conservation zNumber In conservation of number tests, two equivalent rows of coins are placed side by side and the child says that there is the same number in each row. Then one row is spread apart and the child is again asked if there is the same number in each.

28 28 Conservation Length In conservation of length tests, two same-length sticks are placed side by side and the child says that they are the same length. Then one is moved and the child is again asked if they are the same length.

29 29 Conservation Substance In conservation of substance tests, two identical amounts of clay are rolled into similar-appearing balls and the child says that they both have the same amount of clay. Then one ball is rolled out and the child is again asked if they have the same amount.

30 30 Egocentrism Piaget concluded that preoperational children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view. When asked to show her picture to mommy, 2- year-old Gabriella holds the picture facing her own eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes.

31 31 Preoperational Stage: Criticism DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use mental operations. When shown a model of a dog’s hiding place behind the couch, a 2½-year-old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year-old did.

32 32 Theory of Mind Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop the ability to understand another’s mental state or perspective when they begin forming a theory of mind.

33 33 Concrete Operational Stage In concrete operational stage, given concrete materials, 6- to 7-year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities. Children in this stage are also able to transform mathematical functions. So, if = 12, then a transformation, 12 – 4 = 8, is also easily doable.

34 34 Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking.

35 35 Formal Operational Stage: Criticism Rudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982). If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?

36 36 Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory Today’s researchers believe the following: 1.Development is a continuous process. 2.Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age, changes between stages less consistent than Piaget thought. 3.Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition than Piaget thought.

37 37 Personality Development  Freud’s Psychosexual Stages  the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

38 38 Personality Development Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth-- (0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing Anal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder (18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with (3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelings Latency Dormant sexual feelings (6 to puberty) Genital Maturation of sexual interests (puberty on)

39 39 Octapuses Always Play Love Games zOral zAnal zPhallic zLatency zGenital

40 40 Social Development  Critical Period  an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

41 41 Social Development  Attachment  an emotional tie with another person  shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation

42 42 Harlow and Attachment  Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments  Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother

43 43 LinkLink 2:59

44 44 Harlow’s Methodology and Results zMonkeys separated from their mothers in early infancy and raised in their own cages zTwo artificial mothers: one wire and wood, one cloth - cloth mother - wire mother

45 45 Harlow’s Legacy zThe bond of attachment is between parent and child (not child and food) zA secure base from which to explore zThe need for security remains with us throughout our lives

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47 47 Origins of Attachment Like bodily contact, familiarity is another factor that causes attachment. Alastair Miller

48 48 Social Development  Imprinting  the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life LinkLink 1:39 LinkLink :40

49 49 Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety peaks at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care.

50 50 Attachment z Mary Ainsworth – Strange situation yUnfamiliar playroom yMother and unfamiliar woman yWomen play with baby – leave briefly zHow to the babies respond? zLink 3:15Link

51 51 Secure Attachment zMost children have secure attachment yUse mom as a home base and return periodically yHappy to see mom upon return yMost common in US. 60%

52 52 Insecure Attachment zSome have insecure attachment, 30% yAvoidant – avoid or ignore mother on return yAmbivalent –upset when mom leaves, but vacillate between clingy and angry on return yDisorganized – inconsistent, disturbed, disturbing – may reach out for mom while looking away (Moss 2004) yLink 2:10Link

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55 55 Deprivation of Attachment What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments? In such circumstances children become: 1.Withdrawn 2.Frightened 3.Unable to develop speech LinkLink 13:20 Attachment Disorder

56 56 Social Development  Basic Trust (Erik Erikson)  a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy  said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers  Self-Concept  a sense of one’s identity and personal worth

57 57 Social Development: Parenting Styles  Authoritarian  parents impose rules and expect obedience  “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.”  Permissive  submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment  Authoritative  both demanding and responsive  set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion  Rejecting-Neglecting  completely uninvolved; disengaged. Expect little and invest little

58 58 Parenting Styles Parental Acceptance Parental Control Low High AuthoritarianAuthoritative Neglectful Permissive

59 59 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices

60 60 zStar wars according to a 3 yo.Star wars according to a 3 yo.

61 61 Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules Module 8 Infancy and Childhood James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University & Aneeq Ahmad, Henderson State University & Amy Jones w/ Garber edits Worth Publishers

62 62 References erikson stuff zhttp://www.alanchapman.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm zhttp://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml zhttp://childstudy.net/erikson.php zhttp://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.htmlhttp://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html zhttp://www.nndb.com/people/151/ /http://www.nndb.com/people/151/ / zhttp://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-obit.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-obit.html zhttp://www.phillwebb.net/History/TwentiethCentury/Continental/Psychoanalysis/Erikson/Erickson.htmhttp://www.phillwebb.net/History/TwentiethCentury/Continental/Psychoanalysis/Erikson/Erickson.htm zhttp://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson.html zhttp://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1960/Erikson-Erik html zEducational Psychology: Theory and Practice


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