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Infancy and Childhood Module 8

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1 Infancy and Childhood Module 8
Online link Module

2 Infancy and Childhood Infancy and Childhood Physical Development
Cognitive Development Social Development Module

3 Infancy and Childhood Infancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially. 3-6 Most rapid growth in frontal lobes Need slide for this 8 32. A researcher dabs color on a 16-month-old child’s face and places the child in front of a mirror. Which of the following developmental milestones has been reached if the child realizes that there is something wrong with its face? (AP04) (A) Visual discrimination (B) Recognition of a human form (C) Recognition of self (D) Identification of the gender of the image (E) Perception of the image as a playmate Need slide for autism…maybe not this module 8 61. Which of the following is typically cited as a characteristic of autistic children? (AP94) (A) Minor developmental delays in academic achievement (B) Above-average performance on tests of creativity (C) Severely impaired interpersonal communication (D) Tendency to seek younger playmates (E) Paranoia comparable with that experienced in schizophrenia Stage Span Infancy Newborn to toddler Childhood Toddler to teenager Module

4 Maturation Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior - Preprogrammed The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation. Cephalocaudal: From head to toe Proximodistal: From center of the body to the extremities Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it. Module

5 Motor Development First, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence. -Universal -(Davis, Lipsitt) Sleep on back is associated with somewhat later crawling but not walking Back sleep causing later walking and skipping of crawling stage (Kolata & Markel 2001) -(Wilson) identical twins sit & walk on same days Link PBS Scientific American Body Sense Renee Altier for Worth Publishers Phototake Inc./ Alamy Images Profimedia.CZ s.r.o./ Alamy Jim Craigmyle/ Corbis Link Module

6 The ages listed are averages for American children.
Motor development. Most infants follow an orderly pattern of motor development. Although the order in which children progress is similar, there are large individual differences in the ages at which each ability appears. The ages listed are averages for American children. It is not unusual for many of the skills to appear 1 or 2 months earlier than average or several months later (Frankenberg & Dodds, 1967; Harris & Liebert, 1991). Parents should not be alarmed if a child’s behavior differs some from the average. Module

7 Maturation and Infant Memory
The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years. -Infantile amnesia Module

8 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997). AM The Mind 14. Infant Cognitive Development Illustrates two ways of studying infant behavior: brain activity and visual fixation. -assimilation -programmed to record new info -show habituation – shows memory -6wks, grasp equal angles. Psychologist Carolyn Rovee-Collier has shown that babies as young as 3 months old can learn to control their movements. In her experiments, babies lie on their backs under a colorful crib mobile. A ribbon is tied around the baby’s ankle and connected to the mobile. Whenever babies spontaneously kick their legs, the mobile jiggles and rattles. Within a few minutes, infants learn to kick faster. Their reward for kicking is a chance to see the mobile move (Hayne & Rovee-Collier, 1995). -Babies can learn that kicking moves a mobile & remember for about a month (Rovee-Collier) Module

9 Fig. 3.8 Psychologist Carolyn Rovee-Collier has shown that babies as young as 3 months old can learn to control their movements. In her experiments, babies lie on their backs under a colorful crib mobile. A ribbon is tied around the baby’s ankle and connected to the mobile. Whenever babies spontaneously kick their legs, the mobile jiggles and rattles. Within a few minutes, infants learn to kick faster. Their reward for kicking is a chance to see the mobile move (Hayne & Rovee-Collier, 1995). © Michael Newman/PhotoEdit Module

10 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Module

11 Cognitive Development
Piaget understood that cognitive processes followed a series of stages, and even though certain children may reach stages before other children, the order of stages is invariable.  Preview Question 4: How did Piaget view the development of a child’s mind, and what are current researchers’ views? Errors of scale Active Psych 3-4 #5 Errors of Scale Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make. Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache Module

12 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information, they are building blocks of intellectual development Schema example 2:23 Bernstein Schema- Generalizations that from as we experience the world. Provide a framework for understanding future experiences. Organized patterns of action or thought that children construct as they adapt to the environment, basic units of knowledge, building blocks of intellectual development. Piaget said schema can involve behaviors (such as sucking), mental symbols (words or images) or mental activities (imagining things). 23? 38. A schema can be described as (AP04) (A) An outer layer of the eye (B) A mental construct (C) A fissure between lobes of the brain (D) An optical illusion (E) A fixed response to a particular stimulus Module

13 Schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.
Bernstein For example, a sucking schema consolidates their experiences of sucking into images of what objects can be sucked on and what kinds of sucking can be done. Module

14 No schema Figure 8.4 An impossible object Myers: Exploring Psychology, Seventh Edition In Modules Copyright © 2008 by Worth Publishers Module

15 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Assimilation interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas Accommodation changing one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information or experiences Flash animation of schema development: Accommodation, creation or splitting of schema AM The Mind 14 Assimilation Programmed to record new info Show habituation 6 wks old can grasp equal angles Jean Piaget with a subject Example link 1:16 Module

16 Jean Piaget Originally worked on intelligence tests for children. Noticed children were making the same kinds of mistakes. Piaget’s cognitive development personality theory was based upon the premises of constructivism, and his interest in the root of knowledge drove him to focus his attention on the psychology of children.  According to Piaget, people developed deliberate cognitive representations of their environment, which they could then manipulate.  Module

17 Piaget’s Stages Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental
Phenomena Sensorimotor Birth to nearly 2 years Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety Some cause and effect Preoperational About 2 to 6 years Concrete operational About 7 to 11 years Formal operational About 12 through adulthood Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Think in symbols Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Abstract reasoning, speculation Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Sensorimotor – infant’s mental activity confined to sensory functions. Can only form schema for things they can see, hear or touch. Thinking is doing 8 81. According to Jean Piaget, what is the earliest stage at which a child is capable of using simple logic to think about objects and events? (AP94) (A) Sensorimotor (B) Preoperational (C) Symbolic (D) Concrete operational (E) Formal operational 8 32. A baby looks under the sofa for a ball that has just rolled underneath it. According to Jean Piaget, the baby's action shows development of (AP99) (A) conservation of mass (B) Reversibility (C) Object permanence (D) Logical thinking (E) Metacognition 8 79. Which Piagetian stage of cognitive development is characterized by mastery of conversation tasks? (AP04) (C) Concrete operations (D) Formal operations (E) Tertiary circular reactions 5. Egocentrism, animism, and artificialism are characteristic of which of Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? (AP12) A. Sensorimotor B. Preoperational C. Postformal D. Concrete Operational E. Formal operations Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete-operational, Formal-operational Smart People Cook Fish Module

18 Piaget Stages Mnemonic
Smart People Cook Fish Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete-operational, Formal-operational Module

19 Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind. Mental activity and schemas confined to sensory functions. 4-8 Months 8 32. A baby looks under the sofa for a ball that has just rolled underneath it. According to Jean Piaget, the baby's action shows development of (AP99) (A) conservation of mass (B) Reversibility (C) Object permanence (D) Logical thinking (E) Metacognition 21. Understanding that things continue to exists even when they are not within view is called (AP12) A. mental representation B deep structure C a schema D. object permanence E. assimilation Object permanence in dogs from the psychfiles Doug Goodman Object permanence in dogs 15:20 Module

20 Sensorimotor Stranger Anxiety fear of strangers that
infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age Presumably needed as we become more mobile. Module

21 Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms
Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas. Can combine experiences Show two screens, play one soundtrack children will watch screen that matches soundtrack (Soken 1992) Can remember...infants in cribs and kicking… Babies reach for things in the dark so they must have some mental representations before Piaget thought. #1 (Baillargeon 1994, 2002) search for images of study However, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think and count. Children understand the basic laws of physics. They are amazed at how a ball can stop in midair or disappear. Module

22 Ballargeon impossible event

23 Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms
2. Children can also count. Wynn (1992, 2000) showed that children stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones. -5 months old Module

24 Impossible Display Babies know, too, that objects can’t go through solid boundaries or occupy the same position as other objects, and that objects generally travel through space in a continuous trajectory. If you claimed to have invented a transporter device like the one in “Star Trek,” a baby would scoff. Babies are born accountants. They can estimate quantities and distinguish between more and less. Show infants arrays of, say, 4 or 12 dots and they will match each number to an accompanying sound, looking longer at the 4 dots when they hear 4 sounds than when they hear 12 sounds, even if each of the 4 sounds is played comparatively longer. Babies also can perform a kind of addition and subtraction, anticipating the relative abundance of groups of dots that are being pushed together or pulled apart, and looking longer when the wrong number of dots appears. Babies are born Euclideans. Infants and toddlers use geometric clues to orient themselves in three-dimensional space, navigate through rooms and locate hidden treasures. Is the room square or rectangular? Did the nice cardigan lady put the Slinky in a corner whose left wall is long or short? Module

25 Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations. During first half of period (2-4), begin to understand, create, and use symbols During second half (5-7), begin to make intuitive guesses about the world Cannot distinguish between the seen and unseen, or between dreams and reality. Use words to stand for objects. 5. Egocentrism, animism, and artificialism are characteristic of which of Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? (AP12) A. Sensorimotor B. Preoperational C. Postformal D. Concrete Operational E. Formal operations Module

26 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects Vid clip of conservation (source?) Active psych 2-3 # 7 & 8 Conservation Do conservation extra credit. 8 79. Which Piagetian stage of cognitive development is characterized by mastery of conversation tasks? (AP04) (A) Sensorimotor (B) Preoperational (C) Concrete operations (D) Formal operations (E) Tertiary circular reactions 87. A young child shown a nine inch round bowl and a six inch round bowl containing equal amounts of popcorn says he is certain the smaller bowl has more popcorn than the larger bowl. This child has yet to acquire what Jean Piaget called (AP12) A. object permanence B. equilibrium C. functional fixedness D. conservation E. circular reactions Module

27 Conservation Number Keywords piaget, conservation
Figures from Gray (3e) In conservation of number tests, two equivalent rows of coins are placed side by side and the child says that there is the same number in each row. Then one row is spread apart and the child is again asked if there is the same number in each. Module 27

28 Conservation Length Keywords piaget, conservation
Figures from Gray (3e) In conservation of length tests, two same-length sticks are placed side by side and the child says that they are the same length. Then one is moved and the child is again asked if they are the same length. Module 28

29 Conservation Substance Keywords piaget, conservation
Figures from Gray (3e) In conservation of substance tests, two identical amounts of clay are rolled into similar-appearing balls and the child says that they both have the same amount of clay. Then one ball is rolled out and the child is again asked if they have the same amount. Module 29

30 Egocentrism Piaget concluded that preoperational children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view. Shown three objects, asked to pick the picture of what the other person sees and they can’t do it. Egocentric – unable to take the viewpoints of others When asked to show her picture to mommy, 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture facing her own eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes. Module

31 Preoperational Stage: Criticism
DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use mental operations. When shown a model of a dog’s hiding place behind the couch, a 2½-year-old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year-old did. -3 yr old could think of the model as a symbol for the room Add pic Module

32 Theory of Mind Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop the ability to understand another’s mental state or perspective when they begin forming a theory of mind. -3 yr old, band aid box Band-Aids, shown pencils said others would say pencils -4-5 yr olds would say band aids -Autism impaired ability to infer states of mind The problem on the right probes such ability in children. Module

33 Concrete Operational Stage
In concrete operational stage, given concrete materials, 6- to 7-year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities. Rely on actual experience Thinking no longer dominated by appearance Can reason about what is but not what is possible. Children in this stage are also able to transform mathematical functions. So, if = 12, then a transformation, 12 – 4 = 8, is also easily doable. Module

34 Formal Operational Stage
Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking. Piaget devised several tests of formal operational thought. One of the simplest was the 'third eye problem'. Children were asked where they would put an extra eye, if they were able to have a third one, and why. Schaffer (1988) reported that when asked this question, 9-year-olds all suggested that the third eye should be on the forehead. However, 11-year-olds were more inventive, for example suggesting that a third eye placed on the hand would be useful for seeing round corners. Formal operational thinking has also been tested experimentally using the pendulum task. The method involved a length of string and a set of weights. Participants had to consider three factors (variables) the length of the string, the heaviness of the weight and the strength of push. The task was to work out which factor was most important in determining the speed of swing of the pendulum. Participants can vary the length of the pendulum string, and vary the weight. They can measure the pendulum speed by counting the number of swings per minute. To find the correct answer the participant has to grasp the idea of the experimental method -that is to vary one variable at a time (e.g. trying different lengths with the same weight). A participant who tries different lengths with different weights is likely to end up with the wrong answer. Children in the formal operational stage approached the task systematically, testing one variable (such as varying the length of the string) at a time to see its effect. However, younger children typically tried out these variations randomly or changed two things at the same time. Piaget concluded that the systematic approach indicated the children were thinking logically, in the abstract, and could see the relationships between things. These are the characteristics of the formal operational stage. Module

35 Formal Operational Stage: Criticism
Rudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982). If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary? Module

36 Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory
Today’s researchers believe the following: Development is a continuous process. Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age, changes between stages less consistent than Piaget thought. Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition than Piaget thought. Piaget’s stage theory has been influential globally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and development in many cultures and societies. Criticism of egocentricism, 3 year old with pink glasses says a white card is pink, asked what someone else sees and they say white (Liben 1978) Preoperational kids can conserve if allowed to count objects or have been trained to focus on correct dimensions (Gelman 1983) Children in pottery making cultures conserve mass sooner (Gardiner 2005) Module

37 Personality Development
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones Check Myers for improvements Module

38 Personality Development
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth-- (0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing Anal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder (18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with (3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelings Latency Dormant sexual feelings (6 to puberty) Genital Maturation of sexual interests (puberty on) Frued’s Psychosexual Stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital) Octopuses Always Play Love Games. Bernstein, not in child dev. Module

39 Octapuses Always Play Love Games
Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Module

40 Social Development Critical Period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development AM Mind 15. Social Development in Infancy Covers infant social/cognitive development and the emergence of self. Module

41 Social Development Attachment
an emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation Attachment originally thought for nourishment Module

42 Harlow and Attachment Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments
Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother Harry Harlow - Studied "hairy" monkeys 14. Harry Harlow’s experiments with rhesus monkeys suggest which of the following as most important for infants when establishing an attachment to their mothers?(AP12) A. The amount of time spent with the mother B. The mother’s ability to protect the infant from physical harm C. The mother’s ability to provide nourishment to the infant D. The tactile characteristics of the mother E. The particular vocalization of the mother Module

43 An infant monkey clings to a cloth-covered surrogate mother
An infant monkey clings to a cloth-covered surrogate mother. Baby monkeys becomes attached to the cloth “contact-comfort” mother but not to a similar wire mother. This is true even when the wire mother provides food. Contact comfort may also underlie the tendency of children to become attached to inanimate objects, such as blankets or stuffed toys. However, a study of 2- to 3-year-old “blanket-attached” children found that they were no more insecure than others (Passman, 1987). (So, maybe Linus is okay after all.) Link 2:59 Harlow on youtube Link 2:59 Module

44 Harlow’s Methodology and Results
Harlow began to raise monkeys with two individual artificial “mothers”: one a wire cylinder with a wooden head, and one a wire cylinder wrapped with terry cloth. He attached a bottle to the “mother” without the cloth. - cloth mother - wire mother Monkeys separated from their mothers in early infancy and raised in their own cages Two artificial mothers: one wire and wood, one cloth Module 44

45 Harlow’s Legacy Harlow’s study showed the powerful bond of attachment between infants and parents and emphasized the importance of nurturing traits such as warmth and softness, along with the ability to hold and cuddle a baby as well as feed it. Human parents also serve as the secure base from which an infant can begin to explore its environment. The need for attachment remains with us throughout our lives, as we draw comfort from having someone around to support us and make us feel secure. -Attachment occurs via touch Emotional problems in children in Russian and Romanian orphanages who had been neglected by caregivers – problems persisted Newborn monkeys isolated from contact showed dramatic disturbances. Would withdraw when normal infants present, huddling in corners or rocking for hours. As adults they were unable to have normal sexual relations. When females had babies by artificial insemination they tended to ignore them, when their infants were distressed the mothers physically abused them and sometimes killed them. The bond of attachment is between parent and child (not child and food) A secure base from which to explore The need for security remains with us throughout our lives Module 45

46 Hey dads,….be more involved…think attachment!
Mother-infant and father-infant interactions. These graphs show what occurred on routine days in a sample of 72 American homes. The graph on the left records the total amount of contact parents had with their babies, including such a actions as taking to, touching, hugging, or smiling a the infant. The graph on the right shows the amount of care-giving (diapering, washing, feeding, and so forth) done by each parent. Note that in both cases mother-infant interactions greatly exceed father-infant interactions. (Adapted from Belsky et al., 1984) Module

47 Origins of Attachment Like bodily contact, familiarity is another factor that causes attachment. In some animals (goslings), imprinting is the cause of attachment. Konrad Lorenz – imprinting on ducklings -Humans do not imprint Alastair Miller Module

48 Social Development Imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Definition: Rapid, relatively permanent type of learning that occurs during a limited time period early in life Lorenz (an ethologist) studied natural behavior patterns of animals Hatched baby geese in an incubator; when geese were born, first moving object they saw was Lorenz They followed him around and acted as though he were their mother! Link 1:39 Lorenz imprinting, no sound Link :40 Man adopts four goslings after parents are killed by a car. Goslings immediately imprint on man and follow him everywhere. Link 1:39 Link :40 Module

49 Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety peaks at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care. Module

50 Attachment Mary Ainsworth – Strange situation
Unfamiliar playroom Mother and unfamiliar woman Women play with baby – leave briefly How to the babies respond? Link 3:15 Mary Ainsworth - attachment theory - Mary had a little lamb who was attached to her (everywhere she went, the lamb would go) Active Psych 2-3 #6 Strange Situation 8 59. Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation paradigm is typically used to test young children's (AP99) (A) Ego strength (B) Intelligence (C) Reaction time (D) Attachment (E) Incidental learning Link 3:15 Module

51 Secure Attachment Most children have secure attachment
Use mom as a home base and return periodically Happy to see mom upon return Most common in US. 60% Relaxed and attentive care giving becomes the backbone of secure attachment. Better peer relationships (Thompson 2006) Require less contact, guidance & discipline from teachers Less likely to act impulsively or aggressively Less likely to express frustration or display helplessness (Sroufe 1983) Can break down due to family strife (Thompson 2006) Module

52 Insecure Attachment Some have insecure attachment, 30%
Avoidant – avoid or ignore mother on return Ambivalent –upset when mom leaves, but vacillate between clingy and angry on return Disorganized – inconsistent, disturbed, disturbing – may reach out for mom while looking away (Moss 2004) Link 2:10 Harlow’s studies showed that monkeys experience great anxiety if their terry-cloth mother is removed. Link 2:10 Types of attachment Link 7:15 8 61. A 14-month-old toddler is placed in an unfamiliar situation with the child’s mother, who then leaves the room for a time. When the mother returns, the child squirms and tries to get away from the mother when picked up, but also seems distressed when placed back on the floor. Mary Ainsworth would consider this evidence of which of the following? (AP04) (A) Hyperactivity (B) Narcissistic personality type (C) A resistant or ambivalent attachment style (D) Disorganized behavior (E) Avoidance Module

53 Module

54 Fig In the United States, about two thirds of all children from middle-class families are securely attached. About 1 child in 3 is insecurely attached. (Percentages are approximate. From Kaplan, 1998.) Module

55 Deprivation of Attachment
What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments? Prolonged deprivation If parental or care giving support is deprived for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels. Why differences Both rat pups and human infants develop secure attachments if the mother is relaxed and attentive. -(Fraley) Early attachments from foundations of adult relationships 67. Developmental research on the formation of attachment indicates that a child’s secure attachment to its mother during infancy is predictive of which of the following during its toddler years? (AP12) A. Social Rejection B. Impulsive behavior C. Social competence D. Divergent thinking E. Shyness Link 13:20 Sensitive caregiving during early childhood builds a healthy foundation for future development. Attachment disorder may be triggered during a child's earliest years when a healthy foundation for trust and attachment is interrupted by abuse and/or neglect, abandonment, separation from birth In such circumstances children become: Withdrawn Frightened Unable to develop speech Link 13:20 Attachment Disorder Module

56 Social Development Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) Self-Concept
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Self-Concept a sense of one’s identity and personal worth AM The Mind- Sense of self, Maturation accompanied by cognitive development Module

57 Social Development: Parenting Styles
Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.” Permissive submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment Authoritative both demanding and responsive set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion Rejecting-Neglecting completely uninvolved; disengaged. Expect little and invest little Authoritative- highest self esteem, self reliance, Social competence Correlation is not causation Authoritarian (Bernstein p 86)-Tend to be unfriendly, distrustful, withdrawn, less likely to be empathetic, more likely to be aggressive, more likely to cheat, less likely to feel guilt when guilty Permissive-immature, dependent, unhappy, tantrums Uninvolved – more problems with impulsivity and aggression, non-compliance, moodiness, self-esteem 9 40. The most well-adjusted and socially competent chi1dren tend to come from homes where parents employ which of the following parental styles? (AP94) (A) Minimal supervision (B) Authoritarian (C) Authoritative (D) Indulgent (E) Permissive Module

58 Parenting Styles Authoritarian Authoritative Neglectful Permissive
Parental Acceptance Low High Authoritarian Authoritative Low High Parental Control Neglectful Permissive Module

59 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices
Results based on correlations Parental behavior shaped by children Some researchers suggest it is not parenting style that makes a difference but the children’s perception of the discipline (Reiss 2000) Correlations significant but not large Most research with European-Americans Module

60 Star wars according to a 3 yo.
Why is this here? Link Module

61 Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules
Infancy and Childhood James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University & Aneeq Ahmad, Henderson State University & Amy Jones w/ Garber edits Worth Publishers Module

62 References erikson stuff
Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Module

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