Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 – Development:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 – Development: Infancy and ChildhoodPHYSICAL,PERCEPTIAL AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 3:1 AND 3:2
2 What is developmental psychology? The study of changes that occur as an individual matures.
3 Brainstorm with neighbor Nature vs. NurtureWhat makes us who we are?Genes or environment?Brainstorm with neighbor
4 biological dispositions that we’re born with (genes) NATUREbiological dispositions that we’re born with (genes)
5 our surroundings, upbringing, social influences NURTUREour surroundings, upbringing, social influencesExample: Rats in a deprived environment had less brain development.
6 “How do the brain and motor skills develop during infancy and childhood?”
7 Hence..breast feeding and the sucking motion. NEWBORNSREFLEXES- inherited automatic responses.Grasping reflex-an infants response to touch on palm of hand.Rooting reflex- if an infant is near the mouth he will move his head and mouth toward the source of the touch.Hence..breast feeding and the sucking motion.
8 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTIn the womb neural cells develop one-quarter million per minute.When born you have most of the brain cells you will ever have.Ages 3 to 6 most rapid growth is in the frontal lobes (rational planning).
9 Areas linked with thinking, memory, and language are the last to develop. Severe deprivation and abuse can retard development.Maturation sets the basic course of development and experience adjusts it.
10 MATURATIONthe internally programmed growth of a child
11 MOTOR DEVELOPMENTThe sequence of physical (motor) development is universal.Babies roll over, sit unsupported, creep on all fours, and then walk; these developmental milestones are the same around the world.Blind children do too.Genes play a major role in motor development.Identical twins typically begin sitting up and walking on nearly the same day.
12 MOTOR DEVELOPMENTThe rapidly developing cerebellum creates our readiness to learn walking around age 1.The “wonderchild” began walking at 9 months.. I wonder what happened since then…
13 Earliest memories seldom predate our third birthdays. INFANT MEMORYCan you recall your first day of preschool or your third birthday party?Earliest memories seldom predate our third birthdays.Babies only 3 months old can learn to move a mobile by kicking it and can retain that learning for a month.What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system somehow remembers.
15 PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT Besides grasping and sucking newbornshave mature perception skills.Perception- recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory.Hmmm is that possible?
16 LANGUAGE DEVELPOMENTany set or system of such symbols as used in a more or less uniform fashion by a number of people, who are thus enabled to communicate intelligibly with one another.any system of formalized symbols, signs, sounds, gestures, or the like used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, emotion, etc.:
17 LANGUAGE AQUISITION How do we acquire language? Is there a window for this learning?Why is it harder for adults as opposed to kids??Telegraphic speech-
19 CH 3:2 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Jean Piaget ( )His interest in cognitive development began in 1920 while developing questions for intelligence tests.REVIEW- COGNITION all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatingCore idea: “Children are active thinkers, constantlytrying to construct moreadvanced understandings.”
20 PIAGET proposed that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages. The driving force between our intellectual progression is our unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences.
21 COMPLETE G.O. ON PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PP. 75YOUR OWN WORDS
22 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Typical Age RangeDescription of StageDevelopmental PhenomenaBirth to nearly 2 yearsSensor motorExperiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and graspingObject permanenceStranger anxietySchema/ball does not exist2 to about 6 or 7 yearsPreoperationalRepresenting things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoningPretend playEgocentrismSchema/exist when I do notsee it. If I flatten the ball ithas less clay.About 7 to 11 yearsConcrete operationalThinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operationsConversationMathematical transformationsSchema/flatten ball it has samemassAbout 12throughadulthoodFormal operationalAbstract reasoningAbstract logicPotential for mature moralreasoningSchema/cut ball 2 balls w/same amount of clay
23 HOW KNOWING CHANGES How do we make sense of the world? How do we make sense of random unrelated events to understand them?How to we understand anything?FIRST WE…
24 PIAGET Sensorimotor – touching, tasting, moving Pre-Operational – pretend play, object permanence (knowing an object continues to exist even when out of sight)Concrete Operational – understand conservation (quantity does not change despite changes in shape), mathFormal Operational – abstract thinking, hypothetical situations, moral reasoning
25 CREATE schema’s…Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. By adulthood we have built countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love.
26 Then we try to understand new objects by using one of our preexisting schemas.. HOW??? Through..Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas.Accommodation: adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. We change OUR schema to fit and adapt to the NEW situation
29 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated.Before reaching the concrete operational stage, children have trouble with conservation.Conservation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.As adults we overestimate the extent which others share our opinions and perspective. As we assume something is clear to us it will be clear to others.
30 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory of the mind: people’ have ideas about their own and other’s mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and behaviorsBetween 3 to 4 years old, children come to realize that others may hold false beliefs. Children with autism have an impaired ability to infer other’s states of mind.As adults we overestimate the extent which others share our opinions and perspective. As we assume something is clear to us it will be clear to others.Autism’s underlying cause – altered brain circuitry involving the fibers connecting distant neurons and enabling communication among brain regions- appears to result from an unknown number of genes interacting with the environment.
31 Autism: a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other’s states of mind.
32 Social Development/Emotional Development E.Q. “How do the bonds of attachment form between caregivers and infants?”Stranger Anxiety: A babies ability to evaluate people as unfamiliar and possibly threatening helps protect babies 8 months and older.Children have schemas for familiar faces; when they cannot assimilate the new face into these remembered schema, they become distressed.
33 Origins of AttachmentThe attachment bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their parents/caregivers.1. Contact is one key to attachment.As adults we overestimate the extent which others share our opinions and perspective. As we assume something is clear to us it will be clear to others.Autism’s underlying cause – altered brain circuitry involving the fibers connecting distant neurons and enabling communication among brain regions- appears to result from an unknown number of genes interacting with the environment.
34 At 12 months, many infants cling tightly to a parent when they are frightened or expect separation. 2. Familiarity is another key to attachment.Attachments based on familiarity formed during a critical period-(LORENZ) an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces properdevelopment.
35 MEET CHIRPIN CHARLIE AND LA QUISHA For some animals attachment happens with the first moving object they see. This rigid attachment process is called imprinting.MEET CHIRPIN CHARLIEANDLA QUISHA
46 Once formed this attachment is difficult to reverse. Children do not imprint.Children do become attached to what they’ve known.Mere exposure fosters fondnessFamiliarity is a safety signal.Familiarity breeds contentment
47 What accounts for children’s attachment differences? Is attachment style the result of parenting or is it influenced genetically?A father’s love and acceptance have been comparable to a mother’s love in predicting offspring’s health and well-being.Anxiety over separation from parents peaks at around 13 months, then gradually declines.
48 Deprivation of Attachment Individuals are often withdrawn, freighted, even speechless.If institutionalized more than 8 months, individuals often bear lasting emotional scars.Harlow’s Monkeys: females often were neglectful, abusive, and even murderous.The unloved often become the unloving.Most abusive parents – and many condemned murders report having been neglected or battered as children.
49 Attachment Differences Erik Erikson ( ) – Developmental psychologist“Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust, the infant develops hope, which is the earliest form of what gradually becomes faith in adults.”
50 Attachment and Erik Erikson Securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust.Basic trust: a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.Basic trust is attributed to early parenting.Infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear.
51 Attachment and Erik Erikson Affects our adult styles of romantic love: secure, trusting attachment, anxious attachment, or avoidance of attachment.Early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships.“What is learned in the cradle, lasts to the grave.” ~ French proverb
52 AINSWORTH STUDY – 3 types of attachment Secure: a healthy bond with caregiversAmbivalent: child is unsure, lacks trust in caregiversAvoidant: child is insecure and distant, caused by neglect (ignoring the baby’s cries of distress)
54 Parenting StylesResearchers have identified three parenting styles:Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience.Permissive: parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons for choices.
55 Child-Rearing Practices cont. Children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, concerned, authoritative parents.Children with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill and self-esteem..
56 Children with permissive parents tend to be more aggressive and immature.
58 Most abused children do not later become violent criminals or abusive parents. Most children growing up under adversity are resilient and become normal adults.30% of those abused do become abusers – four times the U.S. national rate of child abuse.
59 . Extreme childhood trauma can leave footprints on the brain. Show changes in the brain chemical serotonin which calms aggressive impulse
60 Children terrorized by abuse or war suffer other lasting wounds = nightmares, depression. In the teens years there are troubles with substance abuse, binge eating, or aggression.Child sexual abuse, if severe and prolonged, increases the risk for healthproblems, psychologicaldisorders, substance abuse, andcriminality.
61 SUMMARY OF PARENTINGEffective parenting sets limits for the child in an atmosphere of love and acceptance.The limits change and lessen as the child grows older and becomes a part of the decision making process of the family.The child learns to assume responsibility gradually, to exercise judgment in appropriate situations, and to identify with parents as role models.Effective parenting helps a child become independent, confident, cooperative, and responsible.
62 it’s about acquiring an identity and learning to live with others. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 3:3SOCIALIZATION-Process of learning the rules of a culture in which an individual is born and will live.Its more than just the rules..its what is meaningful, valuable, beautiful, worth fighting for, it’s knowing the value of a work ethic, ect, ect.it’s about acquiring an identity and learning to live with others.
63 Sigmund Freud Freud’s Psychosexual Development Erik Erikson Theory of Psychosocial DevelopmentLawrence Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development
64 FreudFreud's definition of SEX is : "Any process that involves the build up of tension, followed by some action or event that releases that tension" So: Freud is discussing our focus on the tension created in each stage & the process to reduce it….
66 Freud's TheoryWe do what we do because of our childhood experiences related to our sexual drive. We go through five stages with different areas of our body being the focus in each stage.Personality disorders are due to being “stuck” in a certain stage
67 1. Oral Stage, 0-1.5 Erogenous Zone: Mouth of, relating to, or the arousing of sexual feelingsGratifying Activities: nursing, sucking, gumming, biting & swallowingnursing represents love.Controlled by id.Symptoms of Oral Fixation: smoking, nail biting, overeating, chewing
68 Anal Stage, 1.5-3 Erogenous Zone: Anus Gratifying Activities: Potty TrainingCan be good/bad experience depending on parents.Anal Personality: sloppy, reckless, defiantAnal Retentive Personality: obsessively clean & intolerant of those who aren’t.
69 3. Phallic Stage, 4-5 Erogenous Zone: Genitals Gratifying Activities: FondlingMost challenging stageOedipus Complex - castration anxietyElectra Complex - penis envyFixation for men: anxiety about sex, narcissistic personalityFixation for women: no certainty of acceptance
70 LATENCY STAGE 6 TO PUBERTY Erogenous Zone: NoneSexual feelings are suppressedSchool, activities
71 GENITAL STAGE PUBERTY TO ADULTHOOD Erogenous Zone: genitalGratifying activities: masturbation & heterosexual relationshipsPursuit of relationshipsNo fixations. Problems at this stage were caused by issues in earlier stages.
72 ERIKSONInfants and children must develop trust, autonomy, initiative, and competence in order to become healthy adults/Erikson believes SOCIAL APPROVAL is a key component of development
73 LEARNING THEORIESFreud and Erikson stress the emotional dynamics of social development.Both believe learning the social rules is different from learning to ride a bike. Others disagree.They believe children learn the social rules through rewards by CONFORMING to please adults in hopes of gaining rewards. In short:CONDITIONING. Hmmmm.
74 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH Role Taking/Play.. Important?Wearing different hats teaches children to know what is expected when they assume/take on that role.
75 IMPORTANCE OF PLAY AND ROLE TAKING Games allow children to try on different rolesTaking on the roles of adults by acting accordingly helps them understand the rules of the game…so to speakGames teach us how to make up rulesGames teach us to work and negotiate with others in the group,Games teach us how to gain acceptance from the groupGames teach us to to see different points of view.