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Chapter 3 – Development:

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1 Chapter 3 – Development:

2 What is developmental psychology?
The study of changes that occur as an individual matures.

3 Brainstorm with neighbor
Nature vs. Nurture What makes us who we are? Genes or environment? Brainstorm with neighbor

4 biological dispositions that we’re born with (genes)
NATURE biological dispositions that we’re born with (genes)

5 our surroundings, upbringing, social influences
NURTURE our surroundings, upbringing, social influences Example: Rats in a deprived environment had less brain development.

6 “How do the brain and motor skills develop during infancy and childhood?”

7 Hence..breast feeding and the sucking motion.
NEWBORNS REFLEXES- inherited automatic responses. Grasping reflex-an infants response to touch on palm of hand. Rooting reflex- if an infant is near the mouth he will move his head and mouth toward the source of the touch. Hence..breast feeding and the sucking motion.

8 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT In the womb neural cells develop one-quarter million per minute. When born you have most of the brain cells you will ever have. Ages 3 to 6 most rapid growth is in the frontal lobes (rational planning).

9 Areas linked with thinking, memory, and language are the last to develop.
Severe deprivation and abuse can retard development. Maturation sets the basic course of development and experience adjusts it.

10 MATURATION the internally programmed growth of a child

11 MOTOR DEVELOPMENT The sequence of physical (motor) development is universal. Babies roll over, sit unsupported, creep on all fours, and then walk; these developmental milestones are the same around the world. Blind children do too. Genes play a major role in motor development. Identical twins typically begin sitting up and walking on nearly the same day.

12 MOTOR DEVELOPMENT The rapidly developing cerebellum creates our readiness to learn walking around age 1. The “wonderchild” began walking at 9 months.. I wonder what happened since then…

13 Earliest memories seldom predate our third birthdays.
INFANT MEMORY Can you recall your first day of preschool or your third birthday party? Earliest memories seldom predate our third birthdays. Babies only 3 months old can learn to move a mobile by kicking it and can retain that learning for a month. What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system somehow remembers.


Besides grasping and sucking newborns have mature perception skills. Perception- recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory. Hmmm is that possible?

16 LANGUAGE DEVELPOMENT any set or system of such symbols as used in a more or less uniform fashion by a number of people, who are thus enabled to communicate intelligibly with one another. any system of formalized symbols, signs, sounds, gestures, or the like used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, emotion, etc.:

17 LANGUAGE AQUISITION How do we acquire language?
Is there a window for this learning? Why is it harder for adults as opposed to kids?? Telegraphic speech-


Jean Piaget ( ) His interest in cognitive development began in 1920 while developing questions for intelligence tests. REVIEW- COGNITION all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Core idea: “Children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings.”

20 PIAGET proposed that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages.
The driving force between our intellectual progression is our unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences.


22 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensor motor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping Object permanence Stranger anxiety Schema/ball does not exist 2 to about 6 or 7 years Preoperational Representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Schema/exist when I do not see it. If I flatten the ball it has less clay. About 7 to 11 years Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conversation Mathematical transformations Schema/flatten ball it has same mass About 12 through adulthood Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for mature moral reasoning Schema/cut ball 2 balls w/same amount of clay

23 HOW KNOWING CHANGES How do we make sense of the world?
How do we make sense of random unrelated events to understand them? How to we understand anything? FIRST WE…

24 PIAGET Sensorimotor – touching, tasting, moving
Pre-Operational – pretend play, object permanence (knowing an object continues to exist even when out of sight) Concrete Operational – understand conservation (quantity does not change despite changes in shape), math Formal Operational – abstract thinking, hypothetical situations, moral reasoning

25 CREATE schema’s… Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. By adulthood we have built countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love.

26 Then we try to understand new objects by using one of our preexisting schemas..
HOW??? Through.. Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas. Accommodation: adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. We change OUR schema to fit and adapt to the NEW situation

27 Cognitive Development

28 Impossible Objects

29 Piaget’s Cognitive Development
Infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated. Before reaching the concrete operational stage, children have trouble with conservation. Conservation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. As adults we overestimate the extent which others share our opinions and perspective. As we assume something is clear to us it will be clear to others.

30 Piaget’s Cognitive Development
Theory of the mind: people’ have ideas about their own and other’s mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and behaviors Between 3 to 4 years old, children come to realize that others may hold false beliefs. Children with autism have an impaired ability to infer other’s states of mind. As adults we overestimate the extent which others share our opinions and perspective. As we assume something is clear to us it will be clear to others. Autism’s underlying cause – altered brain circuitry involving the fibers connecting distant neurons and enabling communication among brain regions- appears to result from an unknown number of genes interacting with the environment.

31 Autism: a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other’s states of mind.

32 Social Development/Emotional Development
E.Q. “How do the bonds of attachment form between caregivers and infants?” Stranger Anxiety: A babies ability to evaluate people as unfamiliar and possibly threatening helps protect babies 8 months and older. Children have schemas for familiar faces; when they cannot assimilate the new face into these remembered schema, they become distressed.

33 Origins of Attachment The attachment bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their parents/caregivers. 1. Contact is one key to attachment. As adults we overestimate the extent which others share our opinions and perspective. As we assume something is clear to us it will be clear to others. Autism’s underlying cause – altered brain circuitry involving the fibers connecting distant neurons and enabling communication among brain regions- appears to result from an unknown number of genes interacting with the environment.

34 At 12 months, many infants cling tightly to a parent when they are frightened or expect separation.
2. Familiarity is another key to attachment. Attachments based on familiarity formed during a critical period-(LORENZ) an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.

For some animals attachment happens with the first moving object they see. This rigid attachment process is called imprinting. MEET CHIRPIN CHARLIE AND LA QUISHA











46 Once formed this attachment is difficult to reverse.
Children do not imprint. Children do become attached to what they’ve known. Mere exposure fosters fondness Familiarity is a safety signal. Familiarity breeds contentment

47 What accounts for children’s attachment differences?
Is attachment style the result of parenting or is it influenced genetically? A father’s love and acceptance have been comparable to a mother’s love in predicting offspring’s health and well-being. Anxiety over separation from parents peaks at around 13 months, then gradually declines.

48 Deprivation of Attachment
Individuals are often withdrawn, freighted, even speechless. If institutionalized more than 8 months, individuals often bear lasting emotional scars. Harlow’s Monkeys: females often were neglectful, abusive, and even murderous. The unloved often become the unloving. Most abusive parents – and many condemned murders report having been neglected or battered as children.

49 Attachment Differences
Erik Erikson ( ) – Developmental psychologist “Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust, the infant develops hope, which is the earliest form of what gradually becomes faith in adults.”

50 Attachment and Erik Erikson
Securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust. Basic trust: a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. Basic trust is attributed to early parenting. Infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear.

51 Attachment and Erik Erikson
Affects our adult styles of romantic love: secure, trusting attachment, anxious attachment, or avoidance of attachment. Early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships. “What is learned in the cradle, lasts to the grave.” ~ French proverb

52 AINSWORTH STUDY – 3 types of attachment
Secure: a healthy bond with caregivers Ambivalent: child is unsure, lacks trust in caregivers Avoidant: child is insecure and distant, caused by neglect (ignoring the baby’s cries of distress)

53 PARENTING Are LIMITS important? WHY?

54 Parenting Styles Researchers have identified three parenting styles: Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience. Permissive: parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment. Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons for choices.

55 Child-Rearing Practices cont.
Children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, concerned, authoritative parents. Children with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill and self-esteem..

56 Children with permissive parents tend to be more aggressive and immature.

57 When is a parenting style abuse?

58 Most abused children do not later become violent criminals or abusive parents.
Most children growing up under adversity are resilient and become normal adults. 30% of those abused do become abusers – four times the U.S. national rate of child abuse.

59 . Extreme childhood trauma can leave footprints on the brain.
Show changes in the brain chemical serotonin which calms aggressive impulse

60 Children terrorized by abuse or war suffer other lasting wounds = nightmares, depression.
In the teens years there are troubles with substance abuse, binge eating, or aggression. Child sexual abuse, if severe and prolonged, increases the risk for health problems, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and criminality.

61 SUMMARY OF PARENTING Effective parenting sets limits for the child in an atmosphere of love and acceptance. The limits change and lessen as the child grows older and becomes a part of the decision making process of the family. The child learns to assume responsibility gradually, to exercise judgment in appropriate situations, and to identify with parents as role models. Effective parenting helps a child become independent, confident, cooperative, and responsible.

62 it’s about acquiring an identity and learning to live with others.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 3:3 SOCIALIZATION- Process of learning the rules of a culture in which an individual is born and will live. Its more than just the rules.. its what is meaningful, valuable, beautiful, worth fighting for, it’s knowing the value of a work ethic, ect, ect. it’s about acquiring an identity and learning to live with others.

63 Sigmund Freud Freud’s Psychosexual Development
Erik Erikson Theory of Psychosocial Development Lawrence Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development

64 Freud Freud's definition of SEX is :  "Any process that involves the build up of tension, followed by some action or event that releases that tension"    So: Freud is discussing our focus on the tension created in each stage & the process to reduce it….


66 Freud's Theory We do what we do because of our childhood experiences related to our sexual drive. We go through five stages with different areas of our body being the focus in each stage. Personality disorders are due to being “stuck” in a certain stage

67 1. Oral Stage, 0-1.5 Erogenous Zone: Mouth
of, relating to, or the arousing of sexual feelings Gratifying Activities: nursing, sucking, gumming, biting & swallowing nursing represents love. Controlled by id. Symptoms of Oral Fixation: smoking, nail biting, overeating, chewing

68 Anal Stage, 1.5-3 Erogenous Zone: Anus
Gratifying Activities: Potty Training Can be good/bad experience depending on parents. Anal Personality: sloppy, reckless, defiant Anal Retentive Personality: obsessively clean & intolerant of those who aren’t.

69 3. Phallic Stage, 4-5 Erogenous Zone: Genitals
Gratifying Activities: Fondling Most challenging stage Oedipus Complex - castration anxiety Electra Complex - penis envy Fixation for men: anxiety about sex, narcissistic personality Fixation for women: no certainty of acceptance

Erogenous Zone: None Sexual feelings are suppressed School, activities

Erogenous Zone: genital Gratifying activities: masturbation & heterosexual relationships Pursuit of relationships No fixations. Problems at this stage were caused by issues in earlier stages.

72 ERIKSON Infants and children must develop trust, autonomy, initiative, and competence in order to become healthy adults/ Erikson believes SOCIAL APPROVAL is a key component of development

73 LEARNING THEORIES Freud and Erikson stress the emotional dynamics of social development. Both believe learning the social rules is different from learning to ride a bike. Others disagree. They believe children learn the social rules through rewards by CONFORMING to please adults in hopes of gaining rewards. In short: CONDITIONING. Hmmmm.

Role Taking/Play.. Important? Wearing different hats teaches children to know what is expected when they assume/take on that role.

Games allow children to try on different roles Taking on the roles of adults by acting accordingly helps them understand the rules of the game…so to speak Games teach us how to make up rules Games teach us to work and negotiate with others in the group, Games teach us how to gain acceptance from the group Games teach us to to see different points of view.

76 MORAL DEVELOPEMENT Heinz steals the drug…

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