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A High Energy Neutrino Astronomy from infancy to maturity LAUNCH Meeting Heidelberg Christian Spiering DESY A.

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Presentation on theme: "A High Energy Neutrino Astronomy from infancy to maturity LAUNCH Meeting Heidelberg Christian Spiering DESY A."— Presentation transcript:

1 A High Energy Neutrino Astronomy from infancy to maturity LAUNCH Meeting Heidelberg Christian Spiering DESY A

2 A High Energy Neutrino Astronomy from infancy to maturity A technological

3 A The idea A Moisej Markov Bruno Pontecorvo M.Markov, 1960 : We propose to install detectors deep in a lake or in the sea and to determine the direction of charged particles with the help of Cherenkov radiation

4 A The detection principle muon tracks cascades

5 A Why neutrinos ? or e :  :  ~ 1:2:0 changes to (typically) 1:1:1 at Earth  Travel straight (in contrast to CR)  Are not absorbed by IR or CMB (in contrast to gammas and CR)  Clear signature of hadronic nature

6 A Challenges  Low interaction cross section  Need huge detection volumes  Actual neutrino flux depends on target thickness  Predictions 25 years ago have been up to two orders of magnitude higher than today  1990s: recognize need of cubic kilometer detectors  Now: cubic kilometer detectors will possibly just scratch the interesting range Martin Harwitt: „Would one have believed the timid predictions of theoreticians, X-ray astronomy would likely have started only a decade later.“

7 A Pioneering DUMAND ~ 1975: first meetings towards an underwater array close to Hawaii Test string 1987 Proposal 1988: The „Octagon“ (~ 1/3 AMANDA) Termination 1996

8 A Pioneering Baikal NT m 1366 m  1981 first site explorations  1984 first stationary string  1993 first neutrino detector NT-36  1994 first atm. Neutrino separated  1998 NT-200 finished Ice as natural deployment platform

9 A

10 A Pioneering Baikal A textbook neutrino 4-string stage (1996) cascades 140 m Detection of high energy cascades outside the instrumented volume Fence the observation volume with a few PMTs  4 times better sensitivity at high energies NT200+ NT200+ running since 2006

11 A AMANDA  1990: first site studies at South Pole  1993/94 shallow detectors in bubbly ice  1997: 10 strings (AMANDA-B10)  2000: AMANDA-II

12 A AMANDA Hot water drilling

13 A AMANDA AMANDA-II depth Scattering bubbles dust

14 A AMANDA  + N   + X AMANDA sykplot events below horizon more on point sources in the following talk

15 A South and North AMANDA & Baikal skyplot, galactic coordinates

16 A Parameters of neutrino telescopes Effective area:  ~ TeV  ~ TeV  ~ TeV Point source sensitivity:  AMANDA, ANTARES: ~ / (cm² s) above 1 TeV  IceCube : ~ / (cm² s) above 1 TeV AMANDA, ANTARES IceCube

17 A IceCube Dark sector AMANDA IceCube Skiway South Pole Station Geographic South Pole

18 A IceCube  4800 Digital Optical Modules on 80 strings  160 Ice-Cherenkov tank surface array (IceTop)  1 km 3 of instrumented Ice  Surrounding existing AMANDA detector

19 A Hose reel Drill tower Hot water supply IceTop Station (2 tanks) Less energy and more than twice as fast as old AMANDA drill

20 A

21 A … not always easy

22 A IceCube Drilling & Deployment

23 A Status 2007

24 A Cumulative Instrumented Volume  Graph shows cumulative km 3 ·yr of exposure × volume  1 km 3 ·yr reached 2 years before detector is completed  Close to 4 km 3 ·yr at the beginning of 2 nd year of full array operation.

25 A 4100m 2400m 3400m ANTARES NEMO NESTOR The Mediterranean approach

26 A ANTARES Neutrino candidate from 5-string detector

27 A Physics from Baikal & AMANDA  Atmospheric neutrinos  Diffuse fluxes  Point sources  see talk of Elisa Resconi  Coincidences with GRB  Supernova Bursts & SNEWS  WIMP indirect detection  Magnetic monopoles  ….

28 A Atmospheric neutrinos  Spectrum measured up to ~ 100 TeV

29 A Limit on diffuse extraterrestrial fluxes  Spectrum measured up to ~ 100 TeV  From this method and one year data we exclude E -2 fluxes with  E 2 > 2.7  GeV sr -1 s -1 cm -2

30 A Limit on diffuse extraterrestrial fluxes  Spectrum measured up to ~ 100 TeV  From this method and one year data we exclude E -2 fluxes with  E 2 > 2.7  GeV sr -1 s -1 cm -2  With 4 years and improved methods we are now at  E 2 > 8.8  GeV sr -1 s -1 cm -2

31 A  MPR bound, no neutron escape (gamma bound)  Factor 11 below MPR bound for sources opaque to neutrons Experimental limits & theoretical bounds

32 A  MPR bound, neutrons escape (CR bound)  Factor 4 below MPR bound for sources transparent to neutrons Experimental limits & theoretical bounds

33 A AGN core (SS) AGN Jet (MPR) GRB (WB) GZK Experimental limits & theoretical bounds

34 A AGN core (SS) „old“ Stecker model excluded old version Experimental limits & theoretical bounds

35 A AGN core (SS, new version) „new“ Stecker model not excluded (MRF = 1.9) Experimental limits & theoretical bounds

36 A AGN Jet (MPR) GRB (WB) still above AGN jet (MPR) (MRF ~ 2.3) Experimental limits & theoretical bounds

37 A Limit on diffuse extraterrestrial fluxes AMANDA HE analysis Baikal IceCube muons, 1 year Icecube, muons & cascades 4 years GRB (WB)

38 A Coincidences with GRB Hughey et al., astro-ph/ bursts 73 bursts Check for coincidences with - BATSE - IPN - SWIFT 408 bursts With IceCube: test WB within a few months

39 A Detection of Supernova Bursts  ice uniformly illuminated  detect correlated rate increase on top of PMT noise SN neutrino signal simulation center of galaxy, normalized to SN1987A Dark noise in AMANDA only ~ 500 Hz !

40 A Participation in SNEWS coincidence BNL Super-K alert SNO LVD AMANDA (IceCube) and astro-ph/ IceCube will follow this year …several hours advanced notice to astronomers

41 A Supernova in IceCube 5  signal for SN of 1987A strength Dark noise in IceCube Optical Modules is only ~ 250 Hz !

42 A Summary  tremendous technological progress over last decade (Baikal, South Pole, now also Mediterrannean)  no positive detection yet, but already testing realistic models/bounds  IceCube reaches 1 km 3  year by the end of 2008  entering region with realistic discovery potential  IceCube discoveries/non-discoveries will influence design of KM3NeT

43 A Events from IC9  Left: upward muon  Right: IceTop/IceCube event

44 A Back-ups

45 A WIMPs: neutrinos from center of Earth  Assumptions:  Dark matter in Galaxy due to neutralinos  Density ~ 0.3 GeV/cm 3  +   b + b C +  + 

46 A WIMPs: neutrinos from center of Earth

47 A WIMPs: neutrinos from Sun   Amanda

48 A WIMPs: neutrinos from Sun

49 A Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles Cherenkov-Light  n 2 ·(g/e) 2 n = 1.33 (g/e) = 137 / 2   = v/c upper limit (cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ) KGF Soudan MACRO Orito Baikal Amanda IceCube  electrons

50 A Icecube Performance: muons Effective Area for Muons Galactic center * Studies based on simpler reconstructions waveform information will improve Muon neutrino Angular resolution

51 A Sensitivities AMANDA (neutrinos) IceCube (neutrinos) Sensitivity (2π sr, 100% ontime): TeV 3 years exposure, 5 sigma 90% U.L.  AMANDA, ANTARES: ~ / (cm² s) above 1 TeV  IceCube : ~ / (cm² s) above 1 TeV

52 A The big picture TeV 1 EeV Dumand Frejus Macro Baikal/Amanda IceCube/ KM3NeT Rice AGASA Rice GLUE Anita, Auger Flux * E² (GeV/ cm² sec sr) Sensitivity to HE diffuse neutrino fluxes Waxman-Bahcall limit

53 A Methods for > 100 PeV  Radio detection of showers at the moon  GLUE, Kalyazhin  in future: LOFAR, SKA  Radio detection of neutrinos in ice or salt  RICE, ANITA, Test array AURA (IceCube)  future: ARIANNA, SALSA  Acoustic detection of neutrinos in water and ice  test arrays SPATS (IceCube) and AMADEUS (ANTARES)  Detection of fluorescence signals in air  from ground: AGASA, Auger  from space: FORTE, in future – EUSO, OWL

54 A Detectors underground  KGF  BAKSAN *  FREJUS  IMB  KAMIOKANDE  MACRO  Super- KAMIOKANDE * e.g. MACRO, 1356 upgoing muons ~1000 m² *) still data taking

55 A All flavor limits Normalized to one flavor and assuming e     = 1:1:1 full IceCube, 4 years, combining muon and cascade data

56 A Coincidences with GRB Hughey et al., astro-ph/ bursts 73 bursts 408 bursts


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