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Birth and the Newborn Baby Chapter 5. Childbirth and Culture: How Birthing Has Changed  Home Deliveries  Midwives  Reducing the Risks of Childbirth.

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Presentation on theme: "Birth and the Newborn Baby Chapter 5. Childbirth and Culture: How Birthing Has Changed  Home Deliveries  Midwives  Reducing the Risks of Childbirth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Birth and the Newborn Baby Chapter 5

2 Childbirth and Culture: How Birthing Has Changed  Home Deliveries  Midwives  Reducing the Risks of Childbirth  Antibiotics  Safe anesthesia  Improved hygiene  Drugs for inducing labor

3 Childbirth and Culture: How Birthing Has Changed  Contemporary Settings for Childbirth  Hospital  Home births with a trained nurse-midwife  Homelike birth centers  Rooming-in policies  “ Demedicalizing ” and “ humanizing ” the experience

4 The Birth Process  Labor  Parturition  Begins about two weeks before delivery  Uterine, cervical and other changes occur  False contractions (Braxton-Hicks)

5 The Birth Process  Stages of Childbirth  Dilation of the cervix  Lasts 12 to 14 hours  Descent and emergence of the baby  Lasts 1 to 2 hours  Expulsion of the placenta  Lasts 10 minutes to 1 hour

6 The Birth Process  Electronic Fetal Monitoring  Tracks the fetus ’ s heartbeat during labor and delivery  Externally or internally  Telometry  Sends information remotely

7 The Birth Process  Vaginal Versus Cesarean Delivery  Vaginal is the usual method  Reasons for Cesarean  Labor progresses too slowly  Fetus seems to be in trouble  Vaginal bleeding  Breech or transverse position of baby

8 The Birth Process  Medicated Versus Nonmedicated Delivery  Natural childbirth  Lamaze method  Medicated  Local  Pedunal block  Analgesic  Regional  Epidural or spinal

9 The Newborn Baby  Adrenaline and Noradrenaline Are Produced by the Baby ’ s Body During Birth  Causes lungs to clear  Mobilizes stored fuel to nourish cells  Sends blood to the heart and brain  May promote bonding with the mother

10 The Newborn Baby  Size and Appearance  Neonates in the U.S. average about 7 ½ pounds and 20 inches long  Large head ¼ the body length  Red skin  Birthmarks  Receding chin

11 The Newborn Baby  Size and Appearance  Misshapen head (lasts about 1 week)  Soft spots (fontanels)  Lanugo  Vernix caseosa

12 The Newborn Baby  Body Systems  Most babies begin breathing soon after they are exposed to air  If over 5 minutes →anoxia or hypoxia  Most other systems begin functioning 4 to 6 hours after delivery  Nourishment  Elimination of waste  Temperature regulation

13 The Newborn Baby  Medical and Behavioral Assessment  Apgar Scale  A ppearance (color)  P ulse (heart rate)  G rimace (reflex irritability)  A ctivity (muscle tone)  R espiration (breathing)

14 The Newborn Baby  States of Arousal and Activity Levels  State of arousal is inborn  Most new babies spend 75% of their time asleep  Alternates between quiet and active sleep  As the child grows into toddlerhood its sleep time decreases  Sleep schedules vary across cultures

15 States of Arousal

16 Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath  Low Birth Weight  Usually from inadequate prenatal nutrition  Preterm (premature) infants → under 37 weeks of gestation  Small-for-date  12.5 percent of U.S. infants are preterm  8.1 percent have low birth weight (under 5 ½ pounds)

17 Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath  Low Birth Weight  Factors concerning having a low-birth-weight baby  Demographic and socioeconomic factors  13.7 percent of African American babies have low birth weight  Medical factors predating the pregnancy  Prenatal behavioral and environmental factors  Medical conditions associated with the pregnancy

18 Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath  Low Birth Weight  Immediate treatment and outcomes  Feeding intravenously  Place infant in an isolette  Administering surfactant

19 Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath  Low Birth Weight  Long-term outcomes  Adult-onset diabetes  Increased risk of cardiovascular disease  In extremely low-birth-weight infants:  Neurological  Sensory  Cognitive  Educational  Behavioral

20 Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath  Postmaturity  42+ weeks ’ gestation  Tend to be long and thin  Complicates labor  Risk of brain damage or death  Induction of labor is common

21 Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath  Stillbirth  Death of a fetus at or after the 20 th week of gestation  Perinatal death  Death of a baby within 24 hours after childbirth  Women over 35 or under 20 have higher risk

22 Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath  Can a Supportive Environment Overcome Effects of Birth Complications?  Infant Health and Development Program  Kauai Study  Protective factors

23 Newborns and Parents  Childbirth and Bonding  Mother-infant bond  Ethological approach  Evolutionary perspective  Imprinting  Konrad Lorenz

24 Newborns and Parents  What Do Newborns Need From Their Mother?  Harry Harlow ’ s experiment  Comfort of close bodily comfort  Father ’ s Role  Differs by culture  Changed much since mothers began to work outside the home


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