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Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery Night Curriculum Series.

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Presentation on theme: "Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery Night Curriculum Series."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery Night Curriculum Series

2 Learning Objectives Know the etiology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) Know the criteria used to diagnose HIE Review the clinical severity grading of HIE Be able to describe the pathophysiology of posthypoxic brain injury Become familiar with the assessment tools available to evaluate infants with HIE Know how hypothermia is used for neuroprotection and the criteria for using it Become familiar with the results of trials of allopurinol and opioids as neuroprotective agents

3 Case Scenario You are paged to a code in the delivery room. Upon arrival, you are told that the patient is a 32 year old G2P1 woman whose last baby was delivered via C-section for breech presentation, but who wished to attempt a vaginal birth for this pregnancy. Right before you were paged, the woman, who is at term and had been in labor for the past 4 hours, suddenly complained of excruciating abdominal pain, became hypotensive, and fetal heart tones were lost. She is now under general anesthesia and the OB is performing an emergent C-section.

4 Case Scenario What is the differential diagnosis? What are the implications of the maternal condition on the fetus? What should you expect in the immediate management of the newborn in the DR?

5 Case Scenario The baby is delivered via C-section and is brought to the radiant warmer. Initial assessment reveals an unresponsive floppy infant with no respiratory effort and a heart rate of 80bpm. Resuscitation is undertaken. Subsequent Apgar scores are 1, 4, and 7 at 1, 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. The baby is transferred to the NICU for further care.

6 Case Scenario What complications should you expect from this delivery and what is the underlying pathophysiology? What diagnostic and prognostic studies should be done in the NICU? What treatments are available for this baby and what are the criteria to treat?

7 Definitions Hypoxia or Anoxia: A partial (hypoxia) or complete (anoxia) lack of oxygen in the brain or blood Asphyxia: The state in which placental or pulmonary gas exchange is compromised or ceases altogether Ischemia: The reduction or cessation of bloodflow to an organ which compromises both oxygen and substrate delivery to the tissue Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: Abnormal neurologic behavior in the neonatal period arising as a result of a hypoxic-ischemic event.

8 Etiology of HIE Maternal: o Cardiac arrest o Asphyxiation o Severe anaphylaxis o Status epilepticus o Hypovolemic shock Uteroplacental: o Placental abruption o Cord prolapse o Uterine rupture o Hyperstimulation with oxytocic agents Fetal: o Fetomaternal hemorrhage o Twin to twin transfusion o Severe isoimmune hemolytic disease o Cardiac arrhythmia

9 Incidence of HIE Occurs in 1-6 per 1000 live term births in developed countries o 25% die or have multiple disabilities o 4% have mild to moderate forms of cerebral palsy o 10% have developmental delay (this is similar to the control population!)

10 Pathophysiology The immature brain is in some ways more resistant to hypoxic-ischemic events compared to older children & adults o This may be due to: Lower cerebral metabolic rate Immaturity in the development of the balance of neurotransmitters Plasticity of the immature CNS

11 Pathophysiology Gestational age plays an important role in the susceptibility of CNS structures o < 20 weeks: Insult leads to neuronal heterotopia or polymicrogyria o weeks: Insult affects white matter, leading to periventricular leukomalacia o Term: Insult affects primarily gray matter

12 Pathophysiology Other factors that influence the distribution of CNS injury: o Cellular susceptibility (neuron most susceptible) o Vascular territories (watershed areas) o Regional susceptibility (areas of higher metabolic rates, ie. Thalamus) o Degree of asphyxia

13 Potential pathways for brain injury after hypoxia-ischemia. Perlman J M Pediatrics 2006;117:S28-S33 ©2006 by American Academy of Pediatrics

14 Pathophysiology Acute HIE leads to primary and secondary events: o Primary neuronal damage: cytotoxic changes due to failure of microcirculation  inhibition of energy-producing molecular processes  ATPase membrane pump failure  cytotoxic edema and free radical formation  compromised cellular integrity o Secondary neuronal damage: May extend up to 72 hours or more after the acute insult and results in an inflammatory response and cell necrosis or apoptosis (fueled by reperfusion)

15 Diagnosis There is no clear diagnostic test for HIE Abnormal findings on the neurologic exam in the first few days after birth is the single most useful predictor that brain insult has occurred in the perinatal period Essential Criteria for Diagnosis of HIE: o Metabolic acidosis (cord pH 12) o Early onset of encephalopathy o Multisystem organ dysfunction

16 Clinical Staging of HIE (Sarnat and Sarnat, 1976) HIE can be divided into Mild, Moderate, and Severe

17 Systemic Complications of HIE Acute renal failure in up to 20% of asphyxiated term infants Myocardial dysfunction and hypotension in 28-50% of term infants Elevated LFTs in 80-85% of term infants Coagulation impairment is relatively common in severely asphyxiated infants Supportive care required!!

18 Assessment Tools in HIE Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) o When performed early, it may reflect dysfunction rather than permanent injury o Most useful in infants who have moderate to severe encephalopathy Marginally abnormal or normal aEEG is very reassuring of good outcome Severely abnormal aEEG in infants with moderate HIE raises the probability of death or severe disability from 25% to 75%

19 Assessment Tools in HIE Evoked Potentials o Brainstem auditory evoked potentials, visual evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials can be used in full-term infants with HIE o More sensitive and specific than aEEG alone o However, not as available as aEEG and there is a lack of experience among pediatric neurologists Therefore aEEG is preferred because of easy access, application, and interpretation

20 Assessment Tools in HIE Neuroimaging o Cranial ultrasound: Not the best in assessing abnormalities in term infants. Echogenicity develops gradually over days o CT: Less sensitive than MRI for detecting changes in the central gray nuclei o MRI: Most appropriate technique and is able to show different patterns of injury. Presence of signal abnormality in the internal capsule later in the first week has a very high predictive value for neurodevelopmental outcome

21 Management - Hypothermia Has become standard of care Whole-body and head-cooling available o Unclear if one regimen is superior to the other - currently either one is utilized, based on availability Aim to get core (rectal) temperature to 33-35º C for 72 hours o based on Cool Cap and NICHD Neonatal Research Network trials

22 Hypothermia - Mechanism of Action Reduces cerebral metabolism, prevents edema Decreases energy utilization Reduces/suppresses cytotoxic amino acid accumulation and nitric oxide Inhibits platelet-activating factor, inflammatory cascade Suppresses free radical activity Attenuates secondary neuronal damage Inhibits cell death Reduces extent of brain damage o DEATH OR SEVERE DISABILITY AT 18 MONTHS OF AGE SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED!!

23 Criteria for Hypothermia Hypothermia is not effective for every baby o Currently only used in infants > 35 weeks Time interval between birth and initiation of treatment important o Treatment must be started within 6 hours of birth to be effective

24 UCMC Criteria for Hypothermia Infant must be 35 weeks gestation or more Infant must have 2 of the following: o Apgar score of 5 or less at 10 minutes o Mechanical ventilation or resuscitation at 10 minutes o Cord or arterial pH <7 or base deficit of 12 or more within 60 minutes of birth Cooling must be started within 6 hours of birth Core temp goal of 33-34ºC for 72 hours

25 Pharmacologic Management Allopurinol o Some trials have shown a decrease in mortality and a beneficial effect on free radical formation, cerebral blood flow and electrical brain activity o Meta-analysis concluded that more trials need to be done using allopurinol as an adjunct to hypothermia to make a conclusion on its effectiveness in treating HIE

26 Pharmacologic Management Opioids o A few studies have demonstrated that morphine and fentanyl may have a neuroprotective effect after HIE with less severe signs of brain damage on MRI at 7 days of life and better neurologic outcomes at 13 months of age o However, long term effects of these medications are not known and more prospective randomized trials are warranted.

27 Gaps in Current Knowledge What is the contribution of the fetal inflammatory response? Are there gender and genetic influences? How can all drugs be delivered effectively across the blood-brain barrier? What additional evaluations should be performed at the time of delivery to enhance therapy? What are potential treatment strategies for infants who initially present beyond 6 hours of age?

28 Questions 1. The mother of a baby with suspected HIE inquires about the possibility of a brain insult in her infant. Of the following, the single most useful predictor of brain insult in this infant is the evidence of: A. Abnormal neurologic exam findings B. Cerebral edema on cranial US C. Elevated creatinine phosphokinase D. Hemodynamic and pulmonary imbalance E. Multisystem organ dysfunction

29 Questions 1. The mother of a baby with suspected HIE inquires about the possibility of a brain insult in her infant. Of the following, the single most useful predictor of brain insult in this infant is the evidence of: A. Abnormal neurologic exam findings B. Cerebral edema on cranial US C. Elevated creatinine phosphokinase D. Hemodynamic and pulmonary imbalance E. Multisystem organ dysfunction

30 Questions 2. The severity of HIE can be graded as mild, moderate, or severe, using a classification proposed by Sarnat and Sarnat. Of the following, the criterion most consistent with the diagnosis of mild HIE is: A. Absence of seizures B. Low Apgar scores C. Need for assisted ventilation D. Proximal muscle weakness E. Obtunded state of consciousness

31 Questions 2. The severity of HIE can be graded as mild, moderate, or severe, using a classification proposed by Sarnat and Sarnat. Of the following, the criterion most consistent with the diagnosis of mild HIE is: A. Absence of seizures B. Low Apgar scores C. Need for assisted ventilation D. Proximal muscle weakness E. Obtunded state of consciousness

32 Questions 3. Several ancillary tests have been proposed to improve the prediction of long-term outcome of infants who have suffered from HIE. Of the following, the most useful and practical test for determining the prognosis of HIE is: A. Cranial ultrasound B. MRI C. EEG D. Near-infrared spectroscopy E. Somatosensory evoked potentials

33 Questions 3. Several ancillary tests have been proposed to improve the prediction of long-term outcome of infants who have suffered from HIE. Of the following, the most useful and practical test for determining the prognosis of HIE is: A. Cranial ultrasound B. MRI C. EEG D. Near-infrared spectroscopy E. Somatosensory evoked potentials

34 References Allan WC. The clinical spectrum and prediction of outcome in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Neoreviews 2002; 3; e108- e115 Delivoria-Papadopoulos M, et al. Biochemical basis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Neoreviews 2010; 11; e184-e193 Fanaroff and Martin’s Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant, 9th edition. 2011, p Marro, PJ, et al. Pharmacology review: Neuroprotective treatments for hypoxic-ischemic injury. Neoreviews 2010; 11; e311-e315 Shankaran S. Neonatal encephalopathy: Treatment with hypothermia. Neoreviews 2010; 11; e85-e92


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