Presentation on theme: "Part 1: Genetics and infancy"— Presentation transcript:
1Part 1: Genetics and infancy Human DevelopmentPart 1: Genetics and infancy
2PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint SlidesMr. MableTucker High School2009
3Developing Through the Life Span and Genetics Chapter 3&4
4Developmental Psychology Studies Lifespan DevelopmentFrom the “Cradle to the Grave” or from the “Womb to the Tomb.”What changes occur?How do we reduce Negative effects?
5Developmental Issues Continuity and Stages Researchers who view development as a slow, continuous process are generally those who emphasize experience and learning. Biologists, on the other hand, view maturation and development as a series of genetically predisposed steps or stages. These include psychologists like Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson.OBJECTIVE 33| Summarize current views on continuity versus stages and stability versus change in lifelong development.
6Developmental Issues Stability and Change Lifelong development requires both stability and change. Personality gradually stabilizes as people age. However, this does not mean that our traits do not change over a lifetime. Some temperaments are more stable than others.
7Nature vs. Nurture Issue Nature - Heredity & GeneticsNurture - Environmental InfluencesTwin Studies are used to determine which is influencing our behavior. Longitudinal & Cross-sectional studies are also used.
8Developmental Psychology IssueDetailsNature/NurtureHow do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior?Continuity/StagesIs developmental a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages?Stability/ChangeDo our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age.OBJECTIVE 1| State the three areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify the three major issues in developmental psychology.
9Genetic Basics Each Parent contributes 23 Chromosomes A Human has a total of 46 ChromosomesEach Chromosome contains DNAGenotype (Underlying Trait)Phenotype (Observable Trait)Dominant vs. Recessive Genes
12Developing Through the Life Span Prenatal Development and the NewbornConceptionPrenatal DevelopmentThe Competent NewbornInfancy and ChildhoodPhysical DevelopmentCognitive Development
13Prenatal Development and the Newborn How, over time, did we come to be who we are? From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence.
14ConceptionA single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuses to form one fertilized cell.OBJECTIVE 2| Describe the union of sperm and egg at conception.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyLennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
15Prenatal DevelopmentA zygote is a fertilized cell with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo (a and b).OBJECTIVE 3| Define zygote, embryo and fetus, and explain how teratogens can affect development.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyBiophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
16Prenatal DevelopmentAt 9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus (c and d). Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyLennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
17Prenatal Risks Teratogens – Poisons that can pass through the Placenta RadiationToxic Industrial Chemicals (Mercury)Diseases: Rubella, AIDS, Herpes, SyphallisDrugs: Alcohol, Cocaine, HeroinFetal Alcohol Syndrome & Birth Defects
21Symptoms of FAS low birth weight small head circumference failure to thrivedevelopmental delayorgan dysfunctionfacial abnormalities, epilepsypoor coordination/fine motor skillspoor socialization skills,lack of imagination or curiositylearning difficultiesbehavioral problemsHyperactivityinability to concentrate,
22Tay-Sachs Disease Deterioration of the Central Nervous System Defective enzyme (hexosaminidase A)Recessive Gene (Genetic Disorder)1/3500 (common in Ashkenazi Jews)
23Turner’s SyndromeTurner’s SyndromeCaused by a single X-chromosome.
24Klinefelter’s syndrome 47 XXYCaused by andextra X chromosomein males1 out of 1,000 live male births
25Phenylketonuria PKU Brain fails to develop in Infancy Defective Enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase)Recessive Gene1/12,000
26Cystic Fibrosis Mucus clogs lungs, liver, and pancreas Failure of chloride ion transport systemRecessive Gene1/2500 (Caucasians)Results in premature death
34Physical Development- Children Very poor eyesight at birth (visual cliff)Cephalocaudal Development (head to toe)Brain is only 25% of adult size & lbs.Dendrites & neural connections must increase & Myelin must grow creating faster, more coordinated movements.
35Infant ReflexesBabinski Response - fanning out of toes as sole of foot is stroked
36Infants are born with reflexes that aid in survival to locate food. The Competent NewbornInfants are born with reflexes that aid in survival to locate food.Sucking - occurs when lips are touchedRooting- turning head as cheek is touchedOBJECTIVE 4| Describe some of the abilities of the newborn, and explain how researchers use habituation to assess infant sensory and cognitive abilities.
37Infant Reflexes Grasping- when palm is touched Moro - Startle reflex : arching back with flailing of arms & legs
38Cognitive Development in the Newborn Investigators study infants becoming habituated to objects over a period of time. Infants pay more attention to new objects than habituated ones, which shows they are learning.
39Infancy and ChildhoodInfancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially.StageSpanInfancyNewborn to toddlerChildhoodToddler to teenager
40THE JOB OF CHILDREN IS TO PLAY!!!! Physical DevelopmentInfants’ psychological development depends on their biological development. To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand the developing brain.THE JOB OF CHILDREN IS TO PLAY!!!!
41Developing BrainThe developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion at 7 months, these neurons are pruned to 23 billion at birth. The greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual to think rationally.OBJECTIVE 5| Describe some developmental changes in the child’s brain, and explain why maturation accounts for many of our similarities.
42MaturationThe development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation.Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.
43Motor DevelopmentFirst, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence.OBJECTIVE 6| Outline four events in the motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence.Renee Altier for Worth PublishersPhototake Inc./ Alamy ImagesProfimedia.CZ s.r.o./ AlamyJim Craigmyle/ Corbis
44Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years.OBJECTIVE 7| Explain why we have few memories of experiences during our first three years of life.Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-CollierAmy Pedersen
45Cognitive Development Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make.OBJECTIVE 8| State Piaget’s understanding of how the mind develops, and discuss the importance of assimilation and accommodation in this process.Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache
46Schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.
47Assimilation and Accommodation The process of assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema). The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation.Bill Anderson/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Jean Piaget with a subject
48Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking OBJECTIVE 9| Outline Piaget’s four main stages of cognitive development, and comment on how children’s thinking changes during these four stages.
49Sensorimotor StageIn the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.Doug Goodman
51Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas.However, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think and count.Children understand the basic laws of physics. They are amazed at how a ball can stop in midair or disappear.
52Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms 2. Children can also count. Wynn (1992, 2000) showed that children stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones.
53Ontario Science Center Preoperational StagePiaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations… Characterized by one-dimensional thinkingOntario Science Center
56Preoperational Stage: Criticism DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use metal operations. When shown a model of a dog’s hiding place behind the couch, a 2½-year-old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year-old did.
57EgocentrismPiaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.When asked to show her picture to mommy, 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture facing her own eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes.
58The problem on the right probes such ability in children. Theory of MindPreschoolers, although still egocentric, develop the ability to understand another’s mental state when they begin forming a theory of mind.The problem on the right probes such ability in children.
59Concrete Operational Stage In concrete operational stage, given concrete materials, 6- to 7-year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities.Children in this stage understand conservation and can think in TWO Dimensions
60Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking.
61Formal Operational Stage Rudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982).If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?
62Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s stage theory has been influential globally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and development in many cultures and societies. However, today’s researchers believe the following:Development is a continuous process.Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age.Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss psychologists’ current views on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.