4Prenatal and Childhood Development Module 11Prenatal and Childhood Development
5Module Overview The Beginnings of Life Physical Development in Infancy and ChildhoodCognitive Development in Infancy and ChildhoodSocial Development in Infancy and ChildhoodThree Key Developmental IssuesClick on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
6Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development The Beginnings of LifeModule 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
7The Beginnings of Life: Prenatal Development Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
8Prenatal Development Prenatal defined as “before birth” Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with the birth of the child.
9Zygote A fertilized egg. The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell division.Cells start to differentiate and specializeAround the tenth day, the zygote attaches to the uterine wallAt the end of 14 days the zygote becomes an embryo
10Genes The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes. Direct the process of differentiation
12EmbryoA developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization until the end of the eighth week.Most of the major organs are formed during this time.At the end of the eight week the fetal period begins.
13FetusA developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth.
14PlacentaA cushion of cells in the mother by which the fetus receives oxygen and nutritionActs as a filter to screen out substances that could harm the fetus
31Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
32Developmental Psychology A subfield of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life span.More than just child development
33Jean Piaget (pee-ah-ZHAY) Pioneer in the study of developmental psychology who introduced a stage theory of cognitive development that led to a better understanding of children’s thought processes.Proposed a theory consisting of four stages of cognitive development
34CognitionAll the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.Children think differently than adults do
35SchemasConcepts or mental frameworks that people use to organize and interpret information.Sometimes called schemesA person’s “picture of the world”
36AssimilationInterpreting a new experience within the context of existing schemas.The new experience is similar to other previous experiences
37Accommodation Adapting current schemas to incorporate new information. The new experience is so novel the person’s schemata must be changed to accommodate it
41Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Sensorimotor Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
42Sensorimotor Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age)during which infants learn about the world through sensory impressions and motor activities.Child learns object permanence
43Object PermanenceThe awareness that things continue to exist even when you cannot see or hear them.“Out of sight, out of mind”
44Object Permanence Study One month old babies allowed to suck on two pacifiersInfants later shown the pacifiers looked primarily at the one they were given earlier.
45Object Permanence Study Five month olds reactions to a numerically impossible outcome are studied.
46Object Permanence Study Step One: Objects are placed in a case.
47Object Permanence Study Step Two: A screen come up
48Object Permanence Study Step Three: One object is removed in front of child.
49Object Permanence Study Step Four A: Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object.
50Object Permanence Study Step Four B: Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects.
51Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Preoperational Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
52Preoperational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about age 2 to age 6 or 7 years of age)during which a child learns to use languagebut cannot yet think logically.
53EgocentrismIn Piaget’s theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another person’s point of view orto understand that symbols can represent other objects
54Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Concrete Operational StageModule 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
55Concrete Operational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development(from about age 6 to 11 years of age)during which children gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events.Learn conservation
56ConservationThe principle (which Piaget believe to be a part of concrete operational reasoning)that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the samedespite changes in the forms of objects.
61Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Formal Operational StageModule 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
62Formal Operational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development(beginning about age 12)during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts and form strategies about things they may not have experienced.Can solve hypothetical problems (What if…. problems)
63Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Assessing Piaget Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
65Assessing Piaget’s Theory Piaget underestimated the child’s ability at various ages.Piaget’s theory doesn’t take into account culture and social differences.
66Social Development in Infancy and Childhood Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
67Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning around 8 months of age.
68Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Attachment Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
69AttachmentThe emotional tie with another person shown by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.
70Harry HarlowDid research with infant monkeys on how body contact relates to attachmentThe monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food.
71Harry HarlowThe monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth mother.
72Familiarity Sense of contentment with that which is already known Infants are familiar with their parents and caregivers.
73Konrad LorenzResearcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds,a concept he called imprinting.Goslings are imprinted to follow the first large moving object they see.
74ImprintingThe process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life.
75Critical PeriodThe optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain experiences produces proper development.
76ResponsivenessResponsive parents are aware of what their children are doing.Unresponsive parents ignore their children--helping only when they want to.
77Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Effects of Attachment Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
78Securely or Insecurely Attached Securely attached – children will explore their environment when primary caregiver is presentInsecurely attached – children will appear distressed and cry when caregiver leaves. Will cling to them when they return
79Effects of Attachment Secure attachment predicts social competence. Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative outcome.A responsive environment helps most infants recover from attachment disruption.
80Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Parenting Patterns Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
81Parental Patterns Baumrind’s three main parenting styles Authoritarian parentingPermissive parentingAuthoritative parenting
82Authoritarian Parenting A style of parenting marked by imposing rules and expecting obedienceLow in warmthDiscipline is strict and sometimes physical.Communication high from parent to child and low from child to parentMaturity expectations are high.
83Permissive ParentingA style of parenting marked by submitting to children’s desires, making few demands, and using little punishmentHigh in warmth but rarely disciplineCommunication is low from parent to child but high from child to parent.Expectations of maturity are low.
84Authoritative Parenting A style of parenting marked by making demands on the child, being responsive, setting and enforcing rules, and discussing the reason behind the rules.High in warmth with moderate disciplineHigh in communication and negotiatingMaturity expectations are moderate.
91Teacher Information Types of Files Animation This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint.AnimationOnce again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible.Adding slides to this presentationTeachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.
92Teacher Information Domain Coding Key Terms and Definitions in Red Just as the textbook is organized around the APA National Standards, these Powerpoints are coded to those same standards. Included at the top of almost every slide is a small stripe, color coded to the APA National Standards.Scientific Inquiry DomainBiopsychology DomainDevelopment and Learning DomainSocial Context DomainCognition DomainIndividual Variation DomainApplications of Psychological Science DomainKey Terms and Definitions in RedTo emphasize their importance, all key terms from the text and their definitions are printed in red. To maintain consistency, the definitions on the Powerpoint slides are identical to those in the textbook.
93Teacher InformationHyperlink Slides - Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (usually slide #4 or #5) can be found listing all of the module’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection.Continuity slides - Throughout this presentations there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes.By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts.By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation.To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides.Please feel free to contact me at with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations.Kent KorekGermantown High SchoolGermantown, WI 53022
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