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Thinking About Psychology The Science of Mind and Behavior 3e Charles T. Blair-Broeker & Randal M. Ernst PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown.

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Presentation on theme: "Thinking About Psychology The Science of Mind and Behavior 3e Charles T. Blair-Broeker & Randal M. Ernst PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thinking About Psychology The Science of Mind and Behavior 3e Charles T. Blair-Broeker & Randal M. Ernst PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, © 2012

2 Development and Learning Domain

3 Life-Span Development

4 Prenatal and Childhood Development Module 11

5 Module Overview The Beginnings of Life Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood Social Development in Infancy and Childhood Three Key Developmental Issues Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

6 The Beginnings of Life Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

7 The Beginnings of Life: Prenatal Development Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

8 Prenatal Development Prenatal defined as “before birth” Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with the birth of the child.

9 Zygote A fertilized egg. The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell division. Cells start to differentiate and specialize Around the tenth day, the zygote attaches to the uterine wall At the end of 14 days the zygote becomes an embryo

10 Genes The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes. Direct the process of differentiation

11 Prenatal Development

12 Embryo A developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization until the end of the eighth week. Most of the major organs are formed during this time. At the end of the eight week the fetal period begins.

13 Fetus A developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth.

14 Placenta A cushion of cells in the mother by which the fetus receives oxygen and nutrition Acts as a filter to screen out substances that could harm the fetus

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16 Teratogens Substances that cross the placental barrier and prevent the fetus from developing normally. Includes: radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses, drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.

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18 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Physical and cognitive abnormalities that appear in children whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while pregnant.

19 The Beginnings of Life: The Newborn Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

20 Reflex an automatic, unlearned response Sucking, swallowing and grasping reflexes are present in a newborn

21 Rooting Reflex A baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple.

22 Temperament A person’s characteristic emotional excitability. A child might be: –An “easy” or “difficult” baby Temperament shown in infancy appears to carry through a person’s life.

23 Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

24 Infant, Toddler, Child Infant: First year Toddler: From about 1 year to 3 years of age Child: Span between toddler and teen

25 Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood: The Developing Brain Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

26 Maturation Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior. Some changes are genetic Some changes are due to the environment The most neurological growth is seen from ages 3 to 6

27 Neural Development

28 Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood: Motor Development Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

29 Motor Development Includes all physical skills and muscular coordination Learning to walk

30 Motor Development

31 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

32 Developmental Psychology A subfield of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life span. More than just child development

33 Jean Piaget (pee-ah-ZHAY) Pioneer in the study of developmental psychology who introduced a stage theory of cognitive development that led to a better understanding of children’s thought processes. Proposed a theory consisting of four stages of cognitive development

34 Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering. Children think differently than adults do

35 Schemas Concepts or mental frameworks that people use to organize and interpret information. Sometimes called schemes A person’s “picture of the world”

36 Assimilation Interpreting a new experience within the context of existing schemas. The new experience is similar to other previous experiences

37 Accommodation Adapting current schemas to incorporate new information. The new experience is so novel the person’s schemata must be changed to accommodate it

38 Assimilation/Accommodation

39

40

41 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Sensorimotor Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

42 Sensorimotor Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants learn about the world through sensory impressions and motor activities. Child learns object permanence

43 Object Permanence The awareness that things continue to exist even when you cannot see or hear them. “Out of sight, out of mind”

44 Object Permanence Study One month old babies allowed to suck on two pacifiers Infants later shown the pacifiers looked primarily at the one they were given earlier.

45 Object Permanence Study Five month olds reactions to a numerically impossible outcome are studied.

46 Object Permanence Study Step One: Objects are placed in a case.

47 Object Permanence Study Step Two: A screen come up

48 Object Permanence Study Step Three: One object is removed in front of child.

49 Object Permanence Study Step Four A: Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object.

50 Object Permanence Study Step Four B: Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects.

51 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Preoperational Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

52 Preoperational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about age 2 to age 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but cannot yet think logically.

53 Egocentrism In Piaget’s theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another person’s point of view or to understand that symbols can represent other objects

54 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Concrete Operational Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

55 Concrete Operational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about age 6 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events. Learn conservation

56 Conservation The principle (which Piaget believe to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

57 Conservation

58

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60 Types of Conservation Tasks

61 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Formal Operational Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

62 Formal Operational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts and form strategies about things they may not have experienced. Can solve hypothetical problems (What if…. problems)

63 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Assessing Piaget Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

64 Assessing Piaget’s Theory

65 Piaget underestimated the child’s ability at various ages. Piaget’s theory doesn’t take into account culture and social differences.

66 Social Development in Infancy and Childhood Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

67 Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning around 8 months of age.

68 Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Attachment Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

69 Attachment The emotional tie with another person shown by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.

70 Harry Harlow Did research with infant monkeys on how body contact relates to attachment The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food.

71 Harry Harlow The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth mother.

72 Familiarity Sense of contentment with that which is already known Infants are familiar with their parents and caregivers.

73 Konrad Lorenz Researcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds, a concept he called imprinting. Goslings are imprinted to follow the first large moving object they see.

74 Imprinting The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life.

75 Critical Period The optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain experiences produces proper development.

76 Responsiveness Responsive parents are aware of what their children are doing. Unresponsive parents ignore their children--helping only when they want to.

77 Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Effects of Attachment Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

78 Securely or Insecurely Attached Securely attached – children will explore their environment when primary caregiver is present Insecurely attached – children will appear distressed and cry when caregiver leaves. Will cling to them when they return

79 Effects of Attachment Secure attachment predicts social competence. Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative outcome. A responsive environment helps most infants recover from attachment disruption.

80 Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Parenting Patterns Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

81 Parental Patterns Baumrind’s three main parenting styles –Authoritarian parenting –Permissive parenting –Authoritative parenting

82 Authoritarian Parenting A style of parenting marked by imposing rules and expecting obedience Low in warmth Discipline is strict and sometimes physical. Communication high from parent to child and low from child to parent Maturity expectations are high.

83 Permissive Parenting A style of parenting marked by submitting to children’s desires, making few demands, and using little punishment High in warmth but rarely discipline Communication is low from parent to child but high from child to parent. Expectations of maturity are low.

84 Authoritative Parenting A style of parenting marked by making demands on the child, being responsive, setting and enforcing rules, and discussing the reason behind the rules. High in warmth with moderate discipline High in communication and negotiating Maturity expectations are moderate.

85 Parenting Styles

86 Three Key Developmental Issues Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development

87 Continuity and Stages How much of behavior is continuous and how much follows a more stage like development?

88 Stability and Change What developmental traits remain stable over time, and which change?

89 Nature and Nurture How much of our behavior is due to nature and how much is due to nurture? How do nature and nurture interact in development?

90 The End

91 Teacher Information Types of Files –This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint. Animation –Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. Adding slides to this presentation –Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.

92 Teacher Information Domain Coding –Just as the textbook is organized around the APA National Standards, these Powerpoints are coded to those same standards. Included at the top of almost every slide is a small stripe, color coded to the APA National Standards. Scientific Inquiry Domain Biopsychology Domain Development and Learning Domain Social Context Domain Cognition Domain Individual Variation Domain Applications of Psychological Science Domain Key Terms and Definitions in Red –To emphasize their importance, all key terms from the text and their definitions are printed in red. To maintain consistency, the definitions on the Powerpoint slides are identical to those in the textbook.

93 Teacher Information Hyperlink Slides - Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (usually slide #4 or #5) can be found listing all of the module’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection. Continuity slides - Throughout this presentations there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes. By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides. Please feel free to contact me at with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI 53022

94 Name of Concept Use this slide to add a concept to the presentation

95 Name of Concept Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished


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