Presentation on theme: "Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e"— Presentation transcript:
1Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e Chapter 3:Infancy: Physical and Cognitive DevelopmentMeredyth Fellows, West Chester University of PA
2Postpartum Depression _______________________ Data from three states indicate that nearly 12% of women reported being moderately depressed after they delivered their baby, and 6% reported being very depressed after delivery. In addition to directly influencing the emotional wellbeing of mothers, postpartum depression (PPD) has been shown to affect marital relationships, mother–infant bonding, and infant behavior
3The Expanding Brain: Blossoming and Sculpting Brain Growth Following BirthExperiences fastest growth during infancyCerebral cortex comes “on-line” a few months after birthCerebral Cortex: outer folded mantle of brain; responsible for thinking, reasoning, perceiving, and all conscious processesIn 20 years brain volume quadruples and growth is complete.
4The Expanding Brain Recall during fetal period neurons are formed After birth, _______________ - proliferation of connections at the synapsesExuberant synaptogenesis and ___________________: formation of fatty layer encasing axonsVisual cortex myelinated by 1 yearFrontal lobes, age 20 or beyond
5Neural Pruning and Plasticity: Interaction of Nature and Nurture _________: the brain is “plastic” (malleable) during early childhood before pruning is completeFollowing a brain injury or insult, plasticity allows other brain regions to compensateFollowing childhood the brain is less plasticRehabilitation following a brain injury will help to compensate for the injury (e.g following a stroke).
7Nutrition: Breast Milk Breast Milk: recommended for 1st six monthsProtects from diseasesCorrelational studies show that breast-fed babies:are more alert during first two weeksexperience fewer gastrointestinal problems and ear infectionsare more resistant to day care diseases, colds and fluare advanced in developmental tasks as toddlersappear to be superior in later measures of intelligence in elementary school (cautious assumption – next slide!)
8Nutrition: Breast Milk Breast Milk Studies: must consider 3rd variable – Social ClassMothers from higher SES may have more opportunity to breast feed (lower SES mothers may have to work).Health - premature babies may not have the opportunityHealth of the mother may deter breast feeding (HIV)Social support and a culture that supports breast feeding are crucial factors in the choice to breast feed.
9Crying: First Communication Signal Lifetime peak at about 5 weeksReflex dominated before the cortex is “on-line” at 4 monthsVital to survival (responsive parenting is a must!)_________: frantic, continual crying during first 3 monthsCaused by immature digestive systemAnother expert’s suggestion: immature nervous systemMay contribute to parental stress, but is temporary!
10Intervention: What Quiets a Young Baby? Pacifier__________Mirrors wombKangaroo CareHold close to body in baby slingInfant MassageHelps to calm infants and contributes to growth in premature babies
11Sleeping: Main Newborn State Newborns, 18 hrs. a dayNote high % of sleep states: drowsy, quiet, and REM sleepUnlike adult sleep cycle, newborns drop immediately into REM sleepNewborns wake every 3-4 hours6 months, may sleep 6 hrs. a night1 year, 12 hrs. a night and naps during day
13Sensory and Motor Development HearingIn the womb, fetuses can discriminate different tonesSmellInfants prefer smell of breast milk within the first weekTaste:Infants stop sucking and wrinkle face in response to bitter, sour, salty tastesAvidly suck on sweet solutionsPain management technique - have infant suck on sweet substance
14Focusing on FacesNewborns prefer faces to other stimuli, especially mother’s facePrefer attractive-looking peopleInfants mimic facial expressions
15Depth Perception: the Visual Cliff Experiment When 8 month-old babies begin to crawl they perceive differences in depth and fear heights.Notice survival response!Video Joe Campos
16Cognitive Development: Piaget Stage ApproachStudied his childrenSchemasAssimilationAccommodationAdaptation
17Cognition Sensorimotor Stage: birth to 2 Explore world through senses _______________Repetitive action-oriented schemas (habits)Primary (body-centered), Secondary (environment), Tertiary (“little scientist”)Through circular reactions, infant explores and incorporates new information into existing schemas
19Sensorimotor Stage Stage 1: reflexes 0-1 month Proficiency at sucking, graspingLack ability to deliberately grasp or suckStage 2: primary circular reactions 1-4 monthsRepetition of pleasurable behavior which occurs by chance (involves own body)Stage 3: secondary circular reactions 4 – 8 monthsRepetition of pleasurable behavior which occurs by chance, but involves deliberate manipulation of object in environmentStage 4: purposeful coordination of secondary schemes 8-12monthsCombinations of actions (leaning and grasping) (looking, crawling, grasping)Stage 5: tertiary circular reactions 12 – 18 monthsExploration using new or novel actionsFormation of trial and error discoveryStage 6: mental solutions 18 – 24 monthsThinking about problems to develop solutionsInternalization of trial and errorAccompanied by language formation
20Tracking Early Thinking: Sensorimotor Stage _____________: repeating an action observed at an early timeMeans-end behavior: about 1 yr., performing a different action to reach a goalFlushing something down the toilet!____________: even though a baby sees an object hidden in a 2nd hiding place, he/she goes back to the first hiding place to find it!Classic mistake in Sensorimotor stageBaby approaches 1 year (little-scientist stage)
22Object-Permanence: Sensorimotor Stage Understanding that objects exist even when we can no longer see them.In the early Sensorimotor stage, an object does not exist unless the infant can see it!Around 5-6 months, infants begin to look for hidden objectsAbout 8 months develops object-permanence (“little-scientist stage”)Peek-a-Boo a favorite game!!
23Sequence of Language Development Prelinguistic PeriodCrying at birth_______(video) at 2 months_________(video) at 6 monthsSpoken Words- VideoAppears at about 10 monthsTypically only a few words are knownBy 18 months between 3 to 50 wordsTwo word utterances begin 18 to 24 months_________(Video) appear at about 2 to 4 years