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Chapter 2: An Overview of Communication Development Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: An Overview of Communication Development Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: An Overview of Communication Development Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

2 Focus Questions This chapter is designed to answer the following questions: What is communicative competence? What is the foundation for communicative competence? What are major communicative milestones in infancy and toddlerhood? What are major communicative milestones in preschool and school-age children? 2.1 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

3 Introduction To understand communication disorders, we first must understand how communication skills develop in “typical” populations People all around the world reach communication milestones at roughly the same ages and in the same order 2.2 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

4 Chapter Objectives Define communicative competence Describe the foundation for communicative competence Detail the major speech and language milestones from birth to adolescence Discuss important multicultural issues in language and speech development 2.3 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

5 Case Study #1: Leon Turner 2-year old with fraternal twin Lionel, and 6- year old sister Leona – children of professionals in Texas Parents concerned about Leon because, unlike Lionel, does not inflect verbs and speaks in only two-word sentences Both boys have smaller vocabularies and are less inquisitive than Leona was Mr. Turner found site on Internet claiming that 2-year olds should speak in at least 3- word sentences 2.4 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

6 Case Study #1 Questions: What are some reasons for the individual differences between Leon and Lionel in terms of language acquisition? Looking at the higher-level language abilities of their sister Leona, do you think birth order or gender has an influence on language development? 2.5 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

7 Case Study #2: Reston Third grader at public school in N. Virginia Has struggled with language development since he was a toddler Receives speech and language therapy and works with specialist for reading and writing Problems with recognizing how strings of letters relate to certain sounds Parents think he should not have to take the third grade state mandated achievement test 2.6 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

8 Case Study #2 Questions Should all students, including Reston, be required to take the state-mandated achievement tests? (“high-stakes testing”) Should students with disabilities receive special modifications for these tests? Who receives them and who does not? 2.7 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

9 Case Study #3: Sam Donalds 46-year old man in rural West Virginia – coal miner on disability and now wants to improve his own reading and tutor children Reads at a third grade level and has serious problems with phonological awareness Attends Adult Literacy Education class at local church Teacher does not think Sam can improve reading skills because of problems with phonological awareness 2.8 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

10 Case Study #3 Questions Do you think that Sam’s teacher is correct that Sam will not be able to improve his reading skills to a large extent? What would you recommend if you were Sam’s teacher? Do you think a deficit in phonological awareness is causing Sam’s reading problems? 2.9 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

11 I. What is Communicative Competence? Definition: “the knowledge and implicit awareness that speakers of a language must possess and utilize in order to communicate effectively in their language” The speaker knows how, where, when, and with whom to speak 2.10 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

12 What is Communicative Competence? Remember from Chapter 1 the four processes involved with communication: Formulation Transmission Reception Comprehension Humans are able to successfully perform these four processes if they possess two aspects of communicative competence: Linguistic Pragmatic 2.11 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

13 Linguistic Aspects of Communicative Competence Phonological Grammatical Lexical Discourse 2.12 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

14 1. Phonological Competence Ability to recognize and produce the distinctive meaningful sounds of a language (phonemes) Newborns can distinguish between the sounds of all the languages of the world, but this gradually diminishes Comprehension precedes production because production depends on development of articulators (vocal tract) 2.13 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

15 Phonological processes: the normal phonological deviations that young children make in their speech Should not be confused with an articulation disorder (unable to produce sound in any context) or a phonological disorder (deviations do not stop occurring at appropriate age) 2.14 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

16 2. Grammatical Competence Ability to recognize and produce the syntactic and morphological structures of a language effectively Syntax example: infants demonstrate understanding of word order by 16 months Morphology example: infants demonstrate understanding of morphemes separated from verb stems by 18 months As always, comprehension precedes production 2.15 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

17 3. Lexical Competence Ability to recognize and produce the conventional words used by speakers of a language 4.5 months – understand own name 6 months – understand names of salient figures (e.g., mommy) 12 months – first true word 2.16 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

18 4. Discourse Competence Ability to use fluency, coherence, and cohesion in relating information to others Unit of analysis: “speech event” Common example – failure to take the receiver’s perspective and knowledge of situation into account 2.17 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

19 Pragmatic Aspects of Communicative Competence Functional Sociolinguistic Interactional Cultural 2.18 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

20 1. Functional Competence Ability to achieve a variety of communication purposes in a language Remember from Chapter 1 – people communicate for many reasons, the most basic being: -request -reject -comment 2.19 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

21 2. Sociolinguistic Competence Ability to: (a) interpret the social meaning conveyed by language and (b) to choose language that is appropriate for specific social situations Speech register: the variety of speech appropriate to a particular speech situation -informal registers -formal registers 2.20 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

22 3. Interactional Competence Ability to understand and apply implicit rules for interaction in various communication situations, including: -starting and maintaining conversation -following standards for body language, eye contact, and physical proximity Acceptable standards vary both between and within cultures 2.21 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

23 4. Cultural Competence Ability to function effectively in cultural contexts by interpreting behavior of others and behaving in an acceptable way according to the culture Must understand culture’s attitudes, values, and beliefs 2.22 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

24 II. What is the Foundation for Communicative Competence? Infants are not born with communicative competence, but there are several early foundations that allow it to develop, including: -joint reference and attention -rituals of infancy -caregiver responsiveness -infant speech perception 2.23 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

25 1. Joint Reference and Attention Phase One: (0-6 months) develops ability to maintain attention for sustained periods of interpersonal interaction Phase Two: (6-12 months) develops joint attention: simultaneous engagement of two or more individuals in mental focus on same external object – leads to intentional communication (deliberate attempts at communication with others) Phase Three: ability to use language within interpersonal interactions 2.24 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

26 2. Rituals of Infancy Daily routines such as feeding, bathing, and dressing provide opportunities for learning language: -infants hear the same words and phrases over and over -many chances for joint attention 2.25 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

27 3. Caregiver Responsiveness Attention and sensitivity to infants’ vocalizations and communicative attempts Waiting and listening Following the child’s lead Joining in and playing Being face to face Using a variety of questions and labels Encouraging turn taking Imitating Expanding and extending 2.26 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

28 4. Infant Speech Perception and Categorization Perception and categorization of phonemes, rhythm, prosody, and lexical items – innately given With this skill and increasing language experience, infants soon develop ability to detect distributional regularities Eventually, infants are able to segment phrases and words from continuous speech 2.27 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

29 III. Communicative Milestones Beginning at birth, children all over the world reach certain communication milestones at approximately the same age and in the same order Four main developmental periods: -infancy -toddlerhood -preschool-age -school-age 2.28 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

30 Milestones in Infancy Stages of Vocal Development: -Phonation (0-1 month) -Gooing and Cooing (2-3 months) -Expansion Stage (4-6 months) -Canonical Babbling (6-8 months) -Variegated Babbling (8+ months) 2.29 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

31 Milestones in Infancy Emergence of Intentionality: -Until roughly 7 months, infants are pre- intentional -Between 7 and 12 months, infants have intentional communication, as evidenced by gestures, pointing, and eye contact 2.30 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

32 Milestones in Infancy Transition to Symbolic Representation -words are arbitrary symbols that represent concepts in the world -infants develop “mental dictionaries” with lexical entries -at roughly 12 months, infants begin using symbols, including words and referential gestures (gesture carrying a fixed meaning) 2.31 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

33 Milestones in Infancy The First Word: -first “true” word occurs around 12 months, on average -what makes it a “true” word? -clear intention and purpose -recognizable pronunciation -consistent use and extends beyond original context 2.32 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

34 Milestones in Toddlerhood Achievements in Form: -grammatical morphemes -transition to multi-word utterances -distinct grammar that governs word order -Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) -basic mastery of three sentence forms: -yes/no questions -wh-questions -negatives 2.33 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

35 Milestones in Toddlerhood Achievements in Content: -vocabulary spurt (“naming explosion”) -receptive lexicon much greater than expressive lexicon -underextensions used -overextension used -categorical -analogical -relational 2.34 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

36 Milestones in Toddlerhood Achievements in Use -use a variety of language functions: -From Chapter 1, instrumental, regulatory, personal interactional, heuristic, imaginative, and informative -not highly skilled in conversation (may not respond, maintain topic, or keep audience’s needs in mind) 2.35 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

37 Milestones in Toddlerhood Achievements in Speech: -2-year olds correctly produce about 70% of sounds they use -Attainment of specific phonemes: -Norm references: customary age of production vs. mastery -Phonological processes: -articulatory adjustments that occur during speech -final consonant deletion, reduplication, consonant harmony, weak syllable deletion, diminutization, cluster reduction, liquid gliding 2.36 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

38 Milestones in Preschool Achievements in Form: -grammatical morphology -articles, verb morphology -derivational morphology -prefixes, suffixes -sentence complexity 2.37 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

39 Milestones in Preschool Achievements in Content: -Lexicon development -average of 13,000 words by kindergarten -fast mapping -Decontextualized language -events and concepts beyond the here and now -necessary for academic success 2.38 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

40 Milestones in Preschool Achievements in Use -even more language functions, including interpretive, logical, participatory, and organizing -turn-taking skills -Narratives -true narratives – age 4 -predictor of later school outcomes 2.39 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

41 Milestones in Preschool Achievements in Speech: -by start of kindergarten, children will have mastered nearly all native language phonemes -suppression of phonological processes -environmental and biological factors can impact development - linguistic stimulation, middle ear infections 2.40 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

42 Milestones in Preschool Achievements in Emergent Literacy: -developing knowledge about reading and writing conventions -print awareness -interest, functions, conventions, and part-to-whole relationships -phonological awareness -understanding of the sound structure of spoken words 2.41 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

43 School-Age Milestones Functional Flexibility: -Ability to use language for an even larger variety of purposes: -compare/contrast -persuade -hypothesize -explain -classify -predict 2.42 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

44 School-Age Milestones Reading and Writing: -alphabetic principle: how orthography (graphemes) relates to phonology (phonemes) -Stages of reading: 1. Decoding 2. Confirmation, fluency, and ungluing from print 3. Reading for learning the new 4. Multiple viewpoints: High school 5. Construction and reconstruction – a world view: College 2.43 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

45 School-Age Milestones Literate Language: -language is highly decontextualized -learning to talk vs. talking to learn -specific features of literate language: -elaborated noun phrases -adverbs -conjunctions -mental/linguistic verbs 2.44 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

46 School-Age Milestones Form and Content Refinements -complex syntax, more evident in written language (e.g., persuasive writing) -high school graduation, command over 60,000 words -Content development areas: -multiple meanings -lexical ambiguity -figurative language 2.45 Justice Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.


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