2 Developmental Psychology Stages of developmentFetus: conception to birthInfant: birth to 1 yearToddler: 1 year to 3 yearsEarly childhood: 3 years to 6 yearsChildhood: 6 years to puberty (11-15)Adolescence: puberty to independence (18-22)Young adulthood: 20-40Middle adulthood: 40-60Late adulthood: 60-75Puberty continues up to 15 as girls cannot typically have healthy babies before age 15 and boys typically do not ejaculate live sperm until around 14 1/2
4 Milestones in Motor Development Figure from:Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
5 Basic Developmental Questions The Nature-Nurture DebateGenetics vs. environment, and their interactionCritical periods (also known as sensitive periods)Especially in vision, social development, and languageDevelopmental Research StrategiesLongitudinal vs. cross-sectional researchCohorts: groups of people born around the same timeNell: grows up in extreme isolation; develops own language based on mother’s speech defect and imaginary conversations with a twin that died at age 6; Nell becomes bilingual, but the evidence shows that this would not happenGenie: isolated in a room, tied to a chair from age 20 mos to discovery at age 13 years; “Genie go” even after long intensive workKittens: if deprived of light for 3 or 4 days at 1 month of age, visual cortex begins to degenerate; if deprived for 2 months, damage is permanentMonkeys: if young monkeys are deprived of visual input, this lead to tactile exploration of environment, even after visual input is availableQualitative stages vs. information processing
6 Figure 10.2 from:Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
7 Developmental Research: Cohort Effects In cross-sectional researchWe don’t know whether the differences between the cohorts are due to their ages, per se, or are due to the fact that they were born at different times and had different experiences as a result.In longitudinal researchWe don’t know whether the changes that occur in our cohort are due to their changes in age, per se, or are due to the particular year in which they were born.Sequential studiesA combination of longitudinal and cross-sectionalDifferent cohorts studied longitudinally
8 Conception & prenatal development Genetic Building BlocksPrenatal or “fetal” stagesZygote: fertilized eggGerminal: until 2 weeksEmbryonic: until 8 weeks (1” and 1/10 oz)Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain begin to form by week 4Cells forming the cortex are visible by week 7Fetal: until birth at 40 weeks (M = 7 lbs.)By the 7th month the fetus has a working nervous systemAt birth the brain has cortical layers, neuronal connectivity, and some myelinationHormonal influences in the womb are substantialZygote splits hundreds of times in the first two weeks (cell division) and as it does so, the zygote travels down the fallopian tubes and implants itself in the uterine wall, beginning the embryonic stageAt 7 months (28 weeks), the infant, if born prematurely, has a fighting chance for survivalHormones that circulate in the womb influence the developing fetus. For instance,if the mother’s thyroid does not produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones,the fetus is at risk for lower IQ and diminished intellectual development. Themother’s emotional state can also affect the developing fetus. Although pregnancy isoften trying, the fetuses of mothers who are unusually anxious and upset may be exposedto high levels of stress hormones, which may interfere with normal developmentand produce low birth weight and other negative cognitive and physicaloutcomes that can persist throughout life (Wadhwa, Sandman, & Garite, 2001). Anotherpossible influence of maternal hormones on the developing fetus is that of androgens,such as testosterone, on sexual orientation (as you recall from Chapter 9).Simon Baron-Cohen and his colleagues (2004) have found that levels of testosteronein the womb are correlated with a range of behaviors later in childhood, from makingeye contact to developing a vocabulary. They speculate that maternal hormonesmay play an important role in autism, a communication and cognitive disorder thatyou will learn more about in Chapter 13.
9 Teratogens and the Fetus AlcoholA mother’s heavy drinking can lead to fetal alcohol syndromeOne drink per day can cause motor and balance deficits in the childThe most damage is done during the 3rd and 4th weeks, a time when many women don’t yet know that they are pregnantDetrimental effects are still observed when the child is 14 years oldCigarettesCocaineAspirinMarijuanaAIDSRubella (German measles)X-raysMercury (fish)Teratogens: Any substance that can harm the fetusFetal alcohol syndrome: stunted growth, facial deformities, and mental retardationThalidomide: in the 1950’s, a drug given to women to ease the symptoms of pregnancy; led to birth defects, including limb deformitiesAspirin: linked to low birth weight, infant death at birth, poorer motor development, lower IQ scores in early adulthood; blood thinning is proximal cause
10 Newborn infants (neonates) TasteNewborns prefer sweet tastesSmell (olfaction)Newborns prefer the smell of their mothers’ milkHearing (Audition)Newborns are startled by and orient toward loud soundsVisionVisual acuity in newborns is 8-12 inchesNewborns can see their world clearly, but only when object is within 8” ( vision at birth)Infant can see an object at 20 feet about as well as an adult can see an object at 600 feetAdult levels of acuity reached at one yearReflexesIn adult humans, almost all behaviors are the product of learning, of one type or another. Now, there are some behaviors that are not a product of learning. One class of these behaviors are reflexes. Reflexes themselves fall into two general categories: those that stay with us our whole lives (such as the withdrawal reflex, the knee-jerk reflex, the blink reflex) and a large number that we are born with but that disappear during the first year of life (rooting, sucking, swimming, moro, palmar grasp, tonic neck, stepping, babinski). [Talk about the withdrawal reflex -- does not involve the brain] Many of these early reflexes clearly have survival value, but they are relatively inflexible. They are replaced by learned behaviors. Even though learned behaviors are probably not efficient, in terms of the speed with which they are produced, they are much more flexible in adapting to a changing environment.Another type of behavior that seems at first to have little to do with learning are eating, drinking, sleeping, and sexual behaviors. At one time these were referred to as instincts. The term instincts has always been reserved for behaviors that are not learned. But as psychologists studied eating, drinking, sleeping, and sexual behaviors, it became clear that even though the general internal push to engage in behaviors that will reduce hunger, thirst, etc. are not learned, the manner in which these behaviors are expressed is learned, through culture and personal experience. So, now psychologists refer to these as motivation rather than instincts.The term instincts is instead reserved for fixed action patterns. These are behaviors that are built into an animal’s nervous system. They are triggered by a specific stimulus, even the first time the stimulus is encountered, and all members of a particular species display the behavior (i.e., the behavior is species-specific).
11 The Developing BrainAt BirthDuring First YearNext Few YearsAt birth, all billion neurons are in place, but few connections existDuring first year, axons grow, dendrites multiply, and connections formOver next few years, active connections strengthen and inactive connections atrophy (synaptic pruning)Myelination until 4–7 years in many areas of brain and until 20 years old in the frontal lobesFigure from:Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
12 This development process leads to massive growth of the brain from 350 grams (approximately .75 pound) at birth to about 1,250 grams (2.75 pounds or about 80 percent of the adult size) by age 4.The strong role of environment in determining which synapses or connections are pruned can be illustrated by (1) rats raised in enriched environments developed bigger, heavier brains and (2) the effects of malnourishment on myelination and learning in childrenThe highest levels of density can be thought of as the times when the brain is most plastic — most able to change.12
13 Neonate Social Development: Attachment Attachment: A deep emotional bond that persists over time and across circumstances that an infant develops with its primary caretaker. Includes …A desire to be physically closeA sense of security when physically closeFeelings of distress when not closeFirst social smile: between 4 and 6 weeksAt 10 weeks, infants may become upset when their primary caregivers fail to display emotional reactions
14 Separation AnxietySeparation anxiety is a fear reaction when the primary caregiver is absentSeen in all culturesCorresponds with development of object permanenceFigure from:Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Kagan, J. (1976). Emergent themes in human development. American Scientist, 64,
15 Harlow, Bowlby, and Ainsworth Harlow (1958, 1971): infant rhesus monkeys preferred terrycloth substitutes over wire substitutes with a bottle of milkBowlby (1969, 1983): theory of attachment arguing that clinging and crying enhance the infant’s chances for survivalAinsworth (1973, 1991): measured and classified the quality of attachment
16 Styles of AttachmentStrange Situation Test: A parent-infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child’s (1-2 yrs. old) attachmentSecure Attachment: Baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion; about 60% of infantsInsecure AttachmentAnxious-ambivalent (resistant): baby clings to the parent when present, cries at separation, and reacts with anger or apathy to reunionAvoidant: indifferent or avoidant during presence, separation, and reunion1. Experimenter introduces parent and baby to playroom and then leaves2. Parent is seated while baby plays with toys3. Stranger enters, is seated, and talks to paren4. Parent leaves room. Stranger responds to baby and offers comfort if upset.5. Parent returns, greets baby, and offers comfort if necessary. Stranger leaves room.6. Parent leaves room.7. Stranger enters room and offers comfort.8. Parent returns, greets baby, offers comfort if necessary, and tries to re-interest baby in toys.
19 Other issues in attachment BiologyThe hormone oxytocin plays a role in attachment.Why do infants differ in attachment style?TemperamentCaregiver responsivenessCaregiver-infant fitEarly attachment styles are predictive of social behavior in elementary school (and adults?).But predictability is not 100%Internal working modelsBased on their first intimate relationship (their attachment relation with the primary caretaker), children develop an idea of what intimate relationships are like and they carry this idea into all of their new relationships. This idea is sometimes termed an internal working model.DaycareCHEMISTRY OF AT TACHMENT Scientists working at the biological level ofanalysis have recently discovered that the hormone oxytocin is related to social behaviors,including infant-caregiver attachment (Carter, 2003). Oxytocin plays a rolein maternal tendencies, feelings of social acceptance and bonding, and sexual gratification.In terms of the mother and infant, oxytocin affects both of them, promotingbehaviors that ensure the survival of the young. For instance, in both animal andhuman studies, infant suckling triggers the release of oxytocin, which in turn leadsto biological processes that move milk into the milk ducts so the infant can nurse.Oxytocin also facilitates infant attachment to the mother. Research using rat pupsthat have been separated from their mothers and later reunited with them has foundthat pups who formed an association between a specific odor and maternal reunionshow a preference for that smell. However, the odor is not preferred among pupsthat have been given an oxytocin inhibitor, indicating that oxytocin is important forthese attachment associations.Father’s role: key to attachment is caretaking (feeding, changing, bathing, etc.); so, father can be an attachment figure if he is involved on this levelUS Bureau of the Census (1996): 60% of American mothers with a child under 2 are employedInitial studies indicated many more problems, but recent studies have shown that this is not necessarily the case: There is a bit more insecure attachment in daycared infants (36% to 29%), but all-in-all, it’s the quality of the daycare that is the most important factor in promoting normal emotional and cognitive development of children in daycare. Quality can be defined as the ratio of children to adults and the attentiveness of the adults to the children. Other important elements are the number of hours per week. As a rule of thumb, still okay at less than 30, but more than 30 is asking for trouble. In addition, it is important for that the choice for or against daycare matches the desires of the mother. For example, if the mother is at home, but wants to be at work, it may be better for the child to be in daycare.
20 Infancy and Childhood I Experimental techniques for assessing a baby’s knowledgePreferential looking techniqueBabies look longer at novel or interesting stimuliWhen shown two stimuli simultaneously, if a baby looks longer at one, then the baby can tell the difference between themUsing this technique, it has been found that . . .2- to 5-day old infants prefer high-contrast patterns and faces12- to 21-day old infants imitate adult facial expressionsBy 2 mos., infant can discriminate colors and focus on objects as well as an adult (if the stimuli are displayed close enough)By 6 mos. 20/100By 11 mos., adult level visual acuityDepth perception emerges between 3 and 6 ½ monthsFor example, if you want to know whether an infant can discriminate between a black and white checkerboard pattern with 4 squares and one with 8 squares …Visual cliff experimentsCrawling and depth perception are linkedBoth emerge at about 7 mos.
21 Infancy and Childhood II Experimental techniques for assessing a baby’s knowledgeHabituation paradigmsAn infant will become habituated to (become bored with) a stimulus that does not changeHowever, if the infant shows a “recovery response” (i.e., dishabituates) to a change in the stimulus, this indicates that it can distinguish between the old and new stimuliUsing this technique, it has been found that . . .2-day old infants prefer their mother’s voice over an unfamiliar female voice2-day old infants prefer particular stories that their mother read while the infant was still in utero (i.e., in the womb)When given a pacifier that the infant can use to control which stimulus is presentedWhen measuring sucking rateThe frequency and intensity with which an infant sucks a pacifierInfants prefer high-pitch sounds and the human voice“Motherese”During the final 12 weeks in utero, the fetus can distinguish sounds from the external worldMother read the same story twice a day every day for the last six weeks (DeCasper & Spence, 1986).Motherese: child-directed speech; a form of language made up of short sentences with high-pitched exaggerated expression and very clear pronunciation; especially eeh, ah, ooh, which were spontaneously used in Swedish, Russian, and English.Do you want to play with the beads?
22 Infancy and Childhood III Rovee-Collier (1999) and the development of memoryBaseline phase: measure kicking rate when ribbon is not tied from baby’s ankle to mobileLearning phase: measure kicking rate when ribbon is attached to the mobile and the mobile moves when baby kicksTest phase: after some period of time, reattach ribbon and measure kicking rateUsing this technique, it has been found that . . .6 week olds will kick to move the mobile attached to their foot one week after the learning phase (Rovee-Collier, 1988)3 month olds that learn to kick when the mobile blocks have A’s on them will not kick as vigorously with a mobile that has 2’s on itMemories in 3 month olds can even be reactivated a month later with a simple reminder (the experimenter moves the mobile once)Infants remember longer as they get olderBy 18 mos., they can remember the learning phase for several weeksNewborns can differentiate linguistic stimuli on a variety of dimensions, which supports the notion that they are born with a LAD (language-acquisition device)(1) pa vs. ba(2) different multisyllabic wordsRovee-Collier: Also, 3 mo. olds that learn to kick when blocks on the mobile have A’s on them will not kick as vigorously with a mobile that has blocks with 2’s on themWynn: (1) put objects on the stage(2) cover with screen(3) add or take away an object(4) remove screen(5) number remaining is “correct” or “incorrect”
23 Infancy and Childhood IV Memory problems in childhoodInfantile amnesia (also known as childhood amnesia)Most people cannot recall anything that happened before the age of 3Source amnesiaChildren have special difficulty remembering where they learned something.ConfabulationChildren make things up when asked about something.Children’s memory, especially preschoolers, is highly vulnerable to repetition, misinformation, leading questions, and outside sources of informationChildren are notoriously unreliable eyewitnessesChildren have relatively poor metamemory skillsMetamemory refers to a person’s knowledge about the contents, and regulation, of memory.Metamemory plays an important role in planning, allocation of cognitive resources, strategy selection, comprehension monitoring, and evaluation of performance. Young children (under the age of 10) find it difficult (1) to monitor the contents of memory, (2) to estimate the resources needed to complete a task, (3) to select an appropriate strategy for the task, and (4) to monitor their learning. As a consequence, self-regulation is poor and leads to overconfidence or illusions about how well one can (or does) remember something.See also metacognition in children.
24 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development When testing children, Piaget observed that children at different ages make characteristic errorsThese errors signal the fact that children at different ages use a logic that is different from that of adultsChildren form schemas and use these schemas to make sense of new informationAssimilation: Children incorporate new information into their existing schemasAccommodation: Children alter their existing schemas in order to make sense of new informationKassin’s earth schema example: how does a child incorporate the idea that the earth is a sphere into their initial schema that the earth is flat? Through a series of stages: disc earth, dual earth, goldfish bowl earth, flattened sphere earth, then finally earthAssimilation vs. accommodation: If I assimilate you, do you become more similar to me or I more similar to you? If I accommodate you, do you become more similar to me or I more similar to you?
25 General elements of Piaget’s Cognitive Stage Theory Children pass through a series of four cognitive stagesThe exact age at which children transition from one stage to the next varies from child to childThe sequence of stages is universalThe transition from one stage to the next is relatively abruptThe transition from one stage to the next consists of qualitative (not quantitative) changes in the way the child comes to understand and explores their world
26 Four stages of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (0-2)Preoperational (2-6)Concrete Operational (7-11)Formal Operational (13-Adult)Operations – the ability to internally manipulate ideas according to a stable set of rules
27 Sensorimotor stage 0-2 years old Infants come to know their world through physically interacting with their environmentFrom 1-5 months, the primary tool of exploration is the mouthInfants younger than 8 months old lack object permanenceThat is, when an object is out of sight, it is out of mindOne of the reasons infants like to play peek-a-booIt is now known that infants as young as 4 months old will demonstrate object permanence when tested using more sensitive tasksCircular reactions: repetition of an accidental event; this repetition becomes more and more complex (varied, think before acting, etc.) as time passesLack of object permanence is the “error” that characterizes the sensorimotor stageActually, the peek-a-boo thing is interesting: Do they like it when they don’t have object permanence (and that the object reappears is surprising) or does their interest continue even after object permanence because of hypothesis testingDescribe Teresa’s ball-box experiment
28 Representational Thought The ability to create and use mental representations (internal images of absent objects and past events) and symbols (words and images that do not have an iconic relationship with their referent)The development of representational thought bridges the sensorimotor and preoperational stagesSome examplesSolve sensorimotor problems without trial and errorDeferred imitationThe ability to remember and copy the behavior of models that are not immediately presentMake-believe (pretend) playHow does a child prior to 18 mos. get a wagon or trike unstuck? Trial and error. How about after 18 mos.?
29 Preoperational Stage 2-6 years old During second year, memory improves Children move from playing peek-a-boo to playing hide-and-seekHowever, they lack full use of operations – the ability to internally manipulate ideas according to a stable set of rulesEgocentrismOthers can tell what they are thinkingOthers know everything that is going on in their livesHiding in full viewLack of conservationConservation: Basic properties of an object or situation are conserved (remain stable) despite superficial changesInstead, their thinking is rigid – limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the momentEgocentric: I am the center of the universe and everyone is concerned with what I am doing, thinking, feeling, etc.Animistic thinking: inanimate objects experience the world the way I do (the clouds are angry at the sun)But it is now known that in many ways 3 and 4 year olds are not egocentric(1) they speak more simply to babies(2) they have theory of mind: that is, a set of ideas about the existence of other people’s perceptions, thoughts, beliefs, desires, feelings, and intentionsCannot think about two properties of an object at once – cannot perform two mental operations at once
30 Egocentrism: The 3 mountain task Let the preoperational child walk around the display for themselves.Then ask them to pick the picture of the mountains that the bear sees.They just pick the picture that they themselves see.They cannot take the bear’s perspective.
31 Conservation Tasks Figure 10.15a from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
32 Operational Stages Concrete Operational (7-11 years old) Less egocentricUnderstands conservationUnderstands transitivity (If A>B and B>C, A>C)But cannot state general abstract rules that govern a variety of similar situations2 is even, 2+1 is odd, as are 4+1, 6+1, 8+1, but the child cannot state the principle “Any even number plus 1 is an odd number”Tends to use trial and error approaches for problem solvingFormal Operational (age 13 –adult)Now has the cognitive capacity for thinking logically, but it is not necessarily the case that every adult does so
33 The pendulum problemThe pendulum problem clearly differentiates the concrete operational and the formal operational stages.The pendulum problem: give a child strings of different lengths, objects of different weights, and a bar to hang the string from. Ask them to figure out what influences the speed with which the pendulum swings through it’s arcConcrete operational children experiment unsystematically. For example, they don’t hold all other things constant while varying one thing.Formal operational children solve the problem in a hypothetico-deductive fashion (begin with a theory, deduce particular hypotheses, test these hypotheses systematically)The theory is that the length of the string, the weight of the object, the height to which the object is raised, and the force with which it is pushed all contribute to the speed. Then they test this systematically.
34 Challenges to Piaget: Earlier and More Violation of expectation paradigmsHabituate the infant to a possible event, then compare with looking time to an “impossible” eventIf the baby looks longer at the impossible event, this shows that the baby expected a certain event to occur and was surprised when it did notUsing this technique, it has been found that . . .4.5 month old infants have object permanence4-month old infants expect that two similar objects moving together are part of a single object3-month old infants know that objects do not hang suspended in mid-air without support5-month old infants have rudimentary arithmetic skillsLooked longer (were surprised) when they “expected” a certain number of objects to be behind a screen that was removed, but there was a different number of objects insteadWynn: (1) put objects on the stage(2) cover with screen(3) add or take away an object(4) remove screen(5) number remaining is “correct” or “incorrect”McCrink & Wynn (2004): same idea but with 5 block blocks on a computer monitor and nine month olds could do this
35 Understanding the relation between movement and physical properties requires cognitive skills. Infants appear to use movement to infer that objects moving together are continuous.35
36 Infants seem to intuitively sense that a box placed in midair must fall. 36
38 Children who might not have succeeded on Piaget’s marble test were able to choose the row that contained more items when those items were M&Ms and the test question was Which row would you like to eat?38
39 Theory of Mind Theory of mind Knowing that other people have mental states and using that knowledge to explain and predict their behaviorChildren begin to read other people’s intentions by the end of their first year and become very good at doing so by the end of their second yearChildren can take another person’s perspective by the end of their fourth or fifth yearThe false belief testGood cross-cultural evidenceNot a problem with general intelligence, as kids with Down syndrome can do the false belief testChildren older than nine months show greater impatience when an adult is unwilling to give them a toy then when the adult is unable to give them a toy. Also, children did not imitate the actual movements (which included slipping) of an adult when the adult was trying to separate two dumbbells; instead they only imitated the separating.In the false belief test, child A watches child B place a toy in a particular box, after which child B leaves the room. Then Child A moves the toy to another box and predicts where, upon returning, child B will look for the toy.Coincides with frontal lobe development.When adults think about other people’s mental states, their frontal lobes light up in neuroimaging.
41 The Heinz dilemmaIn Europe a woman was near death from cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. A druggist in the same town had discovered it, but he was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together half of what it cost. The druggist refused to sell it cheaper or let Heinz pay later. So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have done that? Why?
42 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning There are three stages in Kohlberg’s theoryPreconventionalConventionalPostconventionalThe difference between these stages is not necessarily determined by what decision a person makesIn other words, saying Heinz should not steal the drug is not automatically a sign of a higher stage of moral reasoningInstead, the difference between these stages is determined by the reasoning behind the decisionThe following slides should make this clear
43 Preconventional Level At this level of moral reasoning, the reasons behind the decision emphasize avoidance of punishment and obtaining rewardIf a person said that Heinz should not steal the drug becauseSociety will punish him for the crime (avoidance of punishment)It’s more risk to Heinz than it is worth, since if he is caught, he will go to jail, his wife will die, and he won’t be there for her (emphasis on the fact that Heinz will lose the reward of being with his wife)If a person said that Heinz should steal the drug becauseHis wife’s family would be less critical (avoiding punishment)He would still have his wife after spending some time in jail (emphasis on the reward of having his wife)All of these people would be described as being at the preconventional level(3) Satisfying personal needs: Not taking a stance; each person onto themselves; It’s his own life he’s risking so he can decide what he wants; People can have different perspectives
44 Conventional LevelAt this level of moral reasoning, the reasons behind the decision emphasize meeting learned moral standards, avoiding disapproval, and maintaining law, order, honor, and dutyIf a person said that Heinz should not steal the drug becauseWhat will others in society think of me? (Avoiding disapproval)Laws state stealing is illegal and everyone must follow the rules, regardless of how they feel (Maintaining law and order)If a person said that Heinz should steal the drug becauseHis wife’s family will think more highly of him (seeking approval)It is honorable to sacrifice oneself (and avoid the guilt of dishonor)It is one’s duty (by virtue of one’s marriage vows)All of these people would be described as being at the conventional level
45 Postconventional Level: Part I At this level of moral reasoning, individualsUnderstand the notion of social contractLaws and rules are flexible instruments for furthering human purposesWhen a law is consistent with individual rights and the interests of the majority, everyone agrees to participate because it is the most good for the most peopleAlternative social orders are possibleThere should be fair procedures for interpreting and changing the lawFollow there own conscience, which is based on carefully reasoned-out principles, such asEqual consideration of the claims of all peopleRespect for the dignity of each person
46 Postconventional Level: Part II If a person said that Heinz should steal the drug becauseThe law against stealing is wrong, when the stealing is from a person that is charging exorbitant prices and people are dying because of it (an individual’s right to life is violated)What value can be held more highly than the value of life? It doesn’t make sense to put respect for property above respect for life.Both of these people would be described as being at the postconventional level.
47 Criticisms/Alternatives to Kohlberg Some cultural differences not reflected in this theoryAlthough moral reasoning and moral behavior are often related, moral reasoning is not a necessary component for moral behaviorInstead, morality in children is rooted in moral emotionsEmpathy, sympathy, guilt, shame, and embarrassmentHow children select between fulfilling one’s own desires and meeting the needs of another person is predictive of moral behaviorParents’ behaviors influence the development of moral emotionsCultural differences: Some non-Western cultures value conventional morality over the individualistic quality of post-conventional reasoningThe Heinz dilemma pits a rule against one’s own sense of right and wrong. In contrast, the emotion approach presents a conflict between fulfilling one’s own desires and meeting the need of another person. In other words, the moral emotion approach can be contrasted with selecting between rules and one’s own sense of morality, as in the Heinz dilemma. For example, (1) going to the beach or helping a friend study, (2) hoarding food after a flood or sharing with others, and (3) getting an injured child’s parents or going to a party.The developmental progression when given the moral emotion problems is . . .Preschoolers: selfGrade schoolers: more others oriented, but because of what others thinkLate adolescence: increase in feelings of guilt and sympathy and an increase in perspective-taking leads to more social responsibilityParents of sympathetic children are high in sympathy themselves, allow them to express negative emotions that are not harmful to others, help their children cope with negative emotions, and promote an understanding of others. Also, it has been shown that the development of moral emotions is enhanced when parents reasoned about behaviors, commented on emotions and intentions, and made evaluative comments about behaviors.
48 Language Development I Elements of LanguagePhoneme: Basic, distinct sounds of a spoken language.Over 40 phonemes in EnglishMorpheme: The smallest meaningful unit of a languageSyntax: Rules of grammar that govern how words can be combined into sentences in order to convey meaning.In English we use word orderBill told the men to deliver the piano on Monday.Bill told the men on Monday to deliver the piano.Beth asked the man about this headaches.About the Beth headaches man asked his.
49 Lanuage Development II Characteristics of Human LanguageSemanticityThe property of language that describes the separate units and how these units have meaning.GenerativityProperty of language that accounts for our capacity to use a limited number of words to produce an infinite variety of expressions.DisplacementProperty of language that allows communication about matters that are not here and not now.
50 Generativity Figure 7.17 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
51 Language Development III Newborns can differentiate linguistic stimuli on a variety of dimensionspa vs. badifferent multisyllabic wordsInfants as young as four days old prefer to listen to their native languageAfter several months of exposure to their native language, babies lose the ability to distinguish between phonemic sounds that are not important to their native languageAll of which supports the notion that they are born with a LAD (language-acquisition device)
52 Language Development IV By age 6, children know 14,000 words and syntaxAdults know 50,000 – 60,000 wordsDevelopmental sequenceNewborn: cryingSecond month: babblingOne year old: first word (ba for bottle)From 1 year old to 2 years old, child accumulates 250 wordsTwo years oldnaming explosion begins (learn an average of 9 words per day)vocabulary is larger if parents talk with childtelegraphic speech (“more juice”)3 to 5 years oldAs children learn syntactic and grammatical rules, overgeneralization may occur and child may make errors that they did not make earlierLike adding –ed to run instead of saying “ran”Performatives vs. true words: utter a word in the appropriate context, but not know the meaning (right around 1 year old)Telegraphic speech: lacks appropriate articles, verbs, etc.Impatience and rejection will slow language development. Responsiveness will strengthen language development.Acceptance of child’s attempts to talk as meaningful and worthwhileSensitivity to child’s needs and capacities.Using an utterance length just ahead of the child’s; creating a sensitive match between adult and child speechRepetition of one’s own and the child’s utterances; also, the use of simple questions.Conversational give and takeDialogues about picture books1 & 2 are the foundation. 3 & 4 fall out of 1 & 2. Numbers 4-6 are predictive of language development.
53 Other Language Development Issues I Vigotsky: The role of culture in languageSocial and cultural context influences language development, which in turn influences cognitive development.First, the child directs their speech towards others, asking for food or toys.Later, they begin to direct their speech inwards, giving themselves directions or talking to themselves while playing.Eventually, children internalize their words into inner speech: verbal thoughts that direct both behavior and cognition.In the end, your thoughts are a product of (are determined by) the society and culture in which you were raised.
54 Other Language Development Issues II Learning to readPhonics approachTraditional approachMemorize the mapping between the letters and their soundsThen learn the exceptionsWhole language approachHas become popular the last twenty yearsLearn to read the way you learn to talkWe don’t process individual phones when we hear speech, so why should we do it when we read?Learn individual words and learn to connect them in the context of a sentence that has meaning.Which approach is better?The evidence clearly supports the phonics approach (Rayner et al., 2001)
55 Can Non-Human Apes Learn Language? Many apes of several species have learned various different signing systemsIs it language?Semanticity: “Language apes” satisfy this criterionGenerativity: Bonobos can use the same words in different orders to initiate different actionsDisplacement: Researchers say apes refer to past events, but most evidence is anecdotalHowever, non-human apes never caught on to the fact the language is fundamentally a tool used to communicate meanings, thought, and ideas
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