Presentation on theme: "Chapter Four The Emergence of Thought and Language: Cognitive"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter Four The Emergence of Thought and Language: Cognitive Chapter Four The Emergence of Thought and Language: Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early Childhood
24.1 Piaget’s Account Learning Objectives According to Piaget, how do schemes, assimilation, and accommodation provide the foundation for cognitive development throughout the life span?How does thinking become more advanced as infants progress through the sensorimotor stage?What are the distinguishing characteristics of thinking during the preoperational stage?What are the strengths and weaknesses of Piaget’s theory?How have contemporary researchers extended Piaget’s theory?
3Basic Principles of Cognitive Development Children make sense of the world through schemesChildren adapt to their environment as they develop by adding and refining their schemesSchemes change from physical, to functional, conceptual, and abstract as the child develops
4Piaget’s Account: Assimilation and Accommodation When new experiences fit into existing schemes it is called assimilationWhen schemes have to be modified as a consequence of new experiences, it is called accommodationAssimilation is required to benefit from experience. Accommodation allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences
5Piaget’s Account: Equilibration Equilibrium - balance between assimilation and accommodationDisequilibrium - more accommodation than assimilationEquilibration - inadequate schemes are replaced with more advanced and mature schemesEquilibration occurs three times during development, resulting in 4 stages of cognitive development
6Piaget’s Account: Periods of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years)InfancyPreoperational Period (2-7 years)Preschool and early elementary schoolConcrete Operational Period (7-11 years)Middle and late elementary schoolFormal Operational Period (11 years & up)Adolescence and adulthood
8Piaget’s Account: Preoperational Thinking EgocentrismAnimismCentrationConservationAppearance is Reality
9Caption: When asked to select the photograph that shows the mountains as the adult sees them, preschool children often select the photograph that shows how the mountain looks to them, demonstrating egocentrism.
10Caption: Children in the preoperational stage of development typically have difficulty solving conservation problems in which important features of an object (or objects) stay the same despite changes in physical appearance.
11Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory Piaget underestimates cognitive ability in infants and overestimates in adolescentsPiaget is vague about mechanisms and processes of changeHe does not account for variability in childen’s performanceHis theory undervalues the influence of sociocultural environment
12Extending Piaget’s Account: Children’s Naive Theories Naive PhysicsStudies that investigate the age at which children learn there is conflict between current understanding and the true nature of objectsNaive Biology4-year-olds know that living things move, grow, and heal themselvesKnow that inanimate objects have to be moved, do not grow, and have to be fixed
134.2 Information Processing Learning Objectives What is the basis of the information-processing approach?How well do young children pay attention?What kinds of learning take place during infancy?Do infants and preschool children remember?What do infants and preschooler know about numbers?
14Information Processing: General Principles Human thinking is understood along a computer modelMental Hardware are neural and mental structures that enable the mind to operateMental Software are mental programs that allow for the performance of specific tasks
15Information Processing Processes: Attention When sensory information receives additional cognitive processing it is called attentionEmotional and physical reactions to unfamiliar stimulus causes an orienting responseA lessening of the reaction to a new stimulus is called habituation
16Information Processing Processes: Learning Classical ConditioningA neutral stimulus becomes able to elicit a response that was previously caused by another stimulusOperant ConditioningBehaviors are affected by their consequencesImitationOlder children learn by observing others
17Information Processing Processes: Memory Studies show that as early as 2-3 months children remember past events, forget them over time, and remember them again with cuesDuring the preschool years, children develop autobiographical memory for significant events in their own past
18Preschoolers on the Witness Stand Children’s responses to questioning about facts are quite vulnerable to suggestion and leading questionsPreschoolers have limited ability to use source monitoring skills: the ability to remember the source of the information they recallThis may lead to answers that reflect their memories without regard to whether they experienced the event, or were told about it
19Information Processing Processes: Learning Number Skills Ordinality: Knowing that numbers can differ in size and being able to tell which is greaterOne-to-one principle: There is a number name for each object countedStable-order principle: Number names must be counted in the same orderCardinality principle: The last number in a counting sequence denotes the number of objects
204.3 Mind & Culture: Vygotsky’s Theory Learning Objectives What is the zone of proximal development? How does it help explain how children accomplish more when they collaborate with others?Why is scaffolding a particularly effective way of teaching youngsters new concepts and skills?When and why do children talk to themselves as they solve problems?
21Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) A Russian psychologist Saw cognitive development as an apprenticeship in which children advance by interaction with others more matureVygotsky died young (37) and did not fully develop his theory beyond childhood
22Mind & Culture: Vygotsky’s Theory Major Contributions Zone of Proximal DevelopmentThe difference between what children can do with and without help from a more experienced guideTeachers should attempt to keep students in this zone in order to achieve maximum achievementScaffoldingGiving just enough assistanceStudies show that students do not learn as well when told everything to do, nor when left alone to discover on their own
23Private SpeechChildren talk to themselves as they go about difficult tasksThis speech is not intended for others, but for self guidance and regulationEventually this private speech becomes internalized and becomes inner speech… which was Vygotsky’s term for thought
244.4 Language Learning Objectives When do infants first hear and make speech sounds?When do children start to talk? How do they learn word meanings?How do young children learn grammar?How well do youngsters communicate?
25Language: The Road to Speech Perceiving SpeechPhonemes- The smallest soundsStudies show that as early as 1 month infants can distinguish between soundsDifferent languages use different sets of phonemesChildren practice all phonemes, gradually restricting their use to only those phonemes to which they are exposedEventually, they lose the ability to distinguish unused phonemes
26Language: Identifying Words Children learn to pay more attention to often repeated and emphasized wordsParents use infant-directed speech in which they speak slowly and exaggerate changes in pitch and volumeSometimes called motherese because it was first observed in mothers
27Language: Steps to Speech At 2 months, infants begin cooingAround 6 months, toddlers begin babblingAt 8-11 months children incorporate intonation, or changes in pitch that are typical of the language they hear
28Language: First Words & Many More Around 1 year, children use their first words, usually consonant-vowel pairs such as “dada” or “wawa”By 2 years, children have a vocabulary of around a few hundred wordsBy age 6, children know around 10,000 wordsSome children use a referential style vocabulary to name objects, persons, or actionsOther children use an expressive style to make statements resembling single words
29Language: Fast Mapping of Words Connecting new words to that which they refer helps to infer the meaning of the new wordParents pay attention to what children are attracted to and provide guidance, which is called joint attentionChildren seem to understand constraints on word names that help to infer meaning
30Language:Fast Mapping (Cont) Types of constraints on word names include:If an unfamiliar word is heard in the presence of objects that already have names and objects that don’t, the word must refer to one of the objects that doesn’t have a nameNames refer to the whole object and not just a part of it
31Language: Fast Mapping (Cont) Children use sentence cues to infer the meaning of unfamiliar wordsCognitive factors, such as better attentional and perceptual skills, assist in learning languageNaming errors result from underextension (defining words too narrowly) and overextension (defining words too broadly)
32Language: Individual Differences in Word Learning Vocabulary ranges from 25 to 250 words at 18 monthsPhonological Memory - The ability to remember speech sounds brieflyReferential Style - Mainly naming of objects, persons, or actionsExpressive Style - Includes social phrases
34Language: Encouraging Language Growth Parents assist in learning language by:Speaking to children frequentlyNaming objects of children’s attentionUsing speech that is more grammatically sophisticatedReading to themEncouraging watching television programs with an emphasis on learning new words, such as Sesame Street
35Language: Speaking in Sentences Two- and three-word sentences, called telegraphic speech, begin around 18 monthsChildren may leave out grammatical morphemes, or words and endings that make a sentence correctThe application of rules to words that are exceptions to the rules is called overregularization
36How do Children Acquire Grammar? The Behaviorist answerImitation and reinforcementThe Linguistic answerInnate mechanisms that simplify the task of learning grammar
37How do Children Acquire Grammar? (Cont) The Cognitive answerLook for patterns, detect irregularities, create rulesThe Social-Interactive answerEclectic use of all of the explanations to describe language development
38Language: Communicating With Others Effective communication requires:Taking turns as speaker and listenerMaking sure to speak in language the listener understandsPaying attention while listening and making sure the speaker knows if he/she is being understood