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Filmmaking in its Infancy An early look at the evolution of moving pictures and filmmaking.

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Presentation on theme: "Filmmaking in its Infancy An early look at the evolution of moving pictures and filmmaking."— Presentation transcript:

1 Filmmaking in its Infancy An early look at the evolution of moving pictures and filmmaking

2 Before Cinema Cinematography (Fr. Cinématographe) Cinematography (Fr. Cinématographe) Greek Origin: “Kinema” & “Graphe” Greek Origin: “Kinema” & “Graphe” Kinema = moving Kinema = moving Graphe = picture Graphe = picture Term coined by Lumiere Brothers in 1890s Term coined by Lumiere Brothers in 1890s Early Cameras & Film Recorders Early Cameras & Film Recorders Photography & Cinematography pioneers Photography & Cinematography pioneers

3 Early Animation: The Magic Lantern Made animation possible Made animation possible “Basically a projector” “Basically a projector” Invented by Dutch astronomer Chistiaan Huygens in the 17 th century Invented by Dutch astronomer Chistiaan Huygens in the 17 th century 1 st inventor to develop with correct components: light source, mirror, focusing lens, and a condensing lens. 1 st inventor to develop with correct components: light source, mirror, focusing lens, and a condensing lens. First used by priests and magicians First used by priests and magicians

4 Early Animation: The Phénakistiscope (Fantascope) Developed in 1830s Developed in 1830s Spinning disc on a vertical handle Spinning disc on a vertical handle Viewer had to look through the moving slits at the reflection in a mirror. Viewer had to look through the moving slits at the reflection in a mirror. The persistence of vision (fixed position) is what allowed for simulated motion. The persistence of vision (fixed position) is what allowed for simulated motion. watch?v=UQ43NDFjiw0 (00:00:45) watch?v=UQ43NDFjiw0 (00:00:45) watch?v=UQ43NDFjiw0 watch?v=UQ43NDFjiw0 Creator: Thomas Mann Baynes Published in 1833 by Ackermann and Co.

5 Early Animation: The Zoetrope (Daedalum) Similar “technology” to fantascope Similar “technology” to fantascope Fixed rotating disc in a hollow cup with radial slits cut into the side Fixed rotating disc in a hollow cup with radial slits cut into the side Simulated motion without mirrors Simulated motion without mirrors watch?v=-3yarT_h2ws (00:00:45) watch?v=-3yarT_h2ws (00:00:45) watch?v=-3yarT_h2ws watch?v=-3yarT_h2ws

6 Early Animation: The Kinematoscope (Mutoscope) Used “flip book” method to simulate motion Used “flip book” method to simulate motion Fixed box with a crank to flip through images taken in rapid succession. Fixed box with a crank to flip through images taken in rapid succession. Very Popular in Penny Arcades from 1895 to 1910; replaced by movie picture shows. Very Popular in Penny Arcades from 1895 to 1910; replaced by movie picture shows. uCc (for demonstration, not for sale!) appx 00:02:45) uCc (for demonstration, not for sale!) appx 00:02:45) uCc uCc Blueprint and design by Hermann Casler, 1894.

7 Early Animation: The Chronophonoscope (The Photo Gun) 1st Camera to shoot photographs in rapid succession (12 FPS) 1st Camera to shoot photographs in rapid succession (12 FPS) Experimented with human and animal motion Experimented with human and animal motion Invented by Eteinne-Jules Marey in 1882, using the photo gun gave birth to the idea of “shooting a film.” Marey is often credited with being the father of modern cinema.

8 Early Cinema Pioneers: Louis-Jacques- Mande Daguerre ( ) Early Cinema Pioneers: Louis-Jacques- Mande Daguerre ( ) French inventor and father of photography French inventor and father of photography Perfected Daguerreotypes in the early 1840s Perfected Daguerreotypes in the early 1840s Captured images on a silvered copper-metal plate Captured images on a silvered copper-metal plate Long exposure times Long exposure times Labor intensive practice Labor intensive practice tch?v=N0Ambe4FwQk (00:05:45) tch?v=N0Ambe4FwQk (00:05:45) tch?v=N0Ambe4FwQk tch?v=N0Ambe4FwQk

9 Early Cinema Pioneers: Eadweard Muybridge ( ) British inventor who later emigrated to the United States British inventor who later emigrated to the United States Father of chrono- photography (images taken in rapid succession). Father of chrono- photography (images taken in rapid succession). Recorded multiple images on separate films Recorded multiple images on separate films Muybridge’s bet with Stanford Muybridge’s bet with Stanford

10 Muybridge bet Leland Stanford that he could prove that in a full gallop, a horse would have all 4 feet off the ground. After setting up a battery of 12 successive cameras with trip wires to take in exposures at a race track in Palo Alto, California in June of 1878, Muybridge not only won his bet, but stumbled upon stop-motion technology, the same technology used in filmmaking today.

11 Early Cinema Pioneers: Étienne-Jules Marey ( ) French inventor who often worked and shared ideas with Muybridge. French inventor who often worked and shared ideas with Muybridge. Father of modern cinema Father of modern cinema Invented photo gun Invented photo gun Recorded multiple images on the same film (strips) Recorded multiple images on the same film (strips) Used strips of sensitized paper that passed through camera to record exposures. Used strips of sensitized paper that passed through camera to record exposures. Camera speed increases from 12FPS to 30FPS Camera speed increases from 12FPS to 30FPS

12 Early Cinema Pioneers: George Eastman ( ) American innovator and entrepreneur American innovator and entrepreneur Founded the Eastman Kodak Company in late 19 th century. Founded the Eastman Kodak Company in late 19 th century. Invented rolled film on celluloid paper (as opposed to glass plates) Invented rolled film on celluloid paper (as opposed to glass plates) Kodak small box camera first uses perforated celluloid film rolls in 1889 giving birth to modern film rolls Kodak small box camera first uses perforated celluloid film rolls in 1889 giving birth to modern film rolls

13 Early Cinema Pioneers: Thomas Edison ( ) Lived and worked in West Orange, New Jersey Lived and worked in West Orange, New Jersey Provided funding and use of laboratories to invent a device to record moving pictures & another to view moving pictures. Provided funding and use of laboratories to invent a device to record moving pictures & another to view moving pictures. Often credited as one of the fathers of American Cinema, however, his British understudy William K.L. Dickson is credited with the innovative and creative developments for Edison Manufacturing Company (later Edison Studios). Often credited as one of the fathers of American Cinema, however, his British understudy William K.L. Dickson is credited with the innovative and creative developments for Edison Manufacturing Company (later Edison Studios). Celluloid of Monkeyshines No. 1 (1889)

14 Early Cinema Pioneers:William K.L. Dickson ( ) Worked for Edison Manufacturing Company as Edison’s understudy Worked for Edison Manufacturing Company as Edison’s understudy Invented Kinetograph (the first movie recorder/camera) Invented Kinetograph (the first movie recorder/camera) Motor powered Motor powered Used 35mm wide celluloid Used 35mm wide celluloid Celluloid had sprocket holes to advance film through series of gears and individual frames for camera exposures Celluloid had sprocket holes to advance film through series of gears and individual frames for camera exposures Invented Kinetoscope (1st film viewer/projector) Invented Kinetoscope (1st film viewer/projector)

15 First U.S. Films Edison Manufacturing Company “Monkeyshines No. 1 & 2” (1889) Trial film not meant for public viewing Features exaggerated body movement by one of Edison’s lab assistance. System of tiny images rotated around a cylinder Only surviving film from cylinder kinetoscope 1 st motion picture ever produced on photographic film in the United States. Nc-mazLcko (00:01:02) & m95XbaMiYk (00:00:31) Nc-mazLcko m95XbaMiYk Take 2Take 1 Monkeyshines Cylinder Film

16 Edison Manufacturing Company: The Black Maria The Black Maria constructed First Movie Studio West Orange, NJ Black Tarred Building Retractable/Hinged Roof to allow natural light Turntable Set to adjust for natural lighting

17 First U.S. Films Edison Manufacturing Company “The Blacksmith Scene” (1893) First staged narrative film (00:00:30 or 30 seconds) First film publicly exhibited at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences Shot in The Black Maria using Dickinson’s kinetograph and shown at the convention with Dickinson’s kinetoscope (2 different inventions!)

18 First U.S. Films Edison Manufacturing Company “Fred Ott’s Sneeze” (1894) 00:00:07 second clip *First film with a copyright! “Carmencita” (1894) First woman in Edison film First film with censorship issue Actresses legs and undergarments were visible You be the judge: 15jwb1ZTMA (00:00:39) 15jwb1ZTMA

19 First U.S. Films Edison Manufacturing Company Michael Leonard vs. Jack Cushing Prize fight, Summer The Black Maria 6 round fight Each round relegated to 150ft view on a kinetoscope 10¢ for each round First filmed sporting event watch?v=NiTXye62mAY 00:00:55 watch?v=NiTXye62mAY

20 First U.S. Films Edison Manufacturing Company “Anna Belle Serpentine & Butterfly Dances” (1895) 00:00:45 runtime First films with color Hand-tinted paint Censorship Issue “The Kiss” (1896) 00:00:20 runtime John Rice & May Irwin First film kiss (reenactment from Broadway production The Widow Jones) Censorship Issue #SWAG #1stkiss #Sorry NOTSORRY

21 Early Cinema Pioneers: The Lumière Brothers Louis & Auguste from Lyon, France (1890s) Louis & Auguste from Lyon, France (1890s) Factory for photographic equipment & supplies Factory for photographic equipment & supplies Inspired by Edison Inspired by Edison Made their own movie camera called the Cinematographe Made their own movie camera called the Cinematographe Lighter Lighter More portable More portable Hand-cranked Hand-cranked Condensed recorder & viewer into one machine Condensed recorder & viewer into one machine Project images onto screen rather than small view finder in a standing box. Project images onto screen rather than small view finder in a standing box.

22 The Lumière Brothers Salon Indien Film Festival (1895) 00:20:00 of film Ten 00:00:50 “actualities” shown 20 times a day for several days just after Christmas Ten 00:00:50 “actualities” shown 20 times a day for several days just after Christmas “Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory” La Sortie des Ouviers de L'Usine Lumiere a Lyon “The Blacksmiths” Les Forgerons “The Garden Sprinkler gets Sprinkled” Le Jardinier (l'Arroseur Arrosé)

23 First Movie Theaters in the World Vitascope Hall New Orleans, Louisiana Opened July 26, seat theater Edisonia Vitascope Hall Buffalo, NY Opened October 19, seat theater Lubin's Cineograph Theatre Philadelphia, PA Summer seat theater Tally’s Electric Theater Los Angeles, California Summer seat theater


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