Physical & Cognitive Development in Infancy: Seminar Week 5
Guideposts for Study 1. How do babies grow, and what influences their growth? 2.How and what should babies be fed? 3.How does the brain develop, and how do environmental factors affect its early growth?
Guideposts for Study 4.How do the senses develop during infancy? 5. What are some early milestones in motor development, and what are some influences on it? 6How can we enhance babies' chances of survival and health?
Growth Patterns of Growth Children grow faster during the first ___ years, especially during the first few months, than they ever will again This rapid growth rate tapers off during the _________and __________years Teething usually begins around ___or ___ months with first tooth around __ to ___ months
Changes in proportions of the human body during growth
Patterns of Growth __________________ principle – growth occurs from top down (head to toe) Examples? _________________ principle – growth proceeds from the centre of the body outward (inner to outer) Examples?
Growth and Nutrition Influences on Growth Genetic influence interacts with environmental influences like _________ and living conditions Well-fed, well-cared-for children grow _______ and heavier than less well nourished and nurtured children Better medical care, especially immunization and ______________, also play a role in better health
Growth and Nutrition Nourishment ________________ is almost always the best food for infants Breast milk is more digestible, nutritious and less likely to cause ________________reactions Iron-enriched solid foods should be gradually introduced during the second half of the first year At _____ year, babies can switch to cow’s milk
“Every mother who is physically able should breastfeed.” Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons.
The Brain and Reflex Behavior Building the Brain Brain's maturation takes much longer than was previously thought Brain growth spurts coincide with changes in ______________ behavior and depends very much on the child’s early experiences Specialization of the brain’s hemispheres is called ______________: Left—language and logical thinking; Right—visual-spatial functions
The Brain and Reflex Behavior ________________ - the coating of the neural pathways with a fatty substance called myelin, enabling signals to travel faster and more smoothly Permits the achievement of mature functioning
The Brain and Reflex Behavior _________: Automatic, innate responses to stimulation Primitive (sucking, rooting, moro) Postural (reactions to changes in position) Locomotor (walking, swimming) Reflexes that have ________________ functions remain (blinking, coughing, gagging, sneezing)
Reflexes _________ – baby is dropped or hears loud noises will extend legs, arms, and fingers, arches back, draws back head ___________ (grasping) – palm of baby’s hand is stroked will make strong fist ___________ – baby is laid down on back turns head to one side, assumes “fencer” position, extends arms and legs on preferred side, flexes opposite limbs
Relfexes continued… __________ – sole of baby’s foot is stroked and toes fan out; foot twists in ___________ – baby’s cheek or lower lip is stroked with finger or nipple and the head turns; mouth opens; sucking movements ____________ – baby is held under arms, with bare feet touching flat surface and makes steplike motions that look like walking
The Brain and Reflex Behavior Molding the Brain: The Role of Experience Molding the Brain: The Role of Experience Smiling, babbling, crawling, walking, and talking are possible due to rapid development of the brain, particularly the cerebral cortex Plasticity: Modifiability, or “ molding ” of the brain through experience
The Brain and Reflex Behavior Molding the Brain: The Role of Experience _________ experience can have lasting effects on emotional development and the capacity of the central nervous system to learn and store information Sometimes ___________________ experience can make up for past deprivation
Can you… Describe important features of early brain development? Explain the functions of reflex behaviors and why some drop out during the early months? Discuss how early experience affects brain development?
Early Sensory Capacities Touch and Pain Touch seems to be the _______ sense to develop and the most _______________ By _____ weeks of gestation, all body parts are sensitive to touch & increases within 5 days ________ experienced during the neonatal period may sensitize an infant to later pain, perhaps by affecting the neural pathways that process painful stimuli
Early Sensory Capacities Smell and Taste Flavours and odours of foods the expectant mother consumes may be transmitted to the fetus A preference for ____________ odors seems to be learned in utero and during the first few days after birth Preference for the fragrance of the mother's breast may be a __________l mechanism Newborns' rejection of __________ tastes is probably another survival mechanism, since many bitter substances are toxic
Early Sensory Capacities Hearing Hearing is functional ______________ birth Babies less than _______ days old respond to a story they have heard, can distinguish their mother ’ s voice, prefer their native language (bonding?) Auditory discrimination develops rapidly after birth Because hearing is a key to language development, hearing _______________ should be identified as early as possible
Early Sensory Capacities Sight Vision is the least developed sense at birth Vision becomes more acute during the first year, reaching the _________ level by about the __________month Vision ____________ vision—the use of both eyes to focus, allowing perception of depth and distance—develops at 4 or 5 months
Motor Development ___________________ – increasingly complex combinations of skills, which permit a wider or more precise range of movement _________ motor skills – physical skills that involve the large muscles ________ motor skills – physical skills that involve the small muscles and eye-hand coordination
Milestones of Motor Development _____ Control – turn from side to side, lift, balance, support completely by 4 months _______Control – ability to hold smaller and smaller objects, transfer from one hand to another, build towers, copy shapes ______________ – rolling, creeping, crawling, standing, cruising, walking, climbing, jumping, hopping
How Motor Development Occurs Motor development is a _________________ interaction between baby and environment According to Thelen, infant and environment form an ____________________ system. The ability to produce movement has not changed – only the _____________ and environmental conditions that inhibit or promote it.
Motor Development and Perception _______Perception – the ability to perceive objects and surfaces three- dimensionally ________cliff – gives illusion of depth, used to assess depth perception
Cultural Influences on Motor Development Although motor development follows a virtually universal sequence, its pace does respond to certain contextual factors Some cultures __________ encourage early development of motor skills, while others discourage ___________ development for various reasons
Is it advisable to try to teach babies skills such as walking before they develop them on their own?
Health Reducing Infant Mortality – die within 1 st year In recent decades, survival rates have improved in all regions of the world 1 st cause - _____________ conditions (including low birth weight) 2 nd cause - birth defects (congenital abnormalities) 3 rd cause - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (_____________) 4 th cause - death from _______________
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden death of an infant under ___ year in which the cause of death remains _______________ after an autopsy Risk factors: being ________, premature, low birth weight, ___________, sleeping on stomach, poor socio-economic circumstances Possible defects in chemical receptors in the brain stem which receive and send messages that regulate breathing, heart beat, body temperature, and arousal
Health Immunization for Better Health One reason some parents hesitate to immunize their children is fear that vaccines may cause brain damage
Can you… Summarize trends in infant mortality, and explain why black infants are less likely to survive than white infants? Discuss risk factors, causes, and prevention of sudden infant death syndrome? Explain why full immunization of all infants and preschoolers is important?