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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 10 INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentThe Study of Development.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 10 INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentThe Study of Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 10 INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentThe Study of Development Section 2: Physical DevelopmentPhysical Development Section 3: Social DevelopmentSocial Development Section 4: Cognitive DevelopmentCognitive Development

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 2 Chapter 10 Question: What are the major theories of development? MAJOR THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Some psychologists believe that biological factors play a greater role in development, while others contend that environmental factors are most important Some psychologists also assert that development occurs in stages, while others believe that development occurs continuously Section 1: The Study of Development

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 3 Chapter 10 Development Psychology Development psychology is the field in which psychologists study how people grow and change throughout the life span— from conception, through infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and until death. Two stages Early childhood experiences affect people as adolescents and adults Early stages of development, psychologists can learn about developmental problems, what causes them, and how to treat them. Development psychologists study not only people of different ages but also different types of development such as physical, social and cognitive development.

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 4 Chapter 10 Development Psychology (continued) Development psychologists are interested in seeing how people change over time. Two methods to study change Longitudinal method The cross-sectional method. Developmental researchers select a group of participants and then observe that same group for a period of time, often years or even decades. Longitudinal method is very time-consuming and expensive Cross-sectional method is used more often Select a sample that includes people of different ages. Section 1: The Study of Development

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 5 Chapter 10 Developmental Psychology (continued) Developmental psychologists are concerned with two general issues The ways in which heredity and environmental influences contribute to human development Whether development occurs gradually or in stages. Section 1: The Study of Development

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 6 Chapter 10 Roles of Nature and Nurture Psychologists have long debated the extent to which human behavior is determined by heredity (nature) or environment (nurture). In the field of human development, heredity manifests itself primarily in the process called maturation. Maturation is the automatic and sequential process of development that results from genetic signals. For example: infants generally sit up before they crawl, crawl before they stand, and stand before they walk. No matter how much one might try to teach these skills to infants, they will not do these things until they are “ready.” Section 1: The Study of Development

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 7 Chapter 10 Roles of Nature and Nurture (continued) Psychologist Arnold Gesell ( ) proposed that maturation played the most important role in development. He focused on many areas of development, including physical and social development. John Watson presented environmental explanations for behavior. The influence of nature was much stronger than that of nature. The influences of nurture, or the environment, are found in factors such as nutrition, family background, culture, and learning experiences in the home, community, and school. Today nearly all psychologists would agree that both nature and nurture play key roles in children’s development. Section 1: The Study of Development

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 8 Chapter 10 Stages versus Continuity Human development occurs primarily in stages or as a continuous process. For example: like climbing a set of stairs to reach the top, or is it like walking up an inclined plane or hill. A stage, is a period or a level in the development process that is distinct from other levels. When people move from one stage to another their bodies and behavior can change dramatically. Section 1: The Study of Development

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 9 Chapter 10 Stages Versus Continuity When an infant’s legs become strong enough to support him or her, the infant stands and soon begins to walk, A new stage of life has begun—infant to toddler. Jean Piaget focused his study on cognitive development. Not all psychologists agree that development occurs in stages. A child’s steady growth in weight and height from the ages of about 2 to 11 years is an example of continuous development that happens so gradually we usually are not aware of the changes as they are occurring. Section 1: The Study of Development

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 10 Chapter 10 Homework Practice Online Go to Type in Keyword: SY7 HP10 Click on Section 1 Complete the Online Quiz and print Copy and paste to a word document so you can add your name and date

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 11 Chapter 10 Question: How do infants develop physically? PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS Height and weight increase rapidly Muscles and nervous systems soon develop allowing them to crawl, walk, and generally act more purposefully Section 2: Physical Development

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 12 Chapter 10 Physical Development A newborn enters the world possessing certain physical characteristics and equipped with certain abilities. The infant is also born with certain reflexes. A reflex is an involuntary reaction or response, such as swallowing. Changes in reflexes and gains in height and weight are examples of physical development. Motor development and perceptual development are other examples. Section 2: Physical Development

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 13 Chapter 10 Height and Weight First 8 weeks of the mother’s pregnancy, the tiny embryo in the mother’s uterus develops fingers, toes, eyes, ears, a nose, a mouth, a heart, and a circulatory system. At 8 weeks, the 1 ½ inch-long embryo becomes a fetus. During the fetal stage (lasts until birth), the organs of the various body systems, such as the respiratory system, develop to the point at which they can sustain the life of the baby after he or she is born. During the nine months of pregnancy, the embryo develops from a nearly microscopic cell to a baby about 20 inches in length. Section 2: Physical Development

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 14 Chapter 10 Height and Weight (continued) During infancy—birth to the age of two years—dramatic gains continue in height and weight. Infants usually double their birth weight in about 5 months and triple it by one year. They grow about 10 inches in height in the first year. During the second year, infants generally gain another four to six inches in height and another four to seven pounds in weight. After infancy comes childhood—two years old to adolescence. Following second birthday, children gain on average two or three inches and four to sex pounds each year until they reach the start of adolescence. Section 2: Physical Development

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 15 Chapter 10 Motor Development As the muscles and nervous systems mature, a newborns’ random movements are replaced by purposeful motor activity, called motor development. Motor development usually proceeds in stages. Almost all babies roll over before they sit up unsupported, and they crawl before they walk. The point when these stages occur is different from infant to infant and even from culture to culture. Section 2: Physical Development

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 16 Chapter 10 Motor Development (continued) Uganda Infants walk before they are 10 months old Why is this? Ugandan babies spend much of their time being carried on their parents’ backs. This contact with parent and sense of movement, and the upright position the babies maintain as they are being carried may help them learn to walk earlier. United States Infants walk around one year old Why is this? American babies spend much of their time lying in cribs. Section 2: Physical Development

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 17 Chapter 10 Reflexes Soon after a baby is born, the doctor or nurse places a finger against the palm of the baby’s hand. They respond by grasping the finger firmly. Grasping is a reflex. Reflexes are not learned, they occur automatically, without thinking. Breathing is a reflex and so is sneezing, coughing, yawning, blinking and other reflexes which continue for a lifetime. Section 2: Physical Development

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 18 Chapter 10 Reflexes Rooting is a reflex that babies are born with. If you touch their cheek or the corners of their mouth they turn toward the stimuli. The sucking and swallowing reflexes are essential to an infant’s survival; without them, newborns would not eat. Section 2: Physical Development

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 19 Chapter 10 Reflexes (continued) Babies reflexively withdraw from painful stimuli. They pull up their legs and arch their backs in response to sudden sounds or bumps. It is called Moro, or startle, reflex. As children develop, many reflexes such as rooting and sucking disappear. Other reflexes such as elimination of wastes, come under voluntary control. Section 2: Physical Development

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 20 Chapter 10 Perceptual Development Prior to birth, the baby has spent several months in a warm, wet, dark place. Suddenly it finds itself in a bright, noisy world full of sensory stimuli. Perceptual development is the process by which infants learn to make sense of the sights, sounds, tastes, and other sensations to which they are exposed. Infants seem to be “preprogrammed” to survey their environment and to learn about it. Section 2: Physical Development

21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 21 Chapter 10 Perceptual Development Infant perceptual preferences are influenced by their age. 5 to 10 week old babies look longest at patterns that are fairly complex. They are interested in the variety and complexity of the pattern. Eyesight is not fully developed at this age. Section 2: Physical Development

22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 22 Chapter 10 Perceptual Development Age 15 to 20 weeks, patterns begin to matter. Babies tend to stare longer at face-like patterns. This occurs when an infant has had more experiences with people. Section 2: Physical Development

23 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 23 Chapter 10 Perception Development Vision is only one type of perception. Hearing is much better developed at birth than is their eyesight. They respond more to high-pitched sounds than to low-pitched ones. They seem to be soothed by the sounds of someone singing softly or speaking in a low- pitched tone. Section 2: Physical Development

24 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 24 Chapter 10 Homework Practice Online Go to Type in Keyword: SY7 HP10 Click on Section 2 Complete the Online Quiz and print Copy and paste to a word document so you can add your name and date

25 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 25 Chapter 10 Question: What are some of the ways infants and children develop socially? SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN Attachment Attachment – begins at about the age of 4 months when infants develop specific attachments to their main caregivers Styles of Parenting Styles of Parenting - 2 types Warm or Cold – warm parents show a great deal of affection to their children but cold parents may not be as affectionate toward their children Strict or Permissive – strict parents impose very strict rules whereas permissive parents impose fewer rules Child Care Child Care – has both positive and negative effects on social development Self-Esteem Self-Esteem – value or worth that people attach to themselves Section 3: Social Development

26 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 26 Chapter 10 Social Development Social development involves the ways in which infants and children learn to relate to other people. For example, infants usually can be comforted by being held, and they respond to their mothers’ voices. Infants tend to play with toys by themselves, even when other children are around. A number of factors affect social development such as attachment, parenting styles, child care, child abuse, neglect and self-esteem. Section 3: Social Development

27 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 27 Chapter 10 Attachment Infants are basically helpless and totally dependent on others to fulfill their needs, feelings of attachment are essential to their survival. Infants and children try to stay in contact with the people to whom they are attached. By 4 months old, infants develop specific attachments to their main caregivers usually their mothers. This attachment grows stronger by 6 to 7 months. Section 3: Social Development

28 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 28 Chapter 10 Attachment By 8 months, some infants develop a fear of strangers. (stranger anxiety) Sometimes infants develop separation anxiety. Separation anxiety causes infants to cry or behave in other ways that indicate distress if their mothers leave them. Two factors involved in attachment are: contact comfort and imprinting. Section 3: Social Development

29 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 29 Chapter 10 Contact Comfort Contact comfort is the instinctual need to touch and be touched by something soft, such as skin or fur. Human babies may cling to their mothers because of the need for contact comfort rather than just because they are hungry. Bonds of attachment between mothers and infants appear to provide a secure base from which the infants can explore their environments. Section 3: Social Development

30 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 30 Chapter 10 Imprinting For many animals, attachment is an instinct. Instinctive behavior develops during a critical period shortly after birth. Imprinting is the process by which some animals form immediate attachments during a critical period. For humans, it takes several months before infants abecome attached to their main caregivers. Section 3: Social Development

31 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 31 Chapter 10 Secure Versus Insecure Attachment Secure infants may mature into secure children. Secure children are happier, friendlier and more cooperative with parents and teachers than insecure children are. Secure children are less likely to misbehave and more likely to do well in school than insecure children. When caregivers are unresponsive or unreliable, the infants are usually insecurely attached. Section 3: Social Development

32 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 32 Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting There are two different parenting styles: warmth- coldness and strictness-permissiveness Warm or cold Warm parents show a great deal of affection to their children. Children fare better when their parents are warm to them Children of cold parents, are usually more interested in escaping punishment than in doing the right thing for its own sake. Section 3: Social Development

33 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 33 Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting Strict or Permissive Strict parents impose many rules and supervise their children closely Permissive parents impose fewer rules and watch their children less closely. Tend to be less concerned about neatness and cleanliness than are strict parents. Extremely strict parents cannot tolerate disorder. They fear their children will run wild and get into trouble if they are not taught self- discipline. Permissive parents believe that children need freedom to express themselves if they are to become independent. Some permissive parents are less concerned or have little time to monitor their children’s activities. These children may become confused about which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. Section 3: Social Development

34 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 34 Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting Parents can be strict but still love their children. Authoritative parents combine warmth with positive kinds of strictness. Often more independent and achievement oriented than other children and they feel better about themselves. Authoritarian parents believe in obedience for its own sake. They have strict guidelines that they expect their children to follow without question. Children of authoritarian parents may become either resistant to other people or dependent on them. Generally, they do not do as well in school as authoritative parents. They tend to be less friendly and less spontaneous. Section 3: Social Development

35 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 35 Chapter 10 Child Care Today most parents work outside the home. More than half of mothers of children younger than one year of age are working mothers. Parents and psychologists are concerned about the effects of day care on the development of children. Children in full-time day care show less distress when their mothers leave them and are less likely to seek out their mother when they return. Section 3: Social Development

36 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 36 Chapter 10 Child Care Day care seems to have mixed effects on other aspects of children’s social development. Positive: Children in day care are more likely to share their toys and be independent, self-confident, and outgoing. Some studies have found that children in day care are less cooperative and more aggressive than are other children. In a competitive situation, they become more aggressive to try to meet their needs. For most parents believe the quality of care seems to be more important than who provides it. Section 3: Social Development

37 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 37 Chapter 10 Child Abuse and Neglect Nearly 3 million children in the United States are neglected are abused by their parents or other caregivers each year. More than half a million of them suffer serious injuries, and thousands die. Physical abuse—refers to the physical assualt of a child Neglect—failure to give a child adequate food, shelter, clothing, emotional support, or schooling. Section 3: Social Development

38 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 38 Chapter 10 Child Abuse and Neglect Why do some parents abuse or neglect their children? Stress—particularly the stress of unemployment and poverty A history of child abuse in at least one parent’s family of origin Acceptance of violence as a way of coping with stress Lack of attachment to the child Substance abuse Rigid attitudes about child rearing Section 3: Social Development

39 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 39 Chapter 10 Child Abuse and Neglect Children who are abused run a higher risk of developing psychological problems than children who did not grow up in an abusive environment. These children are more likely to suffer from a variety of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. As adults, they are more likely to act in violent ways toward their dates or spouses. Child abuse tends to run in families. Children often adopt their parents’ strict ideas about discipline. Abused children may come to see severe punishment as normal. Not all people who were abused as children will in turn become abusers themselves. Section 3: Social Development

40 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 40 Chapter 10 Self-Esteem Self-esteem is the value or worth that people attach to themselves. Self-esteem helps to protect people against the stresses and struggles of life. High self-esteem gives people the confidence to know that they can overcome their difficulties. Section 3: Social Development

41 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 41 Chapter 10 Influences on Self-esteem What factors influence self-esteem? Secure attachment Young children who are securely attached to their parents are more likely to have high self-esteem. The way parents react to their children Children with high self-esteem tend to be closer to their parents and their parents are involved in their lives. They teach and expect appropriate behavior and encourage them to become competent individuals Section 3: Social Development

42 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 42 Chapter 10 Influences on Self-esteem Two types of support Unconditional positive regard—means that parents love and accept their children for who they are no matter how they behave. Children who receive UPR develop high self- esteem even if they do something wrong or inappropriate, they are still worthwhile as people. Section 3: Social Development

43 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 43 Chapter 10 Influences on Self-esteem Conditional positive regard—means that parents show their love only when the children behave in certain acceptable ways. Children who receive CPR may have lower self-esteem and may feel worthwhile only when they are doing what their parents want them to do. Once these children grow up they continue to seek the approval of other people. Excessive need for approval from other people is linked to low self-esteem. Children need to understand that it is natural for others to not always appreciate them, they may have higher self-esteem in the long run. A sense of competence also increases self-esteem. Children who know that they are good at something usually have higher self-esteem than others. Part of becoming competent is setting realistic goals. Warmth and encouragement from parents and teachers can help children reach high levels of competence and self-esteem. Section 3: Social Development

44 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 44 Chapter 10 Gender, Age and Self-Esteem Ages 5 to 7, children begin to value themselves on the basis of their physical appearance and performance in school. People generally live up to the expectations that they have for themselves and that others have for them. Children gain in competence as they grow older. Self- esteem seems to reach a low point at about age 12 or 13 and increase again during adolescence. Reason for this: Children begin to compare themselves with their peers, and begin to feel less competent. Section 3: Social Development

45 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 45 Chapter 10 Homework Practice Online Go to Type in Keyword: SY7 HP10 Click on Section 3 Complete the Online Practice and print Section 3: Social Development

46 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 46 Chapter 10 Question: What are the stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? PIAGET’S THEORY Four stages of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: 1.Sensorimotor Stage 1.Sensorimotor Stage – learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity 2.Preoperational Stage 2.Preoperational Stage – children begin to use language to represent objects 3.Concrete-Operational Stage 3.Concrete-Operational Stage – begins at about the age of seven when children begin to show signs of adult thinking 4.Formational-Operational Stage 4.Formational-Operational Stage – begins at about puberty and represents cognitive maturity Section 4: Cognitive Development

47 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 47 Chapter 10 Question: What are the stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? KOHLBERG’S THEORY Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development follows a specific sequence: 1.Preconventional Level 1.Preconventional Level – through the age of nine most children base their judgment on the consequence of behavior 2.Conventional Level 2.Conventional Level – judgments are made in terms of whether an act conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong 3.Postconventional Level 3.Postconventional Level – reasoning based on a person’s own moral standards of goodness Section 4: Cognitive Development

48 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 48 Chapter 10 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Section 4: Cognitive Development

49 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 49 Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive Development

50 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 50 Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive Development

51 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 51 Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive Development

52 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 52 Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive Development

53 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 53 Chapter 10 Homework Practice Online Go to Type in Keyword: SY7 HP10 Click on Section 4 Complete the Online Quiz and print Copy and paste to a word document so you can add your name and date

54 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 54 Chapter 10 Question: What factors influence human behavior, and how does development occur? Nature StagesContinuity Nurture


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