Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 10 INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD HOLT Psychology4/15/2017Chapter 10 INFANCY AND CHILDHOODSection 1: The Study of DevelopmentSection 2: Physical DevelopmentSection 3: Social DevelopmentSection 4: Cognitive DevelopmentChapter 10
2Question: What are the major theories of development? HOLT PsychologyChapter 104/15/2017Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentQuestion: What are the major theories of development?MAJOR THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENTSome psychologists believe that biological factors play a greater role in development, while others contend that environmental factors are most importantSome psychologists also assert that development occurs in stages, while others believe that development occurs continuouslyChapter 10
3Development Psychology Chapter 10Development PsychologyDevelopment psychology is the field in which psychologists study how people grow and change throughout the life span—from conception, through infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and until death.Two stagesEarly childhood experiences affect people as adolescents and adultsEarly stages of development, psychologists can learn about developmental problems, what causes them, and how to treat them.Development psychologists study not only people of different ages but also different types of development such as physical, social and cognitive development.
4Development Psychology (continued) Chapter 10Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentDevelopment Psychology (continued)Development psychologists are interested in seeing how people change over time.Two methods to study changeLongitudinal methodThe cross-sectional method.Developmental researchers select a group of participants and then observe that same group for a period of time, often years or even decades.Longitudinal method is very time-consuming and expensiveCross-sectional method is used more oftenSelect a sample that includes people of different ages.
5Developmental Psychology (continued) Chapter 10Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentDevelopmental Psychology (continued)Developmental psychologists are concerned with two general issuesThe ways in which heredity and environmental influences contribute to human developmentWhether development occurs gradually or in stages.
6Roles of Nature and Nurture Chapter 10Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentRoles of Nature and NurturePsychologists have long debated the extent to which human behavior is determined by heredity (nature) or environment (nurture).In the field of human development, heredity manifests itself primarily in the process called maturation.Maturation is the automatic and sequential process of development that results from genetic signals.For example: infants generally sit up before they crawl, crawl before they stand, and stand before they walk.No matter how much one might try to teach these skills to infants, they will not do these things until they are “ready.”
7Roles of Nature and Nurture (continued) Chapter 10Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentRoles of Nature and Nurture (continued)Psychologist Arnold Gesell ( ) proposed that maturation played the most important role in development. He focused on many areas of development, including physical and social development.John Watson presented environmental explanations for behavior. The influence of nature was much stronger than that of nature. The influences of nurture, or the environment, are found in factors such as nutrition, family background, culture, and learning experiences in the home, community, and school.Today nearly all psychologists would agree that both nature and nurture play key roles in children’s development.
8Stages versus Continuity Chapter 10Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentStages versus ContinuityHuman development occurs primarily in stages or as a continuous process.For example: like climbing a set of stairs to reach the top, or is it like walking up an inclined plane or hill.A stage, is a period or a level in the development process that is distinct from other levels.When people move from one stage to another their bodies and behavior can change dramatically.
9Stages Versus Continuity Chapter 10Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentStages Versus ContinuityWhen an infant’s legs become strong enough to support him or her, the infant stands and soon begins to walk, A new stage of life has begun—infant to toddler.Jean Piaget focused his study on cognitive development.Not all psychologists agree that development occurs in stages.A child’s steady growth in weight and height from the ages of about 2 to 11 years is an example of continuous development that happens so gradually we usually are not aware of the changes as they are occurring.
10Homework Practice Online Chapter 10Homework Practice OnlineGo toType in Keyword: SY7 HP10Click on Section 1Complete the Online Quiz and printCopy and paste to a word document so you can add your name and date
11Question: How do infants develop physically? Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentQuestion: How do infants develop physically?PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTSHeight and weight increase rapidlyMuscles and nervous systems soon develop allowing them to crawl, walk, and generally act more purposefully
12The infant is also born with certain reflexes. Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentPhysical DevelopmentA newborn enters the world possessing certain physical characteristics and equipped with certain abilities.The infant is also born with certain reflexes.A reflex is an involuntary reaction or response, such as swallowing.Changes in reflexes and gains in height and weight are examples of physical development. Motor development and perceptual development are other examples.
13Chapter 10 Height and Weight Section 2: Physical Development First 8 weeks of the mother’s pregnancy, the tiny embryo in the mother’s uterus develops fingers, toes, eyes, ears, a nose, a mouth, a heart, and a circulatory system.At 8 weeks, the 1 ½ inch-long embryo becomes a fetus.During the fetal stage (lasts until birth), the organs of the various body systems, such as the respiratory system, develop to the point at which they can sustain the life of the baby after he or she is born.During the nine months of pregnancy, the embryo develops from a nearly microscopic cell to a baby about 20 inches in length.
14Height and Weight (continued) Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentHeight and Weight (continued)During infancy—birth to the age of two years—dramatic gains continue in height and weight.Infants usually double their birth weight in about 5 months and triple it by one year.They grow about 10 inches in height in the first year.During the second year, infants generally gain another four to six inches in height and another four to seven pounds in weight.After infancy comes childhood—two years old to adolescence.Following second birthday, children gain on average two or three inches and four to sex pounds each year until they reach the start of adolescence.
15Motor development usually proceeds in stages. Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentMotor DevelopmentAs the muscles and nervous systems mature, a newborns’ random movements are replaced by purposeful motor activity, called motor development.Motor development usually proceeds in stages.Almost all babies roll over before they sit up unsupported, and they crawl before they walk.The point when these stages occur is different from infant to infant and even from culture to culture.
16Motor Development (continued) Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentMotor Development (continued)United StatesInfants walk around one year oldWhy is this?American babies spend much of their time lying in cribs.UgandaInfants walk before they are 10 months oldWhy is this?Ugandan babies spend much of their time being carried on their parents’ backs. This contact with parent and sense of movement, and the upright position the babies maintain as they are being carried may help them learn to walk earlier.
17Reflexes are not learned, they occur automatically, without thinking. Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentReflexesSoon after a baby is born, the doctor or nurse places a finger against the palm of the baby’s hand. They respond by grasping the finger firmly.Grasping is a reflex.Reflexes are not learned, they occur automatically, without thinking.Breathing is a reflex and so is sneezing, coughing, yawning, blinking and other reflexes which continue for a lifetime.
18Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentReflexesRooting is a reflex that babies are born with. If you touch their cheek or the corners of their mouth they turn toward the stimuli.The sucking and swallowing reflexes are essential to an infant’s survival; without them , newborns would not eat.
19Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentReflexes (continued)Babies reflexively withdraw from painful stimuli. They pull up their legs and arch their backs in response to sudden sounds or bumps. It is called Moro, or startle, reflex.As children develop, many reflexes such as rooting and sucking disappear.Other reflexes such as elimination of wastes, come under voluntary control.
20Perceptual Development Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentPerceptual DevelopmentPrior to birth, the baby has spent several months in a warm, wet, dark place.Suddenly it finds itself in a bright, noisy world full of sensory stimuli.Perceptual development is the process by which infants learn to make sense of the sights, sounds, tastes, and other sensations to which they are exposed.Infants seem to be “preprogrammed” to survey their environment and to learn about it.
21Perceptual Development Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentPerceptual DevelopmentInfant perceptual preferences are influenced by their age.5 to 10 week old babies look longest at patterns that are fairly complex.They are interested in the variety and complexity of the pattern.Eyesight is not fully developed at this age.
22Perceptual Development Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentPerceptual DevelopmentAge 15 to 20 weeks, patterns begin to matter.Babies tend to stare longer at face-like patterns.This occurs when an infant has had more experiences with people.
23Perception Development Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentPerception DevelopmentVision is only one type of perception.Hearing is much better developed at birth than is their eyesight.They respond more to high-pitched sounds than to low-pitched ones.They seem to be soothed by the sounds of someone singing softly or speaking in a low-pitched tone.
24Homework Practice Online Chapter 10Homework Practice OnlineGo toType in Keyword: SY7 HP10Click on Section 2Complete the Online Quiz and printCopy and paste to a word document so you can add your name and date
25Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentQuestion: What are some of the ways infants and children develop socially?SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS AND CHILDRENAttachment – begins at about the age of 4 months when infants develop specific attachments to their main caregiversStyles of Parenting - 2 typesWarm or Cold – warm parents show a great deal of affection to their children but cold parents may not be as affectionate toward their childrenStrict or Permissive – strict parents impose very strict rules whereas permissive parents impose fewer rulesChild Care – has both positive and negative effects on social developmentSelf-Esteem – value or worth that people attach to themselves
26Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentSocial development involves the ways in which infants and children learn to relate to other people.For example, infants usually can be comforted by being held, and they respond to their mothers’ voices.Infants tend to play with toys by themselves, even when other children are around.A number of factors affect social development such as attachment, parenting styles, child care, child abuse, neglect and self-esteem.
27This attachment grows stronger by 6 to 7 months. Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentAttachmentInfants are basically helpless and totally dependent on others to fulfill their needs, feelings of attachment are essential to their survival.Infants and children try to stay in contact with the people to whom they are attached.By 4 months old, infants develop specific attachments to their main caregivers usually their mothers.This attachment grows stronger by 6 to 7 months.
28Sometimes infants develop separation anxiety. Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentAttachmentBy 8 months, some infants develop a fear of strangers. (stranger anxiety)Sometimes infants develop separation anxiety.Separation anxiety causes infants to cry or behave in other ways that indicate distress if their mothers leave them.Two factors involved in attachment are: contact comfort and imprinting.
29Chapter 10 Contact Comfort Section 3: Social DevelopmentContact ComfortContact comfort is the instinctual need to touch and be touched by something soft, such as skin or fur.Human babies may cling to their mothers because of the need for contact comfort rather than just because they are hungry.Bonds of attachment between mothers and infants appear to provide a secure base from which the infants can explore their environments.
30For many animals, attachment is an instinct. Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentImprintingFor many animals, attachment is an instinct.Instinctive behavior develops during a critical period shortly after birth.Imprinting is the process by which some animals form immediate attachments during a critical period.For humans, it takes several months before infants abecome attached to their main caregivers.
31Secure Versus Insecure Attachment Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentSecure Versus Insecure AttachmentSecure infants may mature into secure children.Secure children are happier, friendlier and more cooperative with parents and teachers than insecure children are.Secure children are less likely to misbehave and more likely to do well in school than insecure children.When caregivers are unresponsive or unreliable, the infants are usually insecurely attached.
32Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting Section 3: Social DevelopmentStyles of ParentingThere are two different parenting styles: warmth-coldness and strictness-permissivenessWarm or coldWarm parents show a great deal of affection to their children.Children fare better when their parents are warm to themChildren of cold parents, are usually more interested in escaping punishment than in doing the right thing for its own sake.
33Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting Section 3: Social Development Strict or PermissiveStrict parents impose many rules and supervise their children closelyPermissive parents impose fewer rules and watch their children less closely. Tend to be less concerned about neatness and cleanliness than are strict parents.Extremely strict parents cannot tolerate disorder. They fear their children will run wild and get into trouble if they are not taught self-discipline.Permissive parents believe that children need freedom to express themselves if they are to become independent.Some permissive parents are less concerned or have little time to monitor their children’s activities. These children may become confused about which behaviors are acceptable and which are not.
34Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting Section 3: Social Development Parents can be strict but still love their children.Authoritative parents combine warmth with positive kinds of strictness.Often more independent and achievement oriented than other children and they feel better about themselves.Authoritarian parents believe in obedience for its own sake. They have strict guidelines that they expect their children to follow without question.Children of authoritarian parents may become either resistant to other people or dependent on them.Generally, they do not do as well in school as authoritative parents. They tend to be less friendly and less spontaneous.
35Today most parents work outside the home. Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentChild CareToday most parents work outside the home.More than half of mothers of children younger than one year of age are working mothers.Parents and psychologists are concerned about the effects of day care on the development of children.Children in full-time day care show less distress when their mothers leave them and are less likely to seek out their mother when they return.
36Chapter 10 Child Care Section 3: Social Development Day care seems to have mixed effects on other aspects of children’s social development.Positive: Children in day care are more likely to share their toys and be independent, self-confident, and outgoing.Some studies have found that children in day care are less cooperative and more aggressive than are other children.In a competitive situation, they become more aggressive to try to meet their needs.For most parents believe the quality of care seems to be more important than who provides it.
37Child Abuse and Neglect Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentChild Abuse and NeglectNearly 3 million children in the United States are neglected are abused by their parents or other caregivers each year.More than half a million of them suffer serious injuries, and thousands die.Physical abuse—refers to the physical assualt of a childNeglect—failure to give a child adequate food, shelter, clothing, emotional support, or schooling.
38Child Abuse and Neglect Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentChild Abuse and NeglectWhy do some parents abuse or neglect their children?Stress—particularly the stress of unemployment and povertyA history of child abuse in at least one parent’s family of originAcceptance of violence as a way of coping with stressLack of attachment to the childSubstance abuseRigid attitudes about child rearing
39Child Abuse and Neglect Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentChild Abuse and NeglectChildren who are abused run a higher risk of developing psychological problems than children who did not grow up in an abusive environment.These children are more likely to suffer from a variety of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.As adults, they are more likely to act in violent ways toward their dates or spouses.Child abuse tends to run in families.Children often adopt their parents’ strict ideas about discipline.Abused children may come to see severe punishment as normal.Not all people who were abused as children will in turn become abusers themselves.
40Self-esteem is the value or worth that people attach to themselves. Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentSelf-EsteemSelf-esteem is the value or worth that people attach to themselves.Self-esteem helps to protect people against the stresses and struggles of life.High self-esteem gives people the confidence to know that they can overcome their difficulties.
41Influences on Self-esteem Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentInfluences on Self-esteemWhat factors influence self-esteem?Secure attachmentYoung children who are securely attached to their parents are more likely to have high self-esteem.The way parents react to their childrenChildren with high self-esteem tend to be closer to their parents and their parents are involved in their lives.They teach and expect appropriate behavior and encourage them to become competent individuals
42Influences on Self-esteem Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentInfluences on Self-esteemTwo types of supportUnconditional positive regard—means that parents love and accept their children for who they are no matter how they behave.Children who receive UPR develop high self-esteem even if they do something wrong or inappropriate, they are still worthwhile as people.
43Influences on Self-esteem Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentInfluences on Self-esteemConditional positive regard—means that parents show their love only when the children behave in certain acceptable ways.Children who receive CPR may have lower self-esteem and may feel worthwhile only when they are doing what their parents want them to do.Once these children grow up they continue to seek the approval of other people.Excessive need for approval from other people is linked to low self-esteem.Children need to understand that it is natural for others to not always appreciate them, they may have higher self-esteem in the long run.A sense of competence also increases self-esteem.Children who know that they are good at something usually have higher self-esteem than others.Part of becoming competent is setting realistic goals.Warmth and encouragement from parents and teachers can help children reach high levels of competence and self-esteem.
44Gender, Age and Self-Esteem Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentGender, Age and Self-EsteemAges 5 to 7, children begin to value themselves on the basis of their physical appearance and performance in school.People generally live up to the expectations that they have for themselves and that others have for them.Children gain in competence as they grow older. Self-esteem seems to reach a low point at about age 12 or 13 and increase again during adolescence.Reason for this: Children begin to compare themselves with their peers, and begin to feel less competent.
45Homework Practice Online Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentHomework Practice OnlineGo toType in Keyword: SY7 HP10Click on Section 3Complete the Online Practice and print
46PIAGET’S THEORY Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive DevelopmentQuestion: What are the stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?PIAGET’S THEORYFour stages of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development:Sensorimotor Stage – learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activityPreoperational Stage – children begin to use language to represent objectsConcrete-Operational Stage – begins at about the age of seven when children begin to show signs of adult thinkingFormational-Operational Stage – begins at about puberty and represents cognitive maturity
47KOHLBERG’S THEORY Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive DevelopmentQuestion: What are the stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?KOHLBERG’S THEORYKohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development follows a specific sequence:Preconventional Level – through the age of nine most children base their judgment on the consequence of behaviorConventional Level – judgments are made in terms of whether an act conforms to conventional standards of right and wrongPostconventional Level – reasoning based on a person’s own moral standards of goodness
48Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Chapter 10Section 4: Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
53Homework Practice Online Chapter 10Homework Practice OnlineGo toType in Keyword: SY7 HP10Click on Section 4Complete the Online Quiz and printCopy and paste to a word document so you can add your name and date
54Chapter 10Question: What factors influence human behavior, and how does development occur?NatureNurtureStagesContinuity