Mental Retardation Mild – IQ score between Moderate – IQ score between to Severe: IQ score between to Profound: IQ score below This is an Axis II diagnosis due the chronic, long-term nature of the problem
Learning Disorders Distinguished by below average cognitive or academic functioning when compared to a person’s intellectual capacity A discrepancy of two standard deviations is necessary to meet this classification.
Motor Skills Disorders Distinguished by problems with physical or perceptual coordination. This disorder is not diagnosed if the child’s problems are due to a medical condition or are not significantly greater than those motor functioning problems normally found in children with mental retardation.
Communication Disorders Distinguished by problems in the area of language or speech development. Five diagnoses are included in this general category: –Expressive language –Mixed receptive – expressive language –Phonological disorder –Stuttering –Communication disorder NOS
Pervasive Development Disorders Distinguished by serious problems with an array of social and developmental delays and disabilities. Children have severe impairment is social functioning and communication as well as severely restricted behaviors, interests, and activities. Neurological dysfunction is present in all of these disorders.
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Distinguished by problems with attention and behavioral conduct. Frequently diagnosed in school-age children. ADHD is composed of two major symptom categories: –Inattention –Hyperactivity/impulsivity
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders A child may be diagnosed with either of these syndromes or with both of them. Children with ADHD begin to show symptoms of the disorder before the age of 7. Oppositional Defiant disorder will display at least four disruptive, negative, and defiant behaviors for at least 6 months. A child with ODD does not engage in unlawful behaviors.
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Conduct disorder children do participate in activities that violate social norms and may constitute illegal and criminal behaviors. Four broad categories: –Aggression to people or animals –Destruction of property –Deceitfulness or theft –Serious violations of rules These behaviors are repetitive and form a pattern that significantly impairs social or academic functioning.
Feeding and Eating Disorders Distinguished by problems with the process of eating and retaining food or eating inappropriate food. –Pica –Rumination disorder –Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood
Elimination Disorders Distinguished by problems with bowel or bladder control. Encopresis is diagnosed in children 4 years of age or older. Enuresis is marked by repeated urination in bed or clothing at least twice a week for at least 3 months.
Tic Disorders Distinguished by irresistible movements and/or vocal sounds. Tourette’s syndrome is identified by having both motor and vocal tics.
Other disorders Separation anxiety disorder Selective mutism Reactive attachment Stereotypic movement Disorder of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence NOS