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Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy (First 24 Months)

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Presentation on theme: "Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy (First 24 Months)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy (First 24 Months)

2 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Chapter Objectives –To identify important milestones in the maturation of the sensory and motor systems, and to describe the interactions among these systems during the first two years of life –To define social attachment as the process through which infants develop strong emotional bonds with others, and to describe the dynamics of attachment formation during infancy

3 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To describe the development of sensorimotor intelligence, including an analysis of how infants organize experiences and conceptualize causality –To examine how infants understand the properties of objects, including the sense that objects are permanent, that they have unique properties and functions, and that they can be categorized.

4 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To examine the nature of emotional development, including emotional differentiation, the interpretation of emotions, and emotional regulation –To analyze the factors that contribute to the resolution of the psychosocial crisis of trust versus mistrust, including the achievement of mutuality with the caregiver and the attainment of a sense of hope or withdrawal

5 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To evaluate the critical role of parents/caregivers during infancy with special attention to issues of safety in the physical environment; optimizing cognitive, social, and emotional development; and the role of parents/caregivers as advocates for their infants with other agencies and systems

6 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Newborns –On average 7 to 7 ½ pounds and 20 inches –Low-birth-weight-babies: weigh 5 pounds 8 ounces or less –Small for their gestational age: low weight for a given gestational age

7 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

8 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Development of Sensory/Perceptual and Motor Functions –Infant sensory/perceptual competencies can be measured with infant gazing, heart rate, sucking, head turning, and habituation –Habituation: allows the infant to attend to new aspects of the environment

9 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Brain Development in Infancy –Infant brain is well-formed at birth with about 100 billion interconnected neurons (brain cells) –Neural plasticity

10 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

11 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Sensory/Motor Development –Hearing –Vision –Taste and Smell –Touch –The sensory/perceptual capacities function as an interconnected system to provide a variety of sources of information about the environment at the same time

12 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

13 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Sensory/Motor Development (cont.) –Motor skills develop as a result of physical growth and maturation in the context of varied environmental opportunities –Motor skills begin as involuntary reflexes, and follow a general sequence of development

14 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

15 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

16 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Temperament –Relatively stable characteristics or response to the environment that can be observed during the first months of life –Significant source of individual differences – a result of genetic, environmental, and socially construed factors –Assessed by child’s positive or negative reaction to events and stability of this reaction

17 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Another View of Temperament –Reactivity or the child’s threshold for arousal, which could be evidenced at the physiological, emotional, or motor level –Self-regulation or behavioral inhibition that can be thought of as a continuum from bold or brazen to inhibited and cautious

18 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

19 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Case Study: The Cotton Family –Thought Questions How would you describe Anna’s temperament? What problems might the Cotton family face if Anna had been a more passive, reserved, and inhibited child? In what ways was Anna being expected to adapt to the Cotton family lifestyle?

20 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Case Study: The Cotton Family (cont.) What are some of the challenges Nancy and Paul faced as new parents? How did they cope with these challenges? How would you describe Paul’s enactment of the father role? How would you describe Nancy’s enactment of the mother role? Anna seems to be influencing the well- being of her mother, father, and her grandmother. What impact does Anna have on each of these family members?

21 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Attachment –Process through which people develop specific, positive emotional bonds with others –Attachment Behavior System Parenting or caregiving is the nurturing responses of the caregiver to the child –Synchrony, or interactions that are rhythmic, well-timed, and mutually rewarding establish attachments

22 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

23 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Development of Attachment –Internal mental representations / internal working models –Goal-corrected partnerships –Stranger anxiety –Separation anxiety

24 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Formation of Attachments with Mother, Father, and Others –The amount of time the infant spends in the care of the person –The quality and responsiveness of the care provided by the person –The person’s emotional investment in the infant –The presence of the person in the infant’s life across time

25 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Measuring the Security of Attachment: The Strange Situation –A 20 minute period –Child is exposed to a sequence of periods of separations and reunions with the caregiver –How the child responds to these periods is used to assess their level of attachment to the caregiver

26 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Four Patterns of Quality of Attachment –Secure Attachment –Anxious-Avoidant Attachment –Anxious-Resistant Attachment –Disorganized Attachment

27 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

28 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Parental Sensitivity and the Quality of Attachment –Four factors come into play in producing sensitive parenting that underlies secure attachments Cultural and subcultural pathways The caregiver’s personal life story Contemporary factors Characteristics of the infant

29 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Relevance of Attachment to Later Development –Attachment and internal working models influence: expectations about the self, others, and the nature of relationships the child’s ability to explore and engage the environment with confidence the formation of later relationships

30 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Relevance of Attachment to Later Development (cont.) –Clinical diagnoses and links to attachment Reactive Attachment Disorder Inhibited Type Uninhibited Type Critique of the Attachment Paradigm –Attachment paradigm has limitations, especially when viewed from a cross-cultural or comparative cultural lens

31 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Sensorimotor Intelligence and Early Causal Schemes –Sensorimotor intelligence, or motor routine, that reflects organization –Sensorimotor adaptation is Piaget’s chief mechanism governing the growth of intelligence during infancy –Infants develop an understanding of causality based largely on sensory and motor experiences

32 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

33 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Development of Causal Schemes –Infants form expectations about how objects function. –Development of causal schemes Phase 1 – reflexes Phase 2 – first habits Phase 3 – circular reactions Phase 4 – coordination of means and ends Phase 5 – experimentation with new means Phase 6 - insight

34 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Understanding the Nature of Objects and Creating Categories –Object permanence - objects in the environment are permanent and do not cease to exist when they are out of reach or view –One reason babies experience separation anxiety is that they are uncertain whether a person to whom they are attached will continue to exist once out of sight

35 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Video Segment: The Sensorimotor Stage: Absence of Object Permanence

36 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Video Segment: The Sensorimotor Stage: Presence of Object Permanence

37 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Prefrontal Cortex and Infant Intelligence –Prefrontal Cortex allows for the ability to derive abstract concepts, rules, and generalizations from sensory/motor experiences and apply them to new situations

38 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

39 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy

40 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Emotions as a Key to Understanding Meaning –Provide a channel for determining the meaning the child is giving to a specific situation The Ability to Regulate Emotions –One of the most important elements in the development of emotional regulation is the way caregivers assist infants to manage their strong feelings

41 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Emotions as a Channel for Adult-Infant Communication –Emotions provide a two-way channel through which infants and their caregivers can establish intersubjectivity –Mechanism of social referencing

42 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Psychosocial Crisis: Trust versus Mistrust –Trust - an appraisal of the availability, dependability, and sensitivity of another person; emerges as one person discovers those traits in another person –Mistrust - can arise, during infancy, from at least three sources: infant wariness, lack of confidence in the caregiver, and doubt in one’s own lovableness

43 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Central Process for Resolving the Crisis: Mutuality with the Caregiver –Mutuality is a characteristic of a relationship that is initially built on the consistency with which the caregiver appropriately responds to the infant’s needs

44 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Coordination, Mismatch, and Repair of Interactions –Coordination refers to two related characteristics on interaction: matching and synchrony –Matching means that the infant and the caregiver are involved in similar behaviors or states at the same time –Synchrony means that the infant and caregiver move fluidly from one state to the next

45 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Central Process for Resolving the Crisis: Mutuality with the Caregiver Establishing a Functional Rhythm in the Family –The match or mismatch between an infant’s rhythms and the family’s rhythms is an important factor in the overall adjustment of a family to a new baby Parents with Psychological Problems

46 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy The Prime Adaptive Ego Quality and the Core Pathology –Hope - the first prime adaptive ego quality; an orientation that goals and dreams can be attained and events will turn out for the best –Withdrawal - a general orientation of wariness toward people and objects

47 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy Applied Topic: The Role of Parents –Safety in the physical environment –Fostering emotional and cognitive development –Fathers’ and mothers’ parental behavior –Parents as advocates –The importance of social support

48 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Infancy


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