Most time asleep Most time asleep –16-18 hours a day Average 2-year-old = hours Average 2-year-old = hours Changes brain maturation and social environment Changes brain maturation and social environment
Do infants see/hear/smell/feel the same things we do??? Do infants see/hear/smell/feel the same things we do???
Learning in Infancy Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning –Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) –Neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with (UCS) –Eventually CS elicits a conditioned response (CR) –Possible for newborns, but must have survival value
Learning in Infancy Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning –Learner emits a response –Consequences Repeat favorable, limit unfavorable –Newborns learn very slowly, rate increases with age –At 2 months, context-dependent
Figure 5.15 When ribbons are attached to their ankles, 2- to 3-month-old infants soon learn to make a mobile move by kicking their legs. But do they remember how to make the mobile move when tested days or weeks after the original learning? These are the questions that Rovee-Collier has explored in her fascinating research on infant memory.
Learning in Infancy Observational Learning – Observational Learning – –Newborn imitation –Imitation of novel responses –Immediate imitation, then deferred imitation
Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Touch, Temperature, and Pain Touch, Temperature, and Pain –Particularly sensitive on hands, feet, and mouth –Temperature –Pain – even at 1 day –Dishabituate sucking to novel objects at 3 months –Prefer to manipulate novel objects at 5 months
Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Taste Taste –Sweet, salty, sour, bitter –Prefer sweet –How do we know??? –Present before birth?
Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Smell Smell –Unpleasant smells –Breastfed babies recognize mothers 6 days 2 day old cannot –Bottle-fed infants later
Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Hearing Hearing –Discriminate sounds Loudness Duration Direction Frequency –Prefer mother’s voice –Phonemes –Hearing loss
Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Vision Vision –Least mature –Muscles weak –Cells in retina not mature or dense –Optic nerve and “relay” pathways immature –Visual acuity poor Neonate 20/600 6 months 20/100 Adultlike at one year
Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Vision (con’t) Vision (con’t) –Spatial frequency gradings
Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Vision (con’t) Vision (con’t) –Color perception Certain hues By 2-3 months, all basic colors By 4 months, group different shades into same category –Biological timetable
Visual Perception Identifying boundaries – Spelke Identifying boundaries – Spelke –3 to 5 month olds shown two objects –touched vs. separated –stationary vs. moving (either independently or together)
Visual Perception Results Results –objects touched, stood still, or moved in the same direction reached for them as a whole –objects separated or moved in opposite directions behaved as distinct –repeated with objects of different shapes, colors –motion and spatial arrangement identification of objects; not shape, texture, and color
Figure 5.7 Perceiving objects as wholes. An infant is habituated to a rod partially hidden by the block in front of it. The rod is either stationary (A) or moving (B). When tested afterward, does the infant treat the whole rod (C) as “familiar”? We certainly would, for we could readily interpret cues that tell us that there is one long rod behind the block and would therefore regard the whole rod as familiar. But if the infant shows more interest in the whole rod (C) than in the two rod segments (D), he or she has apparently not been able to use available cues to perceive a whole rod. ADAPTED FROM KELLMAN & SPELKE, 1983.
Visual Perception Depth Perception (con’t) Depth Perception (con’t) –Radar: young infants in walkers –Readily crossed deep side of cliff Held & Hein Held & Hein –Self-propelled movement
Visual Perception Face Perception Face Perception –Newborns faces over patterns (Fantz) –Maurer & Barrera habituated 1 and 2 month olds to scrambled face test: infant saw 3 patterns, one at a time: –the habituation pattern –a different (symmetrical) scrambled face –a naturally arranged face
Visual Perception Face perception (con’t) Face perception (con’t) –1 month: equal looking at all 3 test patterns –2 months: dishabituate to new patterns – look most at natural face
Visual Perception Particular faces by 3 months Particular faces by 3 months Attractive over unattractive Attractive over unattractive –Langlois and colleagues –Found in 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old infants, as well as in older children and adults
Intermodal Perception Integration at Birth? Integration at Birth? –Yes: reaching for objects that are seen –Yes: looking in the direction of sounds –Yes: expecting to see source of sound, or to feel objects that were reached for
Intermodal Perception Integrating sensory information from 2 or more modalities Integrating sensory information from 2 or more modalities –(differs from text…) Spelke (1979): 4-month-olds film Spelke (1979): 4-month-olds film
Cross-Modal Perception/Transference Ability to recognize an object through one sense that was familiar only through another Ability to recognize an object through one sense that was familiar only through another Some research connects cross-modal transference and habituation speed with later intelligence and language skills Some research connects cross-modal transference and habituation speed with later intelligence and language skills