17 Learning in Infancy Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) elicits an unconditioned response (UCR)Neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with (UCS)Eventually CS elicits a conditioned response (CR)Possible for newborns, but must have survival value
18 Learning in Infancy Operant Conditioning Learner emits a response ConsequencesRepeat favorable, limit unfavorableNewborns learn very slowly, rate increases with ageAt 2 months, context-dependent
19 Figure 5.15 When ribbons are attached to their ankles, 2- to 3-month-old infants soon learn to make a mobile move by kicking their legs. But do they remember how to make the mobile move when tested days or weeks after the original learning? These are the questions that Rovee-Collier has explored in her fascinating research on infant memory.
20 Learning in Infancy Observational Learning – Newborn imitation Imitation of novel responsesImmediate imitation, then deferred imitation
22 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Touch, Temperature, and PainParticularly sensitive on hands, feet, and mouthTemperaturePain – even at 1 dayDishabituate sucking to novel objects at 3 monthsPrefer to manipulate novel objects at 5 months
23 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities TasteSweet, salty, sour, bitterPrefer sweetHow do we know???Present before birth?
24 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities SmellUnpleasant smellsBreastfed babies recognize mothers6 days2 day old cannotBottle-fed infants later
25 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities HearingDiscriminate soundsLoudnessDurationDirectionFrequencyPrefer mother’s voicePhonemesHearing loss
26 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities VisionLeast matureMuscles weakCells in retina not mature or denseOptic nerve and “relay” pathways immatureVisual acuity poorNeonate 20/6006 months 20/100Adultlike at one year
29 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Vision (con’t)Spatial frequency gradings
30 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities Vision (con’t)Color perceptionCertain huesBy 2-3 months, all basic colorsBy 4 months, group different shades into same categoryBiological timetable
31 Visual Perception Identifying boundaries – Spelke 3 to 5 month olds shown two objectstouched vs. separatedstationary vs. moving (either independently or together)
32 Visual Perception Results objects touched, stood still, or moved in the same direction reached for them as a wholeobjects separated or moved in opposite directions behaved as distinctrepeated with objects of different shapes, colorsmotion and spatial arrangement identification of objects; not shape, texture, and color
33 Figure 5. 7 Perceiving objects as wholes Figure 5.7 Perceiving objects as wholes. An infant is habituated to a rod partially hidden by the block in front of it. The rod is either stationary (A) or moving (B). When tested afterward, does the infant treat the whole rod (C) as “familiar”? We certainly would, for we could readily interpret cues that tell us that there is one long rod behind the block and would therefore regard the whole rod as familiar. But if the infant shows more interest in the whole rod (C) than in the two rod segments (D), he or she has apparently not been able to use available cues to perceive a whole rod. ADAPTED FROM KELLMAN & SPELKE, 1983.
35 Visual Perception Depth Perception (con’t) Held & Hein Radar: young infants in walkersReadily crossed deep side of cliffHeld & HeinSelf-propelled movement
36 Visual Perception Face Perception Newborns faces over patterns (Fantz)Maurer & Barrerahabituated 1 and 2 month olds to scrambled facetest: infant saw 3 patterns, one at a time:the habituation patterna different (symmetrical) scrambled facea naturally arranged face
37 Visual Perception Face perception (con’t) 1 month: equal looking at all 3 test patterns2 months: dishabituate to new patterns – look most at natural face
39 Visual Perception Particular faces by 3 months Attractive over unattractiveLanglois and colleaguesFound in 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old infants, as well as in older children and adults
40 Intermodal Perception Integration at Birth?Yes: reaching for objects that are seenYes: looking in the direction of soundsYes: expecting to see source of sound, or to feel objects that were reached for
41 Intermodal Perception Integrating sensory information from 2 or more modalities(differs from text…)Spelke (1979): 4-month-olds film
42 Cross-Modal Perception/Transference Ability to recognize an object through one sense that was familiar only through anotherSome research connects cross-modal transference and habituation speed with later intelligence and language skills