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Infancy Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Infancy Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infancy Chapter 5

2 Reflexes Newborn Reflexes Survival Primitive
breathing, sucking, swallowing Primitive Babinski, swimming, grasping



5 Infant States

6 Infant States Most time asleep Average 2-year-old = 12-13 hours
16-18 hours a day Average 2-year-old = hours Changes  brain maturation and social environment

7 Do infants see/hear/smell/feel the same things we do???

8 Sensation Perception

9 Assessing Infant Perception
Preferential Looking Technique

10 Assessing Infant Perception
Preferential Looking Technique (con’t) Patterns to solids Infant visual acuity Faces to other patterns Tells us preference No preference doesn’t prove infants can’t discriminate…

11 Assessing Infant Perception
Habituation Familiarity  lack of response Dishabituation Three methods Looking High amplitude sucking Heart rate Several presentations of a stimulus for habitutation to occur




15 Assessing Infant Perception
Evoked Potentials Brain waves Different brain wave patterns


17 Learning in Infancy Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) Neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with (UCS) Eventually CS elicits a conditioned response (CR) Possible for newborns, but must have survival value

18 Learning in Infancy Operant Conditioning Learner emits a response
Consequences Repeat favorable, limit unfavorable Newborns learn very slowly, rate increases with age At 2 months, context-dependent

19 Figure 5.15 When ribbons are attached to their ankles, 2- to 3-month-old infants soon learn to make a mobile move by kicking their legs. But do they remember how to make the mobile move when tested days or weeks after the original learning? These are the questions that Rovee-Collier has explored in her fascinating research on infant memory.

20 Learning in Infancy Observational Learning – Newborn imitation
Imitation of novel responses Immediate imitation, then deferred imitation


22 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
Touch, Temperature, and Pain Particularly sensitive on hands, feet, and mouth Temperature Pain – even at 1 day Dishabituate sucking to novel objects at 3 months Prefer to manipulate novel objects at 5 months

23 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
Taste Sweet, salty, sour, bitter Prefer sweet How do we know??? Present before birth?

24 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
Smell Unpleasant smells Breastfed babies recognize mothers 6 days 2 day old cannot Bottle-fed infants later

25 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
Hearing Discriminate sounds Loudness Duration Direction Frequency Prefer mother’s voice Phonemes Hearing loss

26 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
Vision Least mature Muscles weak Cells in retina not mature or dense Optic nerve and “relay” pathways immature Visual acuity poor Neonate 20/600 6 months 20/100 Adultlike at one year



29 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
Vision (con’t) Spatial frequency gradings

30 Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
Vision (con’t) Color perception Certain hues By 2-3 months, all basic colors By 4 months, group different shades into same category Biological timetable

31 Visual Perception Identifying boundaries – Spelke
3 to 5 month olds shown two objects touched vs. separated stationary vs. moving (either independently or together)

32 Visual Perception Results
objects touched, stood still, or moved in the same direction  reached for them as a whole objects separated or moved in opposite directions  behaved as distinct repeated with objects of different shapes, colors motion and spatial arrangement  identification of objects; not shape, texture, and color

33 Figure 5. 7 Perceiving objects as wholes
Figure 5.7 Perceiving objects as wholes. An infant is habituated to a rod partially hidden by the block in front of it. The rod is either stationary (A) or moving (B). When tested afterward, does the infant treat the whole rod (C) as “familiar”? We certainly would, for we could readily interpret cues that tell us that there is one long rod behind the block and would therefore regard the whole rod as familiar. But if the infant shows more interest in the whole rod (C) than in the two rod segments (D), he or she has apparently not been able to use available cues to perceive a whole rod. ADAPTED FROM KELLMAN & SPELKE, 1983.

34 Depth Perception

35 Visual Perception Depth Perception (con’t) Held & Hein
Radar: young infants in walkers Readily crossed deep side of cliff Held & Hein Self-propelled movement

36 Visual Perception Face Perception
Newborns  faces over patterns (Fantz) Maurer & Barrera habituated 1 and 2 month olds to scrambled face test: infant saw 3 patterns, one at a time: the habituation pattern a different (symmetrical) scrambled face a naturally arranged face

37 Visual Perception Face perception (con’t)
1 month: equal looking at all 3 test patterns 2 months: dishabituate to new patterns – look most at natural face


39 Visual Perception Particular faces by 3 months
Attractive over unattractive Langlois and colleagues Found in 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old infants, as well as in older children and adults

40 Intermodal Perception
Integration at Birth? Yes: reaching for objects that are seen Yes: looking in the direction of sounds Yes: expecting to see source of sound, or to feel objects that were reached for

41 Intermodal Perception
Integrating sensory information from 2 or more modalities (differs from text…) Spelke (1979): 4-month-olds film

42 Cross-Modal Perception/Transference
Ability to recognize an object through one sense that was familiar only through another Some research connects cross-modal transference and habituation speed with later intelligence and language skills

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