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Strengthening PBIS in Your School: Tier II Interventions MiBLSi/Ingham ISD Focus Day Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Strengthening PBIS in Your School: Tier II Interventions MiBLSi/Ingham ISD Focus Day Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strengthening PBIS in Your School: Tier II Interventions MiBLSi/Ingham ISD Focus Day Training

2 Acknowledgements Soraya Coccimiglio Melissa Nantais The material for this training day was developed with the efforts of… Content was based on the work of… –Mickey Garrison –Rob Horner –Anita Archer –George Sugai –Randy Sprick –Robert Marzano


4 Matt Phillips Coordinator, Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS) Implementation – Ingham ISD Speech-Language Pathologist Heartwood Sparrow Indiana Private Practice MSU - CSD

5 Erin Rappuhn MTSS/School Psychology Intern for Ingham ISD MA, Doctoral Student in MSU School Psychology Program Background in Psychology and Elementary/Special Education Teaching, Clinical Work, Consultation

6 To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participation Be Responsible –Attend to the “Come back together” signal –Active participation…Please ask questions Be Respectful –Please allow others to listen Please turn off cell phones and pagers Please limit sidebar conversations –Share “air time” –Please refrain from and Internet browsing Be Safe –Take care of your own needs Setting Group Expectations

7 Participants will… Understand the systematic framework for Multi- Tiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL students Understand how classroom management and specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the necessary foundation for additional behavioral interventions Develop an understanding of behavioral assessment and the function it serves

8 Participants will… Develop a working knowledge of multiple targeted behavioral interventions for individual students Develop an understanding of the use of data in selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral interventions.

9 1.The MTSS Model for PBIS 2.The Organizational Framework for Tier II Behavioral Interventions 3.Prevention via Core Classroom Supports and Early Stage Interventions 4.“Practical” Functional Behavioral Assessment 5.Highly Structured Tier II Interventions 6.Other Resources

10 Hey there, partner! For responses that are longer, you will be asked to share thoughts and ideas with a partner throughout the session today. Decide which person sitting next to you will be your partner today.

11 Red/Yellow/Green Sheet As a result of today’s session, I plan to… Stop… Continue… Start…

12 The MTSS Model for PBIS

13 Transition To Tier 2 Implementation Supports Sustaining Tier 1

14 Keep It Going! Question: How can you move forward with Tier 2 supports while maintaining confidence that Tier 1 will be maintained or improved? Answer: By focusing on the Big Idea Basics!

15 Tier 1 “Big Idea Basics” For continued accuracy, fluency, and durability!

16 Big Idea Basics 1)Foundations of PBIS 2)Implementation Framework 3)Effective Practice 4)Account for Context and Culture

17 Big Idea #1: Foundations Prevention-Focused Driven by Outcomes and Data Labeling, Language, and Context

18 Prevention Logic for All (Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996) Decrease development of new problem behaviors Prevent worsening & reduce intensity of existing problem behaviors Eliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviors Teach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behavior Redesign of teaching environments … not students!

19 Driven by Outcomes and Data A plan for intervention or implementing a change to our system without data is just a toss of the dice! But collecting data that doesn’t help to inform our work can be a waste!

20 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making

21 1.Can you remember recent programs, curricula, initiatives, etc. that have been implemented without data? 2.Were they off the mark? Or were they effective? 3.Are you collecting data that isn’t being used? 4.Could it be used for something useful? Or not? Activity

22 Labeling, Language, and Context Language reflects and influences our thinking and our practices. Paying attention to our language can help to change the way we think and the way we work for the benefit of our students!

23 Classic Examples To Be Avoided Let’s discuss our “Tier 2 Kids” If this (plan) doesn’t work, she may become a “Tier 3 Kid” There are some red flags here, he may need to “be in Tier 2”

24 An Underlying Belief Must be Established: “…Faculty and staff must believe that any change in student behavior starts with the adults in the school changing their approach to behavior management.” (Sprick, 2009; p. 427)

25 1.Identify common phrases or terms that are used in your building’s efforts 2.What message(s) does this language convey? Is it helpful or potentially harmful/misleading? 3.How might you adjust (or further encourage) this language as needed? Activity

26 Big Idea #2 Implementation Framework Blueprint for success! MTSS/RTI Appropriate Pacing

27 Agreements Team Data-based Action Plan ImplementationEvaluation GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”

28 Essential Principles in All MTSS Trainings Create systems, not just programs, to support each and every student Earlier, rather than later Evidence, not opinion

29 Appropriate Pacing Enthusiasm is priceless, and dragging our feet without reason is a tragedy… But we must be careful to keep our implementation in-line with our preparation!

30 Stages of ImplementationFocusStageDescription Exploration/Ad option Decision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation. InstallationSet up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan. Initial Implementation Try out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts. ElaborationExpand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation. Continuous Improvement/R egeneration Make it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices. Work to do it right! Work to do it better! Should we do it!

31 Big Idea #3: Effective Practice Fidelity Work Smarter, Not Harder Prioritize Measureable Goals Data-based Decision Making

32 Why Focus on Fidelity? It is, after all, one more thing to measure!But it’s worth it! Without ensuring fidelity, it is impossible to determine whether our efforts are promoting desired outcomes! Effort required to measure fidelity > Effort required to evaluate our work without knowing!

33 Work Smarter Not Harder OSEP Center on PBIS Guidelines for Implementation “Because we cannot do everything all at once!” 1)Do the smallest number of actions… 2)That are evidence based… 3)And will have the largest and most durable effect!

34 Prioritize Measurable Goals This all “hangs together” with our fidelity data, and our efforts to Work Smarter! If we cannot measure and record the outcome, it moves further down the priority list. If a goal sounds like a priority, but we don’t have a way to measure it – FIND ONE!

35 Consider Sources of Data ODR’s/SWIS? YES! But what about… Attendance? “Local” classroom data? Others?

36 Measurable as written? Goals/Outcomes Improve behavior in our school. Increase attendance for Howard Elementary Encourage students to arrive to class on time Improve school climate Decrease ODR’s Increase staff morale

37 Measurable as written? Goals/Outcomes Improve behavior in our school. Increase attendance for Howard Elementary Encourage students to arrive to class on time Improve school climate Decrease ODR’s Increase staff morale

38 1.Look back to your SW-PBIS Goals from last Spring 2.Are they measurable? 3.And measuring meaningful things? 4.Based on the Action Steps you wrote last Spring, evaluate your progress: a.Do you need to adjust the wording? b.Have you been able to collect the necessary data? Follow-Up

39 Big Idea #4: Context & Culture Your building culture is unique! Dynamic group membership Shared experience and shared behaviors Shared goals and vision

40 Dynamic Membership Build SYSTEMS in addition to expertise!

41 1.What unique issues need to be addressed or given time/attention in your building? 1.Utilize the Benchmarks of Quality and any prior knowledge/anecdotal data as necessary 1.Identify 1-2 possibilities you’d like to share with a nearby team Context & Culture

42 The Organizational Framework for Tier II Behavioral Interventions

43 43 Q: (How) is Your Tier 2 Team Organized?

44 Building Leadership Team Addresses Schoolwide Systems & Tier 2/Tier 3 Systems

45 Building Leadership Team Addresses Schoolwide Systems Tier 2/ Tier 3 Systems

46 Building Leadership Team Addresses Schoolwide Systems Tier 2/ Tier 3 Systems

47 47 Membership Structure Should Include: Administrator Crossover member from Tier 1 Building Leadership Team Faculty with expertise in behavioral assessment and intervention Faculty with expertise in academic assessment and intervention

48 Do you have a Tier 2/Behavior Response Team? How is your team organized? Does your team have the necessary membership structure for successful functioning? Quick Check

49 Tier 2 Team’s Role in Targeted Support Establishing systems Ensuring that students have access Ensuring fidelity Tracking effectiveness and making adjustments

50 50 Barriers to Tier 2 Success Lack of: Administrative Support and Leadership Classroom System Implementation Communication System

51 Q: How Does Staff Access Tier 2 Behavioral Supports


53 Decision Rules: When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed? Entry Criteria Entry Criteria allow for consistency among staff and students as we build our system of supports Entry Criteria Considerations: 2 major office discipline referrals in a quarter > 5 absences within a quarter 60 minutes “time out class” in a week

54 Decision Rules: When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed? Entry Criteria should be specifically defined for each Tier 2 intervention offered Entry Criteria should be widely known among building faculty and staff, parents, and community agencies

55 Decision Rules: What are the Exit Criteria for Tier 2 Interventions? Original data sources that lead to student identification ODR Attendance Academics Time out of class” Teacher Perception Key is to frequently and regularly Celebrate success Adjust if student doesn’t respond (or problems start reappearing)

56 Decision Rules: How Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed? Is there a formal referral form? What information should be on the referral? Where are referrals submitted? Who can refer a student for targeted behavioral intervention? – Teachers – Parents What is the anticipated timeline from referral to next step? How are parents informed? How is parent permission obtained?

57 Team Task: Consider the current process of referring students to Tier 2 interventions that exists in your building Are there any additions or changes that are needed? Determine what information regarding the referral process for Tier 2 interventions needs to be communicated – record this information on your communication log Activity

58 Prevention: Core Classroom Supports & Early Stage Interventions

59 Continuum of Positive Behavior Supports


61 Process Data - Behavior Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) Completed annually by school leadership teams Tier 1 SWPBIS implementation fidelity check 53 benchmarks across 10 critical elements of implementation. Identifies areas of strength and need; informs problem analysis and action planning. 70% Implementation Goal Self-Assessment Survey (SAS) Completed annually by building staff Fidelity check of PBIS implementation across (a) school wide, (b) non- classroom, (c) classroom, and (d) individual students Seven key elements of the Implementation Subsystems Informs of areas of strength and need, including communication between leadership team and staff 70% Implementation Goal

62 Schoolwide Overview- Behavior

63 District Process Data - Behavior

64 Process Data Snapshots: PBIS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)


66 Classroom Structures Teacher- Student Relationships Instructional Management Responding to Appropriate Behavior Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Critical Features of Effective Classroom Management (Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011)

67 The goal of classroom management is to develop a classroom of students who are: respectful, responsible, motivated, and highly engaged in meaningful tasks.

68 Classroom Management Plan Developing a Classroom Management Plan will set the stage for dealing productively with a range of behaviors, both positive and negative.


70 An Increase in Emotional Intensity

71 Dependence on Role-Bound Authority

72 A Dependence on Punishment

73 Wishing and Hoping

74 The CHAMPs Acronym CConversation HHelp AActivity MMovement PParticipation S Supplies

75 Defining CHAMPS: A guide to the decisions teachers can make to build and implement a proactive and positive approach to classroom management. A process of continuous improvement A common language among staff members



78 Develop and Display Classroom Rules Your classroom rules should communicate your most important expectations and address most common misbehaviors.

79 Management Plan An effective Classroom Management Plan is a framework that ensures students are academically engaged and emotionally thriving by supporting classroom: Rituals Routines Rules Consequences Motivational techniques

80 Management Plan The greater the level of structure needed in your classroom, the more DETAILED and PROLONGED you are going to have to be when teaching your expectations.

81 Level of Classroom Structure The level of structure should not be based on teacher preference or familiarity! The level of structure should be based on student need! When in doubt, start with a higher level of structure.

82 Student Needs Teacher Needs

83 “Survey says…” 0-30 LOW: Students can be successful with LOW, MEDIUM, or HIGH MEDIUM: Students need MEDIUM or HIGH structure HIGH: Students need HIGH structure


85 85 Schoolwide Overview- Behavior

86 Outcome Data - Behavior









95 “Rule of Three”: If more than three students are demonstrating the same misbehavior, the management plan needs to be adjusted to address the misbehavior.

96 Strengthen Classroom Management Classroom Structures Teacher- Student Relationships Instructional Management Responding to Appropriate Behavior Responding to Inappropriate Behavior (Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011)

97 Strengthen Classroom Management S = Structure for Success T = Teach Expectations O = Observe Behavior I = Interact Positively C = Correct Fluently

98 Strengthen Classroom Management CHAMPS Coaching

99 Strengthen Classroom Management Time on Task

100 Strengthen Classroom Management Opportunities to Respond Verbal Responses Written Responses Action Responses All Students Respond. When possible use response procedures that engage all students. (Archer, 2011)

101 Strengthen Classroom Management Ratio of Interactions Positive Interaction: acknowledging a positive behavior Negative Interaction: addressing a negative behavior; fluent correction 4:1 15:1

102 Strengthen Classroom Management

103 Precision Requests

104 Strengthen Classroom Management





109 Team Task: Review examples from the Menu of Classwide Motivation Systems 1s Read – 100 Squares 2s Read – Mystery Motivators & Good Behavior Game 3s Read – Reinforcement Based on Reducing Misbehavior 4s Read –Dots for Motivation Share out a summary of the classwide system. Consider which system(s) may benefit classrooms in your building. Activity

110 Hypothesize!

111 Early Stage Interventions These are the interventions that ALL teachers should be trained to implement effectively and with fidelity.

112 Early Stage Interventions


114 Team Task: Review examples from the Menu of Early Stage Interventions 1s Read – A) Planned Discussion 2s Read – B) Academic Assistance 3s Read – C) Goal Setting 4s Read –D) Data Collecting and Debriefing Share out a summary of the intervention. Consider which intervention(s) may benefit particular students in your building. Activity

115 Practical Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Based on work from Sprick (2011) and Steege & Watson (2008)

116 Comprehensive Functional Behavior Assessments (FBAs) are often associated with Tier III interventions However…more basic and practical FBAs are important to consider in order to determine an appropriate match between a presenting behavior problem and an appropriate Tier II Intervention Practical FBAs

117 School resources (time, staff) are often limited and are certainly valuable Many attempts to address problem behaviors: Consume most of our resources React to the problem after it occurs Fade out because they are not working… Problem of “premature implementation” But this may be attributed to a lack of fit (or match) between the problem behavior and the intervention Why Practical FBAs? Work smarter, not harder!

118 Problem-Solving Process

119 Understand How To Shape Behavior Human Behavior : serves a purpose (functional) is predictable. is changeable.

120 Understand How To Shape Behavior Human behavior is learned and can also be unlearned, or shaped into a more desirable form. Behaviors are performed for a reason, or to serve a specific function (whether we are aware of it or not) Possible functions: Gain something (attention, objects) Escape/Avoid something (difficult work, negative or unpleasant experience) Sensory stimulation (movement, texture)

121 Understand How To Shape Behavior Behavior can be taught and changed. When students behave irresponsibly, it’s likely that they haven’t experienced the benefits of responsible behavior.

122 When examining a particular behavior, consider the 5 essential components of the FBA process: 1.Define the target behavior 2.Consider the setting events (individual, home, classroom variables) 3.Consider the antecedents 4.Analyze the consequences 5.Hypothesize about the function of the behavior 5 Components of the FBA Process

123 Before considering a more comprehensive FBA for Tier III interventions, utilize a practical FBA to hypothesize the function of the given behavior: A “Practical” FBA: Tier II Interventions 1.Target behavior 2.Antecedents 3.Consequences 4.Hypothesis

124 OR The ABC’s of Behavior Antecedents Conditions most likely to occur Target Behavior One or more interfering behaviors Consequences Maintain the behavior

125 Use your data Use your data to inform your decisions about whether the consequences are increasing or decreasing the likelihood that the behavior occurs Consequences that appear to be a punishment for adults (i.e., being sent to office) may actually be reinforcing for the student (i.e., avoid difficult classwork)

126 Operationally defining the target behavior When behaviors are specifically defined, it ensures that everyone understands the behavior Behavior: “out of control” Person 1: yelling, screaming, throwing things, hitting Person 2: bumping into other people Behavior: “doesn’t get along with others” Person 1: name-calling, hitting Person 2: excluded by peers

127 Operationally defining the target behavior Consider the following when defining the behavior What does it look like? What does it sound like? Occurrence: Frequency? Intensity? Duration?

128 ABC’s of behavior AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Teacher instructs student to begin assignment Student begins assignmentTeacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a game at recess Student bumps into classmates and grabs ball Classmates get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Student sent into the hallway Examples based on Steege & Watson (2009). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments

129 Activity With your partner, examine the ABC’s presented and generate a list of possible hypothesized functions of the behavior on the next slide Remember, the three most common function categories are: Gain something Escape/avoid something Sensory need

130 ABC’s of behavior AntecedentBehaviorConsequencePossible function? Teacher instructs students to begin assignment Student begins assignment Teacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a game at recess Student bumps into classmates Students get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Student sent to office

131 Your Turn Using your own example of a student exhibiting challenging behavior (not a challenging student), walk through the Practical FBA process using the ABC model using your ABC Worksheet Work with your partner to define the behavior in operational terms, list possible antecedents and consequences, and hypothesize about the function of the behavior Purpose: This hypothesis will help you to select a Tier II intervention that will be a good match

132 Remember… When considering the target behavior, antecedents, and consequences, collect and analyze your data!

133 Targeted Tier II Interventions

134 Check-In, Check-Out (CICO) Also referred to as the Behavior Education Program (BEP) Content based on: Targeted Behavior Interventions, Check In/Check Out Introduction, (MiBLSi, 2009) Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools (Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010)

135 Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program, Second Edition A comprehensive book by Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. Horner, and Leanne S. Hawken. Guilford Publishing, Inc., published in 2010

136 CICO (BEP) as a Tier II Intervention Easy to implement for teachers (5-10 minutes per check-in) Flexible (if needed) Can support approximately students at a time Check-in/out person can be anyone (BEP Coordinator, paraprofessional, etc) Regular feedback and progress monitoring Students can easily transfer in or out Parent participation Frequent data entry and review Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010

137 Components of CICO MiBlSi, 2009; Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010

138 Components of CICO Components of CICO Cycle: 1.Check-in with adult in the morning (positive contact, make sure student is prepared for the day) Teaching and prompting of skills and expectations 2.Feedback from the teacher during the day (after each period of the day) – earn 0, 1, 2 3.Check-out with adult at end of school day 4.Bring home for parent check-in & signature 5.Bring back to school for morning check-in Daily Progress Report Aligned to school-wide expectations Established goal criteria (i.e., 80%) Optional Reward System Component

139 Effectiveness of CICO Based on research-based strategies/principles Daily positive interactions with adults Helps to motivate/encourage student Frequent feedback Clear expectations Predictable pattern for students Supports behavior and academic performance Involves parents in intervention process Addresses antecedents  replaces negative antecedents with consistent positive antecedents Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010

140 Daily Progress Report


142 Who is CICO appropriate for? Students with minor behavior disruptions Disruptive, interferes with learning Out of seat, talking out, not sharing, off task, unprepared for class, defiant, refuse to do work, inappropriate language Not dangerous, violent, or severe/chronic behavior Students who respond well to adult attention Behaviors occur throughout the day, not just in one setting (i.e., recess) Behavior not primarily related to an escape function due to academic deficit (modification may be needed)

143 When to Modify Collect data for at least 2-3 weeks before modifying Make sure that intervention was delivered consistently and with fidelity Modifications presented in BEP book: goals – more academic driven peer reinforcers additional check-in remove signature portion

144 Activity Discuss with your partner or table: How might you share this intervention with your school staff? What might need to be in place in order to support this intervention? (i.e., solid Universal PBIS, referral process, CICO forms, personnel) How will you monitor if the intervention is working and when to modify or exit?

145 WIS-5-Preview-CICO-SWIS.aspx

146 Highly Structured Tier II Interventions

147 So, what are Highly Structured Interventions? Powerful group of tools that may need to be used after Early Stage Interventions have been implemented and behaviors continue More time intensive to plan and more time consuming to implement than Early Stage Interventions Intervention design and implementation should be a collaborative effort (school psychs, school social workers, behavior team, counselors) with the classroom teacher



150 Tier II Interventions Structured Reinforcement Systems Planned Discussion Data Collection and Debriefing Goal Setting and Contracting Cueing and Precorrecting Teaching Replacement Behaviors Functional Communication Teaching Social Skills Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation

151 Structured Reinforcement Systems

152 Classroom Reward Systems “Individualized”

153 Targeted & Systematic Reinforcement Systems Reinforcer Menus Mystery Motivators Points for Grumpy Yes/No Program Classroom Behavior Bingo Dots for Motivation

154 Motivation A student’s ability or proficiency to perform a responsible behavior affects motivation. A student who experiences much success at learning lots of new skills, is more likely to be intrinsically (or internally) motivated to learn something new. A student who frequently experiences failure is less likely to be intrinsically motivated.

155 Rationale for Reinforcement Systems You get more of what you pay attention to! Behaviors that are recognized and reinforced are more likely to be repeated (Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis, 1994) For some students, intrinsic motivation to follow the behavior expectations are enough… For other students, additional teacher attention is enough… For other students, they will need more tangible, planned, and frequent recognition to find success and recognize the benefits of appropriate behavior

156 Tips for effectively choosing, designing and implementing a reward-based system: Make sure the rewards are highly motivating by using a reinforcer menu or survey. Set the system up to make student success likely. Make sure your expectations are clear. Teach the students how the system works. Be consistent. Start with immediate reinforcers, gradually increase to intermittent schedule. Classwide Reinforcement Systems

157 Partner Jigsaw! Each partner reads their designated slide and summarizes the information for the other partner Partner 1: Reinforcer Menu, Mystery Motivator, Points for Grumpy Partner 2: Yes/No Program, Classroom Behavior Bingo, Dots for Motivation Select two systems and generate a list of: the types of behaviors you would use this with which students may not benefit from this program

158 Reinforcer/Reward Menus Systematic Reinforcement Programs will not be effective if the reinforcer is not motivating for that student Use a predetermined list/menu of possible rewards from which the student can choose Have the student help to develop a list Develop a general list to use with students, have student select which are motivating for them Use Spinners or Charts Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box

159 Mystery Motivators Random reinforcement for desired behaviors Individuals, groups/teams, classwide Steps: 1.Create reward menu 2.Visual tool, squares for each day of the week, invisible pen with M for days with motivator 3.Reward written on piece of paper in sealed envelope 4.If points/criteria met for behavior for that day, color square to see if reward received 5.Optional bonus square, include positive comments Hint: Start with 2-3 M’s per week, then space out as students get used to the program Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box


161 Points for Grumpy Response-cost system Appropriate for younger students, can be modified for older students 2 Coffee cans/jars, tokens, chart Combines visual/auditory reminders

162 Points for Grumpy Steps: 1.Create a reward list/menu 2.Determine/define behavior (ex: politely following adult directions) -teach, provide examples, practice 3.2 jars used (1 labeled Grumpy, 1 with student’s/team’s name) 4.Teacher starts day with 10 tokens in pocket 5.If misbehavior (noncompliance) occurs, one token put into Grumpy jar/can 6.At end of period/time, student can put any tokens left over into their own jar 7.Tokens traded for points towards reward 8.Use chart to record points earned per day

163 Yes/No Program Individuals or small groups Use tickets with faces (smiley, frowny) or words (Yes, No) 1.Steps: 2.Define behavior 3.Create reward menu 4.Explain system and practice Yes/No behaviors 5.When target behavior occurs, mark appropriate ticket, write name, and deposit into container 6.Give specific feedback when earning Yes or No tickets 7.Drawing at the end of class period or day Select a few tickets Yes tickets drawn receive reward No tickets drawn do not receive reward 8.Monitor if behaviors are increasing/decreasing Hints: -maintain 3:1 ratio (3 Yes tokens to 1 No token) -do not share the name on No tickets pulled to avoid embarrassment and to increase motivation Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box

164 Classroom Behavior Bingo (similar to 100 Squares) Steps: Define behavior Raise your hand Turn in completed homework (or 80% of homework for team) Reinforcer list/menu Define system (frequency of behavior to earn bingo square, time period, etc) Practice and role play When student(s) meet criteria, they can select a number from a container Student(s) mark that number on bingo card When entire row, column, or diagonal is filled, earn reward Components: Individuals, teams/groups, whole class Materials: Classroom Behavior Bingo Matrix/Squares Container with numbers Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box

165 Dots for Motivation Goal: to increase academic work completion Immediate feedback and reinforcer Materials: dots (stickers) Dots given to student when on-task and working Student could use dots to skip a problem they did not know how to do or did not want to do Transition to dots earned for number of problems completed Gradually extend criteria  dots earned for number of completed assignments (use dots as homework pass) Hint: as student completes more work in this system, cut dots into halves or quarters (more time to earn reward) Dr. Ginger Gates, The Texas School Psychologist, article written by Jenson, Andrews, & Reavis (1998)


167 Rationale A student’s behavior may result from a lack of information. Planned Discussion is an easy, quick, and efficient intervention. As an intervention, Planned Discussion is a respectful and potentially empowering way to address problem behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

168 Planned Discussion Purpose: To help students understand and address concerns associated with: Minor but potentially annoying misbehavior Moderate misbehavior in the early stages Chronic or severe concerns, as one part of a comprehensive plan (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

169 Planned Discussion Planned Discussion has the potential to have a positive impact on just about any behavior. Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. **Note: Planned Discussion will only be effective for students with sufficient language skills. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

170 Discussing A One-Time Event vs. Planned Discussion One-Time EventPlanned Discussion Does not address a repeated behavior Brief correction provided that does not interrupt the flow of instruction Immediately set a time to follow up with student Does not include other individuals Does address repeated behavior Conducted outside of classroom instruction Conducted during a neutral and scheduled time May include other individuals (i.e., other teacher or parents)

171 V6A

172 Positive Characteristics of Planned Discussion Demonstrates concern so that the student truly understands the issues at hand. Involves student in brainstorming solutions. Lets student know you are there to help him/her learn & grow and that you care. Action plan for behavioral change is developed with the student. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

173 Step 1: Prepare to Meet with the Student Identify the Central Concern Establish a Focus Determine Who Should Participate in the Discussion Schedule the Discussion for a Neutral Time Make an Appointment to Discuss the Concern with the Student Plan to keep a written record of the discussion (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

174 Step 2: Meet with the Student Work with the Student to Define Concerns Brainstorm Actions Set up an Informal Action Plan Schedule a Follow-Up Meeting Conclude the Meeting with Words of Encouragement Share a Written Record (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

175 Step 3: Follow Up with the Student Encourage Student Efforts Meet Once a Week with the Student Determine Whether More Structured Interventions are Needed Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

176 Identify the advantages to EVERY classroom teacher in your building knowing how to implement Planned Discussions with fidelity. Think-Pair-Share


178 Rationale Gathering data often solves the problem all by itself Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. Effective teachers collect data that defines the problem in measurable terms Use of data is the only way to determine objectively whether interventions are working Data will form the basis for assessing fidelity and/or the need for a different intervention (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

179 Purpose To increase positive behavior or decrease negative behavior with any behavioral goal through observation, as well as to use a systematic approach of recording data to gauge the effectiveness of subsequent interventions. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

180 Step 1: Choose an Objective but Simple Data Collection Method Either use an existing form or record marks on an index card. Some choices include: Basic Frequency Count of Misbehavior Duration Recording Latency Recording Rating Scale (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)


182 > 100 minutes of non-participation After 8 weeks, about 70% improvement (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

183 Step 2: Meet with the Student (and parents, if appropriate) Explain the data you plan to collect before starting and how you will inform the student of the data as you are collecting it. Meet regularly (at least one a week) with the student to share and discuss the one-page visual summary of the data, review trends, set improvement targets, discuss ideas for improving the situation, and CELEBRATE progress (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

184 Partner 1: Review Data Collection Forms: Behavior Counting Forms Interval Scatterplot Partner 2: Review Data Collection Forms: Rating Scale Participation Evaluation Record Share Any Insights With Your Partner Partner Activity

185 Intervention C: GOAL SETTING

186 Rationale Students who have experienced repeated failure have difficulty setting realistic goals Goal setting increases clarity of expectations, helps set attainable goals, and can increase the student’s motivation Learning to set and achieve realistic goals is a lifelong skill (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

187 Purpose Goal setting helps students identify what they hope to accomplish and actions they can take to reach their goals. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

188 Step 1: Develop a Plan Review the problem and overall student goals by identifying strengths, desired outcomes, and collected information. Select the goal setting format Set up the goal-setting conference (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

189 Step 2: Meet with the Student Help the student establish long-range goals and short-range goals. Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take. Help the student identify specific actions he or she is willing to take in order to reach the short-term goals. Identify ways that adults could help the student reach his or her goals. If using rewards, a structured reinforcement system, or corrective consequences, make sure the student understands all of the contingencies Set up regular times for follow-up Review responsibilities and sign appropriate goal setting form (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

190 Step 3: Provide Ongoing Support and Encouragement Provide frequent positive feedback; encourage the student to keep striving towards his or her goals. Correct calmly. Avoid sounding disappointed or reproachful. Evaluate the impact of the plan and make needed revisions. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

191 Review the Goal Setting Forms. Discuss with your partner How these Goal Setting Forms differ from each other, The type of student needs they might meet, and How they are similar to and different from goal setting you’ve done with a student in the past. Partner Activity

192 Intervention J: Cueing & Precorrecting

193 Rationale To help students control impulsive, excessive, habitual, or off-task behavior. Children are sometimes unaware of their own behaviors. Behaviors can interfere with peer relationships or success in school. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

194 What exactly is CUEING? Cueing is used to interrupt an inappropriate behavior that is already taking place. Cueing takes the place of reprimands or corrections that would be more verbose and that the teacher would end up repeating many times

195 What exactly is PRECORRECTING? Precorrecting is an attempt to anticipate and prevent an inappropriate behavior before it occurs. Precorrection : a prompt for appropriate behavior sets the stage for positive feedback

196 Cueing or Precorrecting? Nosepicking Skipping items on tests Pencil tapping Disrespectful tone of voice Chronic pencil sharpening Cueing Precorrecting

197 Cueing and Precorrecting will fade as the student becomes successful— the more successful the student is, the less signaling used

198 Step 1: Develop A Plan A.Identify possible signals that might be used B.Identify what adults will do when the student either responds or fails to respond to a signal C.Identify other settings/adults to include in the plan D.Decide whether the student needs to be taught a replacement behavior E.Identify ways to determine whether the intervention is helping the student reach the goal

199 Step 2: Meet with the Student to Discuss & Finalize the Plan A.Review the problem and goals B.Help the student select a signal C.explain any consequences that will be used if the student fails to respond D.Briefly demonstrate and practice using role-playing E.Set up regular meeting times to debrief with the student F.Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement

200 Step 3: Implement the Plan A.Begin using the precorrection or cue anytime the student exhibits the inappropriate behavior B.Reinforce the student for responding to the signal and/or for not needing the signal C.Implement evaluation & debriefing procedures D.Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary E.Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement

201 Think about a student who may engage in annoying or inappropriate behaviors. Would Cueing and Precorrecting be an appropriate intervention for the student? Team Activity

202 Intervention M: Teaching Replacement Behavior

203 Purpose To modify any recurring minor or major misbehavior (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

204 Rationale Students with behavior problems may have never learned the appropriate behavior Adults frequently take appropriate behavior for granted Some students will need to be taught how to replace misbehaviors with appropriate behaviors (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

205 If a child doesn’t know how to read…….we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to swim…...we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to multiply……we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to behave….. we punish? John Herner

206 Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors the person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).

207 Replacement Behavior? Kelly runs into the middle of groups of students on the playground and gets upset and cries when they walk away from her or tell the playground aide that she ran into them. Possible function of her behavior?? Is there a skill deficit present? What is “Positive Opposite” of her behavior? Will the positive opposite fulfill the function of her behavior? What should the replacement behavior to teach Kelly be then?

208 A-B-C Defined AntecedentBehaviorConsequence When ___ happens… the student does (what) _________ … because (why) _________

209 Competing Pathways


211 On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warm- up” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.

212 Initial Considerations A.Review the problem and overall goals for the student B.Determine behaviors or strategies the student can learn to replace the inappropriate behaviors C.Design lessons to teach the replacement behavior D.Determine who will provide the lessons, how much time will be needed, and when and where they will be held (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

213 Initial Considerations E.Consider ways to support that will not embarrass the student F.Identify ways to determine whether the intervention is helping the student reach the goal G.Determine whether a reinforcement system and consequences need to be integrated into the plan H.Identify criteria and procedures for fading the intervention I.Determine who will meet with the student to discuss and finalize the plan (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

214 e.g., Paying Attention in Class I’m Feeling Confused I should… Watch other students to see what they are doing, or… Raise my hand and ask my teacher to repeat the directions, or… I know what I should be doing. Pay Attention.

215 First take a deep breath Count to 10 Raise my hand Ask Mrs. M. for help e.g., Managing Frustration

216 Think about a student who may need to be taught a replacement behavior. What might be a “positive opposite” behavior that would serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior? Team Activity


218 Purpose To improve communication/social skills of students whose deficits in this area may be leading to misbehaviors. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

219 Rationale Students with limited communication/ social skills may engage in inappropriate behaviors in an attempt to get their needs met. Poor interactions with peers may trigger conflict or lead to isolation Behavior is communication. Need to teach a prosocial replacement behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

220 Increased Frequency of Occurrence Autism Spectrum Disorders Trauma Special Education Need to engage speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, school psychs

221 Step 1: Determine Need A.Identify the misbehavior objectively; B.Consider antecedents and consequences to determine if behavior is related to communication/social skills

222 Step 2: Multidisciplinary Team Meeting A.Discuss alternative means of communication or replacement behaviors. B.Determine who will teach prosocial communication skills C.Include all relevant parties

223 Step 3: Implement the Plan A.Teach in context B.Model and role-play C.Reinforce student when performing appropriate behavior; withhold reinforcement otherwise D.Measure performance and revise as needed; fade

224 step/middle-school.aspx A nonprofit working globally to promote children’s social and academic success -step/kindergarten-grade-5.aspx


226 Intervention K: Self-Monitoring & Self-Evaluation

227 Purpose To increase student awareness of a particular behavior so they can learn to take responsibility for their own behavior and control what they do (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

228 Step 1: Develop a Plan A.Determine the behavior to be monitored and evaluated. B.If necessary, identify examples of student behavior that set boundaries between responsible and irresponsible behavior. C.Determine when the student will record behaviors. D.Develop a recording system for the student. E.Design a cueing system to prompt the student to record if needed. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

229 Step 1: Develop a Plan F.Plan to have an adult monitor the student’s behavior initially (and occasionally thereafter) and compare results with the student’s record. G.Identify ways to determine if the intervention is helping (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

230 B. Set Boundaries Between Responsible and Irresponsible Behaviors Responsible Behavior:Irresponsible Behavior: The teacher asks Joan to sit down: -Joan nods and sits down. -Joan says, “Okay,” and sits down. -Joan does not respond to the teacher but immediately sits down. -Joan asks in a respectful tone, “I need to sharpen my pencil. Is that OK?” The teacher asks Joan to sit down: -Joan sits down but calls the teacher a name or says “Why should I?” -Joan sits down, but in a sarcastic tone says, “Okay, whatever you say.” -Joan does not sit down or respond. -Joan goes to sit down in an exaggerated slow motion.

231 D. Develop a Recording System for the Student Tally marks Symbols, such as + and – Circling a symbol or number Rating scales Rubrics Others?




235 Step 2: Meet with the Student to Discuss and Finalize the Plan Review the problem and the goal. Introduce the procedures that will be followed. Review everyone’s roles and responsibilities. Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

236 Step 3: Implement the Plan Encourage student efforts Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary. When the student demonstrates consistent success, fade the intervention. Once the intervention has been faded, provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

237 Think about a student who may need to become more empowered to increase awareness of and take control of inappropriate behaviors. Would Self-Monitoring be an appropriate intervention for the student? Team Activity

238 Behavior Intervention Resources

239 Intervention Central ( Academic and Behavior Interventions Behavior Categories: Apps Challenging Students Motivation Rewards Schoolwide Classroom Management Bully Prevention

240 PBIS World

241 Participants will… Understand the systematic framework for Multi- Tiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL students Understand how classroom management and specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the necessary foundation for additional behavioral interventions Develop an understanding of behavioral assessment and the function it serves

242 Participants will… Develop a working knowledge of multiple targeted behavioral interventions for individual students Develop an understanding of the use of data in selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral interventions.

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