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Strengthening PBIS in Your School: Tier II Interventions

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1 Strengthening PBIS in Your School: Tier II Interventions
MiBLSi/Ingham ISD Focus Day Training

2 Acknowledgements The material for this training day was developed with the efforts of… Soraya Coccimiglio Melissa Nantais Content was based on the work of… Mickey Garrison Rob Horner Anita Archer George Sugai Randy Sprick Robert Marzano

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4 Matt Phillips Coordinator, Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS) Implementation – Ingham ISD Speech-Language Pathologist Heartwood Sparrow Indiana Private Practice MSU - CSD

5 Erin Rappuhn MTSS/School Psychology Intern for Ingham ISD
MA, Doctoral Student in MSU School Psychology Program Background in Psychology and Elementary/Special Education Teaching, Clinical Work, Consultation

6 Setting Group Expectations
To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participation Be Responsible Attend to the “Come back together” signal Active participation…Please ask questions Be Respectful Please allow others to listen Please turn off cell phones and pagers Please limit sidebar conversations Share “air time” Please refrain from and Internet browsing Be Safe Take care of your own needs Less than 30 seconds Please do not skip over these expectations. They are important for setting up the day. Introduce a signal (e.g., hand raise and “May I have your attention please.”) and indicate that when they see it, people should finish their sentence not their paragraph. This helps so that transitions are smooth and presenters do not have to talk over the crowd to get the attention. Remind people that as we use more technology (laptops) there is the greater potential to multi-task and get distracted during these trainings. We would appreciate people refraining from . This work is so important and we only have a day to share a lot of information and get a lot of work/planning accomplished. We need everyone to be actively engaged and mentally present throughout the day.

7 Goals for the Day Participants will…
Understand the systematic framework for Multi-Tiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL students Understand how classroom management and specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the necessary foundation for additional behavioral interventions Develop an understanding of behavioral assessment and the function it serves

8 Goals for the Day Participants will…
Develop a working knowledge of multiple targeted behavioral interventions for individual students Develop an understanding of the use of data in selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral interventions.

9 Today’s Agenda The MTSS Model for PBIS
The Organizational Framework for Tier II Behavioral Interventions Prevention via Core Classroom Supports and Early Stage Interventions “Practical” Functional Behavioral Assessment Highly Structured Tier II Interventions Other Resources

10 Hey there, partner! For responses that are longer, you will be asked to share thoughts and ideas with a partner throughout the session today. Decide which person sitting next to you will be your partner today. Give participants a minute to select partners. Be sure to identify who will be partner 1 and who will be partner 2.

11 Red/Yellow/Green Sheet
As a result of today’s session, I plan to… Stop… Continue… Start…

12 The MTSS Model for PBIS

13 Implementation Supports
Transition To Tier 2 Implementation Supports Sustaining Tier 1

14 Keep It Going! Question:
How can you move forward with Tier 2 supports while maintaining confidence that Tier 1 will be maintained or improved? Answer: By focusing on the Big Idea Basics!

15 For continued accuracy, fluency, and durability!
Tier 1 “Big Idea Basics” For continued accuracy, fluency, and durability!

16 Big Idea Basics Foundations of PBIS Implementation Framework
Effective Practice Account for Context and Culture 1)

17 Big Idea #1: Foundations
Prevention-Focused Driven by Outcomes and Data Labeling, Language, and Context

18 Prevention Logic for All (Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al
Decrease development of new problem behaviors Prevent worsening & reduce intensity of existing problem behaviors Eliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviors Teach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behavior Redesign of teaching environments … not students!

19 Driven by Outcomes and Data
A plan for intervention or implementing a change to our system without data is just a toss of the dice! But collecting data that doesn’t help to inform our work can be a waste!

20 Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement
OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS From PBIS.org – Our data collection should help to inform our systems, practices, AND help to support Staff, students, academic/social performance, and decision making! PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

21 Activity Can you remember recent programs, curricula, initiatives, etc. that have been implemented without data? Were they off the mark? Or were they effective? Are you collecting data that isn’t being used? Could it be used for something useful? Or not?

22 Labeling, Language, and Context
Language reflects and influences our thinking and our practices. Paying attention to our language can help to change the way we think and the way we work for the benefit of our students! An easy-to-overlook part of sustaining/maintaining/improving Tier 1 practices (and really practice in general). Spoken language can either reflect our thoughts or it can change the way we think about what we do. And the way we think can have an obvious impact on how we practice. A little effort “up front” to encourage helpful/useful language can go a long way to maintaining good practice.

23 Classic Examples To Be Avoided
Let’s discuss our “Tier 2 Kids” If this (plan) doesn’t work, she may become a “Tier 3 Kid” There are some red flags here, he may need to “be in Tier 2”

24 An Underlying Belief Must be Established:
“…Faculty and staff must believe that any change in student behavior starts with the adults in the school changing their approach to behavior management.” (Sprick, 2009; p. 427) Trainer Talk: “There is an underlying believe that must be established within the building for successful implementation of evidence-based classroom management. That is the belief that any change in student behavior starts with the adults in the building changing their approach to behavior management. The building leadership team must hold this underlying belief and work towards communicating it to the staff and supporting the staff in moving towards this belief. For some people, this belief will come without any hesitation. However, for some staff, the idea that changing the adults approach to behavior management is not where their belief is, for some, the belief might be that the change must start with child. For some staff, this belief may fall into that category of a second order change, something that does not currently align with their beliefs and for these staff, the supports needed will be more directed. Recall, we will see changes in behavior before we see changes in the underlying belief. If you have staff who do not currently hold this belief, the role of the leadership team will be to structure supports to allow staff to demonstrate behaviors (through their actions) that align with this belief, experience success and ultimate change their beliefs. It is not easy work, but the pay off for students is tremendous!”

25 Activity Identify common phrases or terms that are used in your building’s efforts What message(s) does this language convey? Is it helpful or potentially harmful/misleading? How might you adjust (or further encourage) this language as needed? If desired, groups may also share examples with one another.

26 Big Idea #2 Implementation Framework
Blueprint for success! MTSS/RTI Appropriate Pacing

27 GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Agreements Data-based Action Plan I would tell the participants that this is a slide from early in the process of “getting started.” But use this as an opportunity to emphasize that the blueprint or flowchart for success is really about keeping the cycle of green ovals going. This is an “ongoing and endless” process. It may get easier, we should be able to enjoy the positive outcomes of our efforts over time, but “success” isn’t really a destination – it’s an ongoing journey. We can continue to evaluate our efforts, plan necessary tweaks or adjustments based on data, implement those changes, and continue to evaluate. Evaluation Implementation

28 Essential Principles in All MTSS Trainings
Create systems, not just programs, to support each and every student Earlier, rather than later Evidence, not opinion Evidence, not opinion -- Prevention and early intervention pedagogy, programs, instruction and materials should be based on trustworthy scientific evidence. It’s all about Evidence-based Practices. Prevention is key. 28

29 Appropriate Pacing Enthusiasm is priceless, and dragging our feet without reason is a tragedy… But we must be careful to keep our implementation in-line with our preparation! Examples

30 Stages of Implementation
Focus Stage Description Exploration/Adoption Decision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation. Installation Set up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan. Initial Implementation Try out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts. Elaboration Expand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation. Continuous Improvement/Regeneration Make it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices. Should we do it! Work to do it right! Work to do it better!

31 Big Idea #3: Effective Practice
Fidelity Work Smarter, Not Harder Prioritize Measureable Goals Data-based Decision Making

32 Why Focus on Fidelity? It is, after all, one more thing to measure!But it’s worth it! Without ensuring fidelity, it is impossible to determine whether our efforts are promoting desired outcomes! Effort required to measure fidelity > Effort required to evaluate our work without knowing!

33 Work Smarter Not Harder
OSEP Center on PBIS Guidelines for Implementation “Because we cannot do everything all at once!” Do the smallest number of actions… That are evidence based… And will have the largest and most durable effect! It can be painful to feel like a “known” issue hasn’t made it to the top of our priority list, but it’s important to balance resources and apply some good old-fashioned common sense – sometimes we need to tackle issues in a particular order. EXAMPLE: if attendance is a major issue for many students, it might make the most sense to place/keep that towards the top of our list – when students aren’t in school/class, they cannot benefit from our programs – no matter how good they are! It can also be helpful to remember that the process is ongoing and continuous. If plan for the future, and focus on our current priorities – we can get to those things that are further down the list. This day of training as it relates to Tier 1 and Tier 2 is a great example. Your school might have really benefitted from a Tier 2 intervention in the last 1-3 years (e.g., focusing on work completion, social behavior, attendance, etc.) but those efforts work best when we prioritize Tier 1 until it is solid, work to maintain/sustain it, and THEN move on to planning/implementing Tier 2.

34 Prioritize Measurable Goals
This all “hangs together” with our fidelity data, and our efforts to Work Smarter! If we cannot measure and record the outcome, it moves further down the priority list. If a goal sounds like a priority, but we don’t have a way to measure it – FIND ONE! Measureable = observable. We should be able to see it, record it, and put a number to it!

35 Consider Sources of Data
ODR’s/SWIS? YES! But what about… Attendance? “Local” classroom data? Others? What data do we have for attendance, tardys, tickets/tokens delivered, local classroom management strategies (charts, tally marks, notes, red lights/green lights, percentage of assigments completed (on time), etc…

36 Measurable as written? Goals/Outcomes
Improve behavior in our school. Increase attendance for Howard Elementary Encourage students to arrive to class on time Improve school climate Decrease ODR’s Increase staff morale How can we measure those that aren’t crossed out? How might we adjust the others so that they are more easily measured?

37 Measurable as written? Goals/Outcomes
Improve behavior in our school. Increase attendance for Howard Elementary Encourage students to arrive to class on time Improve school climate Decrease ODR’s Increase staff morale How can we measure those that aren’t crossed out? How might we adjust the others so that they are more easily measured?

38 Follow-Up Look back to your SW-PBIS Goals from last Spring
Are they measurable? And measuring meaningful things? Based on the Action Steps you wrote last Spring, evaluate your progress: Do you need to adjust the wording? Have you been able to collect the necessary data?

39 Big Idea #4: Context & Culture
Your building culture is unique! Dynamic group membership Shared experience and shared behaviors Shared goals and vision Bullet #1: Different populations, geography, size, resources, history, personnel, communities, etc. Bullet #2: Group membership can (and will change) this can effect dynamics positively or negatively, the important thing to remember here is to reinforce the SYSTEMS approach so that we are building systems that can survive personnel change. For example, building a role and resources that can be passed on to a new member so they are brought up to speed is much better in the long run than merely building up the expertise of Mr. Lee – Mr. Lee could move to Cabo tomorrow and you could be starting from scratch! Bullet #3-#4: It can help to focus on common experience/goals (e.g., we are all here to promote positive outcomes for our students, we all have to endure these winters, etc.). Shared behaviors can be social norms for a given group – friendliness, eye-contact, etc, -- but we all share behaviors related to educating our students

40 Build SYSTEMS in addition to expertise!
Dynamic Membership Build SYSTEMS in addition to expertise! Group membership can (and will change) this can effect dynamics positively or negatively. We can be happy to see members come and happy to see them go  The important thing to remember here is to reinforce the SYSTEMS approach so that we are building systems that can survive personnel change. For example, building a role and resources that can be passed on to a new member so they are brought up to speed is much better in the long run than merely building up the expertise of Mr. Lee – Mr. Lee could move to Cabo tomorrow and you could be starting from scratch!

41 Context & Culture What unique issues need to be addressed or given time/attention in your building? Utilize the Benchmarks of Quality and any prior knowledge/anecdotal data as necessary Identify 1-2 possibilities you’d like to share with a nearby team

42 The Organizational Framework for Tier II Behavioral Interventions

43 Q: (How) is Your Tier 2 Team Organized? Trainer Notes:
This is quick transition slide. The next few slides will present the options that were presented in the Transition to Tier 2 training. Please move through the slides at brisk pace as they are intended as a review.

44 Building Leadership Team
Addresses Schoolwide Systems & Tier 2/Tier 3 Systems Trainer Notes: The first option is that the building leadership team will continue to address the School-wide systems AND address the Tier 2/Tier 3 systems. A potential advantage of this approach is that one team is managing the multi-tiered systems of support. The potential disadvantage is that this can be A LOT of work and may burn people out.

45 Building Leadership Team
Addresses Schoolwide Systems Trainer Talk: “Another option is that a part of the building leadership team focuses on the Tier II/Tier III systems while the rest of the leadership team continues to focus on the Schoolwide systems. A potential benefit of this approach is that each part of the leadership team has a specific focus. The potential disadvantage is that if your team is not very large to begin with, subdividing may mean more work for fewer people.” Tier 2/ Tier 3 Systems

46 Tier 2/ Tier 3 Systems Building Leadership Team Addresses Schoolwide
Trainer Talk: A third option is that a separate team is formed within your school that’s charged with focusing on the Tier 2/Tier 3 systems. It will be extremely important that these groups establish careful feedback loops in order to align the work and ensure that resources and supports are leveraged to the maximum benefit of students. A potential benefit is that this brings more people to the work of supporting a multi-tiered system of support but the potential disadvantage is that without clearly established communication, the work could splinter in the isolation. Tier 2/ Tier 3 Systems

47 Membership Structure Should Include:
Administrator Crossover member from Tier 1 Building Leadership Team Faculty with expertise in behavioral assessment and intervention Faculty with expertise in academic assessment and intervention Trainer Notes: This slides outlines the membership structure that should exist on the Tier 2 Behavior Response Team regardless of how each school has decided to structure their team.

48 Do you have a Tier 2/Behavior Response Team?
Quick Check Do you have a Tier 2/Behavior Response Team? How is your team organized? Does your team have the necessary membership structure for successful functioning? Trainer Notes: Provide 5 minutes for this activity

49 Tier 2 Team’s Role in Targeted Support
Establishing systems Ensuring that students have access Ensuring fidelity Tracking effectiveness and making adjustments Trainer Notes: Here is a global list of the responsibilities of the Tier 2 Team.

50 Barriers to Tier 2 Success
Lack of: Administrative Support and Leadership Classroom System Implementation Communication System Trainer Notes: This slide lists three barriers to the success of Tier 2 supports. The following slides goes into more detail around each barrier.

51 Q: How Does Staff Access Tier 2 Behavioral Supports Trainer Notes:
Slides should be presented from 1:45 to 2:30 The intent of this module is for teams to develop decision rules for entry criteria to access Tier 2 supports and to revisit and revise their Tier 2 referral process and forms.

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53 Decision Rules: When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed?
Entry Criteria allow for consistency among staff and students as we build our system of supports Entry Criteria Considerations: 2 major office discipline referrals in a quarter > 5 absences within a quarter 60 minutes “time out class” in a week

54 Decision Rules: When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed?
Entry Criteria should be specifically defined for each Tier 2 intervention offered Entry Criteria should be widely known among building faculty and staff, parents, and community agencies

55 What are the Exit Criteria for Tier 2 Interventions?
Decision Rules: What are the Exit Criteria for Tier 2 Interventions? Original data sources that lead to student identification ODR Attendance Academics Time out of class” Teacher Perception Key is to frequently and regularly Celebrate success Adjust if student doesn’t respond (or problems start reappearing)

56 How Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed?
Decision Rules: How Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed? Is there a formal referral form? What information should be on the referral? Where are referrals submitted? Who can refer a student for targeted behavioral intervention? Teachers Parents What is the anticipated timeline from referral to next step? How are parents informed? How is parent permission obtained?

57 Are there any additions or changes that are needed?
Activity Team Task: Consider the current process of referring students to Tier 2 interventions that exists in your building Are there any additions or changes that are needed? Determine what information regarding the referral process for Tier 2 interventions needs to be communicated – record this information on your communication log Trainer Notes: Provide 10 minutes for this activity If there is not currently a referral process, teams should be discuss how referrals should be made in their building. Provide a 15 minute break after this activity – 2:30 to 2:45

58 Prevention: Core Classroom Supports & Early Stage Interventions

59 Continuum of Positive Behavior Supports

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61 Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) Self-Assessment Survey (SAS)
Process Data - Behavior pbisapps.org Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) Completed annually by school leadership teams Tier 1 SWPBIS implementation fidelity check 53 benchmarks across 10 critical elements of implementation. Identifies areas of strength and need; informs problem analysis and action planning. 70% Implementation Goal Self-Assessment Survey (SAS) Completed annually by building staff Fidelity check of PBIS implementation across (a) school wide, (b) non-classroom, (c) classroom, and (d) individual students Seven key elements of the Implementation Subsystems Informs of areas of strength and need, including communication between leadership team and staff 70% Implementation Goal

62 Schoolwide Overview- Behavior

63 District Process Data - Behavior

64 Process Data Snapshots: PBIS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)

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66 Effective Classroom Management
Critical Features of Effective Classroom Management Classroom Structures Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Teacher-Student Relationships Responding to Appropriate Behavior Instructional Management (Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011)

67 The goal of classroom management is to develop a classroom of students who are:
respectful, responsible, motivated, and highly engaged in meaningful tasks. Have participants chorally respond

68 Classroom Management Plan
Developing a Classroom Management Plan will set the stage for dealing productively with a range of behaviors, both positive and negative.

69 Historical Perspective
BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT HAS TYPICALLY CONSISTED OF TRYING TO “MAKE” STUDENTS BEHAVE This attitude leads to an overdependence on REACTIVE PROCEDURES. REACTIVE PROCEDURES are not wrong, they are simply ineffective in changing behavior. Educators are often looking for that magic pill, or that magic consequence that will make students behave.

70 An Increase in Emotional Intensity

71 Dependence on Role-Bound Authority

72 A Dependence on Punishment

73 Wishing and Hoping

74 The CHAMPs Acronym C Conversation H Help A Activity M Movement
P Participation S The acronym CHAMPs reflects the “categories” or types of expectations that you, as a teacher need to clarify for students about every major activity or transition that occurs in your classroom. Originally the “s” in CHAMPs was small and did not stand for anything. In the second edition, the “S” became Success because when teachers do these things, students are CHAMPions and are successful. ADVANCE SLIDE Prior to the second edition, one of our MiBLSi trainers added her own “S” in – Supplies – to identify the supplies (i.e., paper, pencil, text book, etc.) a student would need for each activity. We like the Supplies “S” and we use it throughout our training. P 181 has ACHIEVE details Supplies 74

75 Defining CHAMPS: A guide to the decisions teachers can make to build and implement a proactive and positive approach to classroom management. A process of continuous improvement A common language among staff members 75

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78 Develop and Display Classroom Rules
Your classroom rules should communicate your most important expectations and address most common misbehaviors.

79 Management Plan An effective Classroom Management Plan is a framework that ensures students are academically engaged and emotionally thriving by supporting classroom: Rituals Routines Rules Consequences Motivational techniques Classroom management plans are about getting all the structural pieces in place. An effective classroom management plan may need to be revised during the school year and will more than likely need revisions from year to year. When in doubt, it is always best to start with high structure and as students begin behaving more responsibly over the course of the school year, the level of structure may be lessened.

80 Management Plan The greater the level of structure needed in your classroom, the more DETAILED and PROLONGED you are going to have to be when teaching your expectations. A nice story may help to drive this point

81 Level of Classroom Structure
The level of structure should not be based on teacher preference or familiarity! The level of structure should be based on student need! When in doubt, start with a higher level of structure.

82 Student Needs Teacher Needs
There are 2 surveys, one for teacher’s needs and one for student’s needs. This is the student’s needs example.

83 “Survey says…” 0-30 LOW: Students can be successful with LOW, MEDIUM, or HIGH 31-60 MEDIUM: Students need MEDIUM or HIGH structure 61-120 HIGH: Students need HIGH structure Ask participants to show a thumbs up if they need low structure, medium structure, or high structure. While the ranges for each survey are the same, the decision regarding the level of structure should be driven by survey results that are the highest. For example, if as a teacher my survey results indicate a Low level of structure but my students’ needs survey results indicate a medium level of structure, I would need to have a medium level of structure. However, if my survey results indicate a need for a High Level of structure and my students’ need survey indicate a Low Level of structure, then it will be in the best of interests of students to have a higher level of structure in my classroom so that “I can thrive as a positive and energetic force” to support my students’ academic and social success.

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85 Schoolwide Overview- Behavior

86 Outcome Data - Behavior

87 Outcome Data - Behavior

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95 Classroom Management Plan vs. Individual Intervention
“Rule of Three”: If more than three students are demonstrating the same misbehavior, the management plan needs to be adjusted to address the misbehavior.

96 Strengthen Classroom Management
Classroom Structures Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Teacher-Student Relationships Responding to Appropriate Behavior Instructional Management (Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011)

97 Strengthen Classroom Management
S = Structure for Success T = Teach Expectations O = Observe Behavior I = Interact Positively C = Correct Fluently

98 Strengthen Classroom Management
CHAMPS Coaching

99 Strengthen Classroom Management
Time on Task

100 Strengthen Classroom Management
Opportunities to Respond Verbal Responses Written Responses Action Responses All Students Respond. When possible use response procedures that engage all students. (Archer, 2011)

101 Strengthen Classroom Management
Ratio of Interactions Positive Interaction: acknowledging a positive behavior Negative Interaction: addressing a negative behavior; fluent correction 4:1 15:1

102 Strengthen Classroom Management

103 Strengthen Classroom Management
Precision Requests

104 Strengthen Classroom Management

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107 Strengthen Classroom Management

108 Strengthen Classroom Management

109 Activity Team Task: Review examples from the Menu of Classwide Motivation Systems 1s Read – 100 Squares 2s Read – Mystery Motivators & Good Behavior Game 3s Read – Reinforcement Based on Reducing Misbehavior 4s Read – Dots for Motivation Share out a summary of the classwide system. Consider which system(s) may benefit classrooms in your building. Trainer Notes: Provide 10 minutes for this activity If there is not currently a referral process, teams should be discuss how referrals should be made in their building. Provide a 15 minute break after this activity – 2:30 to 2:45

110 Hypothesize!

111 Early Stage Interventions
These are the interventions that ALL teachers should be trained to implement effectively and with fidelity.

112 Early Stage Interventions

113 Early Stage Interventions

114 Activity Team Task: Review examples from the Menu of Early Stage Interventions 1s Read – A) Planned Discussion 2s Read – B) Academic Assistance 3s Read – C) Goal Setting 4s Read – D) Data Collecting and Debriefing Share out a summary of the intervention. Consider which intervention(s) may benefit particular students in your building. Trainer Notes: Provide 10 minutes for this activity If there is not currently a referral process, teams should be discuss how referrals should be made in their building. Provide a 15 minute break after this activity – 2:30 to 2:45

115 Practical Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
Based on work from Sprick (2011) and Steege & Watson (2008)

116 Practical FBAs Comprehensive Functional Behavior Assessments (FBAs) are often associated with Tier III interventions However…more basic and practical FBAs are important to consider in order to determine an appropriate match between a presenting behavior problem and an appropriate Tier II Intervention

117 Work smarter, not harder!
Why Practical FBAs? School resources (time, staff) are often limited and are certainly valuable Many attempts to address problem behaviors: Consume most of our resources React to the problem after it occurs Fade out because they are not working… Problem of “premature implementation” But this may be attributed to a lack of fit (or match) between the problem behavior and the intervention Work smarter, not harder!

118 Problem-Solving Process

119 Understand How To Shape Behavior
Human Behavior : serves a purpose (functional) is predictable. is changeable. Emphasize that human behavior serves a function.

120 Understand How To Shape Behavior
Human behavior is learned and can also be unlearned, or shaped into a more desirable form. Behaviors are performed for a reason, or to serve a specific function (whether we are aware of it or not) Possible functions: Gain something (attention, objects) Escape/Avoid something (difficult work, negative or unpleasant experience) Sensory stimulation (movement, texture) Shaping behavior is all about controlling the antecedents and consequences.

121 Understand How To Shape Behavior
Behavior can be taught and changed. When students behave irresponsibly, it’s likely that they haven’t experienced the benefits of responsible behavior. Shaping behavior is all about controlling the antecedents and consequences.

122 5 Components of the FBA Process
When examining a particular behavior, consider the 5 essential components of the FBA process: Define the target behavior Consider the setting events (individual, home, classroom variables) Consider the antecedents Analyze the consequences Hypothesize about the function of the behavior

123 A “Practical” FBA: Tier II Interventions
Before considering a more comprehensive FBA for Tier III interventions, utilize a practical FBA to hypothesize the function of the given behavior: Target behavior Antecedents Consequences Hypothesis

124 1 Conditions Set the Stage for
The ABC’s of Behavior 3a Pleasant outcomes result in increasing behavior 1 Conditions Set the Stage for 2 An Individual’s Behavior OR 3b Unpleasant outcomes result in decreasing behavior A person’s behavior is influenced by events and conditions he/she experiences. Some experiences encourage that person to engage in certain behaviors, and others discourage that person from engaging in certain behaviors. This graphic shows a representation of the 3 main variables that affect behavior. This is really what behaviorists define as the “ABC’s” of behavior. What conditions prompt or enable the behavior (better know as antecedents) The behavior itself (what is the person doing?) Consequences that encourage/sustain the behavior or discourage the behavior from occurring again. The upcoming video is Randy providing a very nice explanation of ABC’s, so for trainers uncomfortable with explaining this visual, the video is a nice option. Antecedents Conditions most likely to occur Target Behavior One or more interfering behaviors Consequences Maintain the behavior

125 Use your data Use your data to inform your decisions about whether the consequences are increasing or decreasing the likelihood that the behavior occurs Consequences that appear to be a punishment for adults (i.e., being sent to office) may actually be reinforcing for the student (i.e., avoid difficult classwork)

126 Operationally defining the target behavior
When behaviors are specifically defined, it ensures that everyone understands the behavior Behavior: “out of control” Person 1: yelling, screaming, throwing things, hitting Person 2: bumping into other people Behavior: “doesn’t get along with others” Person 1: name-calling, hitting Person 2: excluded by peers

127 Operationally defining the target behavior
Consider the following when defining the behavior What does it look like? What does it sound like? Occurrence: Frequency? Intensity? Duration?

128 ABC’s of behavior Antecedent Behavior Consequence
Teacher instructs student to begin assignment Student begins assignment Teacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a game at recess Student bumps into classmates and grabs ball Classmates get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Student sent into the hallway Examples based on Steege & Watson (2009). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments

129 Activity With your partner, examine the ABC’s presented and generate a list of possible hypothesized functions of the behavior on the next slide Remember, the three most common function categories are: Gain something Escape/avoid something Sensory need

130 ABC’s of behavior Antecedent Behavior Consequence Possible function?
Teacher instructs students to begin assignment Student begins assignment Teacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a game at recess Student bumps into classmates Students get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Student sent to office

131 Your Turn Using your own example of a student exhibiting challenging behavior (not a challenging student), walk through the Practical FBA process using the ABC model using your ABC Worksheet Work with your partner to define the behavior in operational terms, list possible antecedents and consequences, and hypothesize about the function of the behavior Purpose: This hypothesis will help you to select a Tier II intervention that will be a good match

132 Remember… When considering the target behavior, antecedents, and consequences, collect and analyze your data!

133 Targeted Tier II Interventions

134 Check-In, Check-Out (CICO)
Also referred to as the Behavior Education Program (BEP) Content based on: Targeted Behavior Interventions, Check In/Check Out Introduction, (MiBLSi, 2009) Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools (Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010)

135 Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program, Second Edition
This slides provides information regarding the BEP book. This book provides a comprehensive overview of developing and implementing CICO. A comprehensive book by Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. Horner, and Leanne S. Hawken. Guilford Publishing, Inc., published in 2010

136 CICO (BEP) as a Tier II Intervention
Easy to implement for teachers (5-10 minutes per check-in) Flexible (if needed) Can support approximately students at a time Check-in/out person can be anyone (BEP Coordinator, paraprofessional, etc) Regular feedback and progress monitoring Students can easily transfer in or out Parent participation Frequent data entry and review Regular feedback – specific teaching  “Raising your hand and completing your work were great examples of being responsible” Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010

137 Components of CICO Page 16 MiBlSi, 2009; Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010

138 Components of CICO Daily Progress Report
Aligned to school-wide expectations Established goal criteria (i.e., 80%) Optional Reward System Component Components of CICO Cycle: Check-in with adult in the morning (positive contact, make sure student is prepared for the day) Teaching and prompting of skills and expectations Feedback from the teacher during the day (after each period of the day) – earn 0, 1, 2 Check-out with adult at end of school day Bring home for parent check-in & signature Bring back to school for morning check-in Reward system – reinforcer menu, or reinforcement based on the function of the behavior (if escape-oriented, reward would be earning time to leave class and complete a desired activity (reading, etc) Reinforcement system: for checking in/out, and/or for reaching goals – tickets/tokens/earned time

139 Effectiveness of CICO Based on research-based strategies/principles
Daily positive interactions with adults Helps to motivate/encourage student Frequent feedback Clear expectations Predictable pattern for students Supports behavior and academic performance Involves parents in intervention process Addresses antecedents  replaces negative antecedents with consistent positive antecedents Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010

140 Daily Progress Report MiBLSi powerpoint, 2009

141 Daily Progress Report

142 Who is CICO appropriate for?
Students with minor behavior disruptions Disruptive, interferes with learning Out of seat, talking out, not sharing, off task, unprepared for class, defiant, refuse to do work, inappropriate language Not dangerous, violent, or severe/chronic behavior Students who respond well to adult attention Behaviors occur throughout the day, not just in one setting (i.e., recess) Behavior not primarily related to an escape function due to academic deficit (modification may be needed)

143 When to Modify Collect data for at least 2-3 weeks before modifying
Make sure that intervention was delivered consistently and with fidelity Modifications presented in BEP book: goals – more academic driven peer reinforcers additional check-in remove signature portion

144 Activity Discuss with your partner or table:
How might you share this intervention with your school staff? What might need to be in place in order to support this intervention? (i.e., solid Universal PBIS, referral process, CICO forms, personnel) How will you monitor if the intervention is working and when to modify or exit?

145 https://www. pbisapps. org/Resources/Pages/SWIS-5-Preview-CICO-SWIS
https://www.pbisapps.org/Resources/Pages/SWIS-5-Preview-CICO-SWIS.aspx

146 Highly Structured Tier II Interventions

147 So, what are Highly Structured Interventions?
Powerful group of tools that may need to be used after Early Stage Interventions have been implemented and behaviors continue More time intensive to plan and more time consuming to implement than Early Stage Interventions Intervention design and implementation should be a collaborative effort (school psychs, school social workers, behavior team, counselors) with the classroom teacher Let the group know that these specific interventions are described in the Interventions book from Safe and Civil Schools (Sprick and Garrison). It would be helpful for trainers to have the book available to reference and to let participants look through it at breaks and lunch if they want to.

148

149 Disk 5, Chapter 9, Task 3, From 0 – 4:33

150 Tier II Interventions Structured Reinforcement Systems
Planned Discussion Data Collection and Debriefing Goal Setting and Contracting Cueing and Precorrecting Teaching Replacement Behaviors Functional Communication Teaching Social Skills Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation

151 Structured Reinforcement Systems

152 Classroom Reward Systems “Individualized”

153 Targeted & Systematic Reinforcement Systems
Reinforcer Menus Mystery Motivators Points for Grumpy Yes/No Program Classroom Behavior Bingo Dots for Motivation

154 Motivation Can’t do? Or won’t do?
A student’s ability or proficiency to perform a responsible behavior affects motivation. A student who experiences much success at learning lots of new skills, is more likely to be intrinsically (or internally) motivated to learn something new. A student who frequently experiences failure is less likely to be intrinsically motivated. CHAMPS We frequently think students are a case of “wont” do, when in actuality a student isn’t able to do the work. Therefore, they aren’t motivated to complete the work. Can’t do? Or won’t do?

155 Rationale for Reinforcement Systems
You get more of what you pay attention to! Behaviors that are recognized and reinforced are more likely to be repeated (Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis, 1994) For some students, intrinsic motivation to follow the behavior expectations are enough… For other students, additional teacher attention is enough… For other students, they will need more tangible, planned, and frequent recognition to find success and recognize the benefits of appropriate behavior

156 Classwide Reinforcement Systems
Tips for effectively choosing, designing and implementing a reward-based system: Make sure the rewards are highly motivating by using a reinforcer menu or survey. Set the system up to make student success likely. Make sure your expectations are clear. Teach the students how the system works. Be consistent. Start with immediate reinforcers, gradually increase to intermittent schedule.

157 Partner Jigsaw! Each partner reads their designated slide and summarizes the information for the other partner Partner 1: Reinforcer Menu, Mystery Motivator, Points for Grumpy Partner 2: Yes/No Program, Classroom Behavior Bingo, Dots for Motivation Select two systems and generate a list of: the types of behaviors you would use this with which students may not benefit from this program

158 Reinforcer/Reward Menus
Systematic Reinforcement Programs will not be effective if the reinforcer is not motivating for that student Use a predetermined list/menu of possible rewards from which the student can choose Have the student help to develop a list Develop a general list to use with students, have student select which are motivating for them Use Spinners or Charts Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box

159 Mystery Motivators Random reinforcement for desired behaviors
Individuals, groups/teams, classwide Steps: Create reward menu Visual tool, squares for each day of the week, invisible pen with M for days with motivator Reward written on piece of paper in sealed envelope If points/criteria met for behavior for that day, color square to see if reward received Optional bonus square, include positive comments Hint: Start with 2-3 M’s per week, then space out as students get used to the program Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box

160 FOR A MYSTERY MOTIVATOR
BEE ON YOUR BEST BEEHAVIOR XX FOR A MYSTERY MOTIVATOR This slide can be used as a demo of Mystery Motivator. X X X X MON TUES WED THURS FRI. CHAMPS

161 Points for Grumpy Response-cost system
Appropriate for younger students, can be modified for older students 2 Coffee cans/jars, tokens, chart Combines visual/auditory reminders interventioncentral.org

162 Points for Grumpy Steps: Create a reward list/menu
Determine/define behavior (ex: politely following adult directions) teach, provide examples, practice 2 jars used (1 labeled Grumpy, 1 with student’s/team’s name) Teacher starts day with 10 tokens in pocket If misbehavior (noncompliance) occurs, one token put into Grumpy jar/can At end of period/time, student can put any tokens left over into their own jar Tokens traded for points towards reward Use chart to record points earned per day For: Verbal defiance noncompliance Not for: Students who will become overly angry/upset when a point is deducted (keep in mind that some students will test limits and need time to adjust to program)

163 Yes/No Program Individuals or small groups
Use tickets with faces (smiley, frowny) or words (Yes, No) Steps: Define behavior Create reward menu Explain system and practice Yes/No behaviors When target behavior occurs, mark appropriate ticket, write name, and deposit into container Give specific feedback when earning Yes or No tickets Drawing at the end of class period or day Select a few tickets Yes tickets drawn receive reward No tickets drawn do not receive reward Monitor if behaviors are increasing/decreasing Hints: maintain 3:1 ratio (3 Yes tokens to 1 No token) do not share the name on No tickets pulled to avoid embarrassment and to increase motivation Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box

164 Classroom Behavior Bingo (similar to 100 Squares)
Components: Individuals, teams/groups, whole class Materials: Classroom Behavior Bingo Matrix/Squares Container with numbers Steps: Define behavior Raise your hand Turn in completed homework (or 80% of homework for team) Reinforcer list/menu Define system (frequency of behavior to earn bingo square, time period, etc) Practice and role play When student(s) meet criteria, they can select a number from a container Student(s) mark that number on bingo card When entire row, column, or diagonal is filled, earn reward Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box

165 Dots for Motivation Goal: to increase academic work completion
Immediate feedback and reinforcer Materials: dots (stickers) Dots given to student when on-task and working Student could use dots to skip a problem they did not know how to do or did not want to do Transition to dots earned for number of problems completed Gradually extend criteria  dots earned for number of completed assignments (use dots as homework pass) Hint: as student completes more work in this system, cut dots into halves or quarters (more time to earn reward) Dr. Ginger Gates, The Texas School Psychologist, article written by Jenson, Andrews, & Reavis (1998)

166 Intervention A: PLANNED DISCUSSION

167 Rationale A student’s behavior may result from a lack of information.
Planned Discussion is an easy, quick, and efficient intervention. As an intervention, Planned Discussion is a respectful and potentially empowering way to address problem behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

168 Planned Discussion Purpose: To help students understand and address concerns associated with: Minor but potentially annoying misbehavior Moderate misbehavior in the early stages Chronic or severe concerns, as one part of a comprehensive plan (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

169 Planned Discussion **Note: Planned Discussion will
Planned Discussion has the potential to have a positive impact on just about any behavior. Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. **Note: Planned Discussion will only be effective for students with sufficient language skills. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

170 Discussing A One-Time Event vs. Planned Discussion
Does not address a repeated behavior Brief correction provided that does not interrupt the flow of instruction Immediately set a time to follow up with student Does not include other individuals Does address repeated behavior Conducted outside of classroom instruction Conducted during a neutral and scheduled time May include other individuals (i.e., other teacher or parents)

171

172 Positive Characteristics of Planned Discussion
Demonstrates concern so that the student truly understands the issues at hand. Involves student in brainstorming solutions. Lets student know you are there to help him/her learn & grow and that you care. Action plan for behavioral change is developed with the student. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

173 Step 1: Prepare to Meet with the Student
Identify the Central Concern Establish a Focus Determine Who Should Participate in the Discussion Schedule the Discussion for a Neutral Time Make an Appointment to Discuss the Concern with the Student Plan to keep a written record of the discussion (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

174 Step 2: Meet with the Student
Work with the Student to Define Concerns Brainstorm Actions Set up an Informal Action Plan Schedule a Follow-Up Meeting Conclude the Meeting with Words of Encouragement Share a Written Record (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

175 Step 3: Follow Up with the Student
Encourage Student Efforts Meet Once a Week with the Student Determine Whether More Structured Interventions are Needed Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

176 Think-Pair-Share Identify the advantages to EVERY classroom teacher in your building knowing how to implement Planned Discussions with fidelity.

177 Intervention D: DATA COLLECTION AND DEBRIEFING

178 Rationale Gathering data often solves the problem all by itself
Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. Effective teachers collect data that defines the problem in measurable terms Use of data is the only way to determine objectively whether interventions are working Data will form the basis for assessing fidelity and/or the need for a different intervention Trainer Notes: How can the act of gathering data solve the problem all by itself? Several reasons: Placebo Effect The student wasn’t aware of the problem It’s art of human nature to shape up when we know we are being watched - The Hawthorne Effect occurs when people change their behavior for the better because they know they are being studied. Researcher Henry A. Landsberger invented the term in 1955 after a series of experiments in the 1920s and 1930s at Hawthorne Works (a factory near Chicago). The studies showed that worker productivity increased regardless of changes in lighting (the original research focus) or other independent variables. Landsberger concluded that workers were more productive simply because they knew they were being watched. Later research suggests that the Hawthorne Effect in the original experiments was overstated and that the increased productivity is best explained by other factors. In experimental psychology, researchers attempt to avoid the Hawthorne Effect in order to gain more accurate information. Conveys that the teacher is serious Increases the amount of attention from the teacher Communicates the teacher’s concern and care for the student (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

179 Purpose To increase positive behavior or decrease negative behavior with any behavioral goal through observation, as well as to use a systematic approach of recording data to gauge the effectiveness of subsequent interventions. Trainer Notes: This slide is set up for choral responding. The intent is for the presenter to read the text in black and pause for the text in read to be read aloud in a choral fashion by the participants. Be sure you go through the purpose for data collection and debriefing along with the additional information below in the Trainer Talk section of the notes. “Data is not an annoyance to get help.” R. Sprick It is important to train all educators that data collection needs to be a part of early stage interventions. Types of behaviors that may be positively affected include any chronic behavior or motivational problem. Trainer Talk: “It is important to keep in mind that even if no improvements results from this intervention alone, subsequent interventions will require ongoing collection of data to gauge their efficacy.” (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

180 Step 1: Choose an Objective but Simple Data Collection Method
Either use an existing form or record marks on an index card. Some choices include: Basic Frequency Count of Misbehavior Duration Recording Latency Recording Rating Scale Trainer Notes: Basic frequency count of misbehavior – how many times it occurred Duration recording – how long did it last? Latency recording – how long before the student complied? Rating scale – teacher assessing the degree of disruption TIP: If it is difficult to determine what the focus of the intervention should be or how to measure the problem, keep a daily anecdotal log in which you note what occurred that day. Usually, anecdotal notes will help you define the nature of the problem in a more objective manner. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

181 Disc 5, Ch. 9, Task 3, 5:08 – 9:12

182 > 100 minutes of non-participation
Trainer Notes: This slide is animated. Initially just the data graph appears. Explain to the participants that the data represents the duration of a student’s non-participation in a full-day kindergarten classroom. Ask participants to take a few moments to examine the data and discuss with their partners some of their observations of the data. After a few moments of discussion, debrief with the full group. Get a few participants to share out their observations. Then, advance the slide and point out that at the start of the intervention, the student’s non-participation was in excess of 100 minutes of non-participation per day but after 8 weeks, advance the slide and point out that the student has made about 70% improvement. Without the chart, the teacher may have become so discouraged that she threw out the intervention because the behavior still seemed pervasive. The teacher’s subjective perception may be that the intervention was unsuccessful, but with the chart, the teacher can see that the student is continuing to make great progress. After 8 weeks, about 70% improvement (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

183 Step 2: Meet with the Student (and parents, if appropriate)
Explain the data you plan to collect before starting and how you will inform the student of the data as you are collecting it. Meet regularly (at least one a week) with the student to share and discuss the one-page visual summary of the data, review trends, set improvement targets, discuss ideas for improving the situation, and CELEBRATE progress Trainer Talk: “The goal of this intervention is to collect data in a manner conspicuous to the student but subtle enough to be respectful of the student in front of his peers. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

184 Share Any Insights With Your Partner
Partner Activity Partner 1: Review Data Collection Forms: Behavior Counting Forms Interval Scatterplot Partner 2: Rating Scale Participation Evaluation Record Share Any Insights With Your Partner

185 Intervention C: GOAL SETTING

186 Rationale Students who have experienced repeated failure have difficulty setting realistic goals Goal setting increases clarity of expectations, helps set attainable goals, and can increase the student’s motivation Learning to set and achieve realistic goals is a lifelong skill (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

187 Purpose Goal setting helps students identify what they hope to accomplish and actions they can take to reach their goals. Trainer Notes: This slide is set up for choral responding. The intent is for the presenter to read the text in black and pause for the text in read to be read aloud in a choral fashion by the participants. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

188 Step 1: Develop a Plan Select the goal setting format
Review the problem and overall student goals by identifying strengths, desired outcomes, and collected information. Select the goal setting format Set up the goal-setting conference (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

189 Step 2: Meet with the Student
Help the student establish long-range goals and short-range goals. Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take. Help the student identify specific actions he or she is willing to take in order to reach the short-term goals. Identify ways that adults could help the student reach his or her goals. If using rewards, a structured reinforcement system, or corrective consequences, make sure the student understands all of the contingencies Set up regular times for follow-up Review responsibilities and sign appropriate goal setting form Trainer Notes: Help the student establish long-range goals if needed. Identify specific action he or she is willing to take to reach his or her goals. Encourage the student to think about what kind of life he or she would like to have in the future. What kind of residence, car, job, and/or family can the student envision? Help the student determine qualifications for the types of jobs that may be of interest. This may require more research, like calling employers. Identify immediate actions the student can take to move toward this goal by building a backward plan that identifies what the student will have to do to reach the goal. Brainstorm actions to take and avoid. Summarize the information and complete the appropriate form. Help the student establish short-range goals. Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take. Help the student identify specific actions he or she is willing to take in order to reach the short-term goals. Identify ways that adults could help the student reach his or her goals. If using rewards, a structured reinforcement system, or corrective consequences, make sure the student understands all of the contingencies Don’t start with rewards, try goal setting on its own. Set up regular times for follow-up Review responsibilities and sign appropriate goal setting form (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

190 Step 3: Provide Ongoing Support and Encouragement
Provide frequent positive feedback; encourage the student to keep striving towards his or her goals. Correct calmly. Avoid sounding disappointed or reproachful. Evaluate the impact of the plan and make needed revisions. Trainer Talk: “The goal of this intervention is to collect data in a manner conspicuous to the student but subtle enough to be respectful of the student in front of his peers. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

191 Review the Goal Setting Forms. Discuss with your partner
Partner Activity Review the Goal Setting Forms. Discuss with your partner How these Goal Setting Forms differ from each other, The type of student needs they might meet, and How they are similar to and different from goal setting you’ve done with a student in the past.

192 Intervention J: Cueing & Precorrecting

193 Rationale To help students control impulsive, excessive, habitual, or off-task behavior. Children are sometimes unaware of their own behaviors. Behaviors can interfere with peer relationships or success in school. Read through the bullets on this slide or have participants read them. Trainers may also ask partners to read them together. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

194 What exactly is CUEING? Cueing is used to interrupt an inappropriate behavior that is already taking place. Cueing takes the place of reprimands or corrections that would be more verbose and that the teacher would end up repeating many times Trainers may wish to provide an example or two Example: I worked with a senior who had an Autism Spectrum Disorder who knew that he talked on and on, but was unable to stop himself due to his social/communication challenges. In anticipation of a big, upcoming IEP, he asked me to signal him when he was talking too much and needed to stop. We agreed on putting up my hand like a stop sign and we practiced him seeing my signal and ending his sentence and stopping talking. Rather than say, Sam, you are talking too much, we maintained his dignity with a subtle signal to cue him to stop.

195 What exactly is PRECORRECTING?
Precorrecting is an attempt to anticipate and prevent an inappropriate behavior before it occurs. Precorrection: a prompt for appropriate behavior sets the stage for positive feedback Trainers may wish to provide an example or two. Example: When my son was younger, he was very shy and had a hard time responding to adult conversational questions to him. So, when we were going to be somewhere in which adults would be talking to him, I would tell him that he would be asked questions and he needed to give a response because not responding would be perceived as rude. Then, we would practice and role play potential questions and his responses. Teachers often precorrect with students as a whole class by saying things such as, “It is important that you complete all the problems in order instead of skipping the ones you don’t know” or “Remember, when we walk down the hall, we close our lips and put our hands on our hips.”

196 Cueing or Precorrecting?
Nosepicking Skipping items on tests Pencil tapping Disrespectful tone of voice Chronic pencil sharpening Cueing Precorrecting This is an animated slide. The behaviors are listed in the left column. Ask the group whether they would use a cue or a precorrect. When you click each one, the answer in the right hand column will appear. The most common responses are listed, but trainers should understand that some of the answers depend on the context. For example, precorrection could also be the best choice for disrespectful tone of voice or a combination of the two could be used. The same is true for many of the responses. Don’t get hung up on right/wrong answers. The most important thing is the thinking behind the group’s responses.

197 Cueing and Precorrecting will fade as the student becomes successful—the more successful the student is, the less signaling used

198 Step 1: Develop A Plan Identify possible signals that might be used
Identify what adults will do when the student either responds or fails to respond to a signal Identify other settings/adults to include in the plan Decide whether the student needs to be taught a replacement behavior Identify ways to determine whether the intervention is helping the student reach the goal Have participants take a minute and read through the steps on this slide and the next slide. These are the sub-steps that are involved in the first step of implementation of this intervention (Develop a Plan). We will walk through most of these steps using the example of a student named Kashala.

199 Step 2: Meet with the Student to Discuss & Finalize the Plan
Review the problem and goals Help the student select a signal explain any consequences that will be used if the student fails to respond Briefly demonstrate and practice using role-playing Set up regular meeting times to debrief with the student Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement Trainers should just read through this list with participants or have them read it independently or with partners. They will use the Kashala transcript in the next slide (activity) to understand the steps listed on this slide.

200 Step 3: Implement the Plan
Begin using the precorrection or cue anytime the student exhibits the inappropriate behavior Reinforce the student for responding to the signal and/or for not needing the signal Implement evaluation & debriefing procedures Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement Trainers should just read through this list with participants or have them read it independently or with partners. They will use the Kashala transcript in the next slide (activity) to understand the steps listed on this slide.

201 Team Activity Think about a student who may engage in annoying or inappropriate behaviors. Would Cueing and Precorrecting be an appropriate intervention for the student? Refer the groups to their workbook for this activity.

202 Intervention M: Teaching Replacement Behavior

203 To modify any recurring minor or major misbehavior
Purpose To modify any recurring minor or major misbehavior Trainer Notes: Types of behaviors that may be positively affected: Poor peer relations: being the scapegoat, teasing, poor interactions Problems interacting with adults: disrespect, problems being corrected or accepting feedback, not following directions Bad habits: nose picking, swearing, noisemaking Chronic off-task behavior: daydreaming, being distractible, having a short attention span Aggressive behavior: chasing others, threatening others, hitting, poking Anger management: shouting, inability to handle disagreements (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

204 Rationale Students with behavior problems may have never learned the appropriate behavior Adults frequently take appropriate behavior for granted Some students will need to be taught how to replace misbehaviors with appropriate behaviors Trainers may wish to read through these bullets or have participants read them independently or with a partner. Teaching is not telling! Teaching involves repeated instruction across time until mastery is achieved. Instruction will involve modeling; creating frequent practice opportunities; providing positive and corrective feedback; combining simple, previously mastered behaviors into more complex chains of behaviors (chaining); and providing context instruction (in this situation do this, in that situation do that). (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

205 If a child doesn’t know how to read…….we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to swim…...we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to multiply……we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to behave….. we punish? John Herner

206 Fundamental Rule! (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
“You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors the person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71). One of the things that we know how to do in the behavior world is stop behavior. If you have a student who is spitting, we can stop the spitting. But before you say, “well, bring it!”, you have to recognize that if we just stop a behavior, we will typically get a worse behavior in it’s place. It’s critical that we work to teach a replacement behavior that serves the same function for the student as the one that they are currently using. 206

207 Replacement Behavior? Kelly runs into the middle of groups of students on the playground and gets upset and cries when they walk away from her or tell the playground aide that she ran into them. Possible function of her behavior?? Is there a skill deficit present? What is “Positive Opposite” of her behavior? Will the positive opposite fulfill the function of her behavior? What should the replacement behavior to teach Kelly be then? This is an animated slide that is intended to be a group discussion. First, read the scenario. Then click through the questions one by one and facilitate group discussion. Here are some possible answers for the questions. Trainers will need to have a good understanding of function of behavior. Possible function of her behavior: Getting/accessing peer interactions. Kelly likely wants to be a part of the social groups and is trying to join. Is there a skill deficit present: Hard to know from this quick description, but she may not understand how to join in a group of peers. She wants to be a part of “it,” but is unsure how to join in with the others in an appropriate way What is the positive opposite of her behavior: Kelly would walk up to the group and join in the conversation or play OR Kelly would walk up to the group and ask if she can play too. Will the positive opposite fulfill the function of her behavior? YES, she would be getting or accessing peer interaction What should the replacement behavior to teach Kelly be then? I would teach Kelly how to walk up to a group and ask to join in the play OR teach her how to join in an ongoing conversation. I would also teach her how to respond if the group does not allow her to join or walks away from her.

208 the student does (what) _________ … because (why) _________
A-B-C Defined Antecedent Behavior Consequence When ___ happens… the student does (what) _________ … because (why) _________ Step 2 Step 1 Step 3

209 Competing Pathways

210 Competing Pathways 1 3 2 2 1 3 4

211 Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warm-up” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.

212 Initial Considerations
Review the problem and overall goals for the student Determine behaviors or strategies the student can learn to replace the inappropriate behaviors Design lessons to teach the replacement behavior Determine who will provide the lessons, how much time will be needed, and when and where they will be held All of the steps to this intervention are listed here. The steps that are in red font will be the ones that we dig further into in this section. The rest of them have been discussed previously or require little explanation. Participants can always be referred to the Interventions book if they want to deepen their knowledge further. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

213 Initial Considerations
Consider ways to support that will not embarrass the student Identify ways to determine whether the intervention is helping the student reach the goal Determine whether a reinforcement system and consequences need to be integrated into the plan Identify criteria and procedures for fading the intervention Determine who will meet with the student to discuss and finalize the plan See notes for previous slide. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

214 e.g., Paying Attention in Class
I’m Feeling Confused I should… Watch other students to see what they are doing, or… I know what I should be doing. Pay Attention. When teaching new behaviors, it is often helpful to have a visual cue to help the student remember to use the new strategies. This is an example of a visual cue that was placed on an index card at the top of a student’s desk. The student often was unable to complete work because he would get “stuck” for a variety of reasons that would result in off-task behavior. The student was explicitly taught to do all three things listed in the bottom three circles. These skills were modeled and practiced. Now, he had to actually use them and the visual cue served as a reminder to do that. The student would also mark with a tally mark next to the circle of the strategy that he actually used. At the end of each day, we had a “data sheet” that allowed us to see which strategies the student was using and how often. A new index card was placed on his desk each morning. Raise my hand and ask my teacher to repeat the directions, or…

215 e.g., Managing Frustration
First take a deep breath Count to 10 Raise my hand Ask Mrs. M. for help This is another example of a visual cue to prompt a student to use newly learned replacement behaviors. This student became angry, argumentative, and very loud verbally when frustrated while doing assignments. We had these cards all over…on his desk, in his desk, each teacher had one to use to prompt the student if he started to become upset, and he carried one in his pocket.

216 Team Activity Think about a student who may need to be taught a replacement behavior. What might be a “positive opposite” behavior that would serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior?

217 Intervention N: FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION

218 Purpose To improve communication/social skills of students whose deficits in this area may be leading to misbehaviors. Trainer Notes: Types of behaviors that may be positively affected: Poor peer relations: being the scapegoat, teasing, poor interactions Problems interacting with adults: disrespect, problems being corrected or accepting feedback, not following directions Bad habits: nose picking, swearing, noisemaking Chronic off-task behavior: daydreaming, being distractible, having a short attention span Aggressive behavior: chasing others, threatening others, hitting, poking Anger management: shouting, inability to handle disagreements (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

219 Rationale Students with limited communication/ social skills may engage in inappropriate behaviors in an attempt to get their needs met. Poor interactions with peers may trigger conflict or lead to isolation Behavior is communication. Need to teach a prosocial replacement behavior. Trainers may wish to read through these bullets or have participants read them independently or with a partner. Teaching is not telling! Teaching involves repeated instruction across time until mastery is achieved. Instruction will involve modeling; creating frequent practice opportunities; providing positive and corrective feedback; combining simple, previously mastered behaviors into more complex chains of behaviors (chaining); and providing context instruction (in this situation do this, in that situation do that). (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

220 Increased Frequency of Occurrence
Autism Spectrum Disorders Trauma Special Education Need to engage speech-language pathologists , occupational therapists, school psychs Trainers may wish to read through these bullets or have participants read them independently or with a partner. Teaching is not telling! Teaching involves repeated instruction across time until mastery is achieved. Instruction will involve modeling; creating frequent practice opportunities; providing positive and corrective feedback; combining simple, previously mastered behaviors into more complex chains of behaviors (chaining); and providing context instruction (in this situation do this, in that situation do that).

221 Step 1: Determine Need Identify the misbehavior objectively;
Consider antecedents and consequences to determine if behavior is related to communication/social skills Have participants take a minute and read through the steps on this slide and the next slide. These are the sub-steps that are involved in the first step of implementation of this intervention (Develop a Plan). We will walk through most of these steps using the example of a student named Kashala.

222 Step 2: Multidisciplinary Team Meeting
Discuss alternative means of communication or replacement behaviors. Determine who will teach prosocial communication skills Include all relevant parties Trainers should just read through this list with participants or have them read it independently or with partners. They will use the Kashala transcript in the next slide (activity) to understand the steps listed on this slide.

223 Step 3: Implement the Plan
Teach in context Model and role-play Reinforce student when performing appropriate behavior; withhold reinforcement otherwise Measure performance and revise as needed; fade Trainers should just read through this list with participants or have them read it independently or with partners. They will use the Kashala transcript in the next slide (activity) to understand the steps listed on this slide.

224                                                                         A nonprofit working globally to promote children’s social and academic success

225

226 Intervention K: Self-Monitoring & Self-Evaluation

227 Purpose To increase student awareness of a particular behavior so they can learn to take responsibility for their own behavior and control what they do Trainer Talk: “This intervention helps students become aware of their own problem behavior and improvements they are striving to make by involving student in keeping records of their own behavior. When self- monitoring, as student observes and tracks certain behaviors – either misbehaviors like disruptions or positive behaviors like finishing work. Self-evaluating requires the student to evaluate and record the quality of a specific behavior. Self-monitoring and self-evaluation can help students take control of situations they believe are hopeless. This intervention is especially effective for students who seem to be motivated but are unaware of their inappropriate behavior and for those who act impulsively and have difficulty taking ownership of their behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

228 Step 1: Develop a Plan Determine the behavior to be monitored and evaluated. If necessary, identify examples of student behavior that set boundaries between responsible and irresponsible behavior. Determine when the student will record behaviors. Develop a recording system for the student. Design a cueing system to prompt the student to record if needed. Have participants take a minute and read through the steps on this slide and the next slide. These are the sub-steps that are involved in the first step of implementation of this intervention (Develop a Plan). (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

229 Step 1: Develop a Plan Plan to have an adult monitor the student’s behavior initially (and occasionally thereafter) and compare results with the student’s record. Identify ways to determine if the intervention is helping Trainer Talk: “One of the most important parts of this intervention is to define the goal behavior in as much detail as possible so that it can be taught to the student. Therefore it is vitally important to describe the behavior in observable terms. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

230 B. Set Boundaries Between Responsible and Irresponsible Behaviors
The teacher asks Joan to sit down: Joan nods and sits down. Joan says, “Okay,” and sits down. Joan does not respond to the teacher but immediately sits down. Joan asks in a respectful tone, “I need to sharpen my pencil. Is that OK?” Joan sits down but calls the teacher a name or says “Why should I?” Joan sits down, but in a sarcastic tone says, “Okay, whatever you say.” Joan does not sit down or respond. Joan goes to sit down in an exaggerated slow motion. Remind the participants that just like with Cueing and Precorrecting, the first step in Developing the Plan is making sure to define the behavior in objective terms. We want to make sure that everyone, including the student, is well-aware and has a clear understanding of the behavior of concern. The second sub-step in Developing a Plan is listed on this slide: “It is important to define acceptable and unacceptable behavior clearly and draw the line between the two. With most behavior, the borderline between acceptable and unacceptable is fuzzy and requires definition. This is an example for a student who needs to learn to speak respectfully to adults. The list was generated from the types of misbehavior the student exhibited in the past. If the line between acceptable and unacceptable behavior is difficult to distinguish, it is important to define it through examples prior to teaching the student to self-monitor his behavior. By discussing limits before asking the student to self-monitor, you let the student know in advance what is acceptable and what is unacceptable. This greatly reduces the natural human urge to test the limits.

231 D. Develop a Recording System for the Student
Tally marks Symbols, such as + and – Circling a symbol or number Rating scales Rubrics Others? There are many ways to have the student recording their behavior. It is important to remember that self-monitoring can be very beneficial to any student, but remember that the power of self-monitoring can be diluted if the student is embarrassed. The example on the slide just has the student circling a number for each assignment completed on a given day. There are more examples on the next few slides.

232 This was a self-monitoring form that I used with a preschool student (age 4). He was working on keeping his hands in his lap or to himself during any group floor activity (calendar, storytime, academic instruction…). Everytime he made it through a group floor time without touching another student, he was to color in a Batman. Because he loved Batman, coloring it in was highly reinforcing and this very impulsive 4-year old quickly became motivated to fill the page with colored in Batmans as quickly as he could. The teacher charted how many Batmans were colored in at the end of every preschool session. Interesting note: As this content was reviewed, it was noted that Batman is trying to catch the Riddler, not the Joker!

233 Here is an example from the Interventions book.

234 Here is another example from the Interventions book that is a rubric for self-evaluation of neatness on assignments.

235 Step 2: Meet with the Student to Discuss and Finalize the Plan
Review the problem and the goal. Introduce the procedures that will be followed. Review everyone’s roles and responsibilities. Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement. Trainer Notes: Below is additional information that can be added to each bullet on this slide if you choose. Trainer Talk: “The first part of the meeting begins with a quick review of the problem and goal. Then discuss the procedures that will be followed, starting with introducing the self-monitoring or self-evaluation system to the student. Then show the student how to record his or her behavior, define responsible and irresponsible behavior, and finally help the student identify a reward for making progress. The review of everyone’s roles and responsibilities includes modeling and verbally rehearsing the steps, providing a list of the process steps, scheduling a follow-up meeting to discuss progress, and reviewing procedures. The meeting should end with words of encouragement.” (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

236 Step 3: Implement the Plan
Encourage student efforts Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary. When the student demonstrates consistent success, fade the intervention. Once the intervention has been faded, provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement. Trainer Talk: “It is important that you recognize that the student may need a lot of practice, the opportunity to make errors and adjustments, and a lot of encouragement along the way. However, when the student starts to assume ownership of a new behavior or breaks an old habit, gradually remove the monitoring system. Fading can involve increasing time intervals between monitoring. The general rule of thumb is to fade the system when the student demonstrates consistent success, but to provide the student with any support that is necessary for continued improvements. If the student begins to backslide, consider reinstituting formal self-monitoring. Once a student has demonstrated consistent success, it is easy to take appropriate behavior for granted. The student will need continued encouragement and support for his efforts.” (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)

237 Would Self-Monitoring be an appropriate intervention for the student?
Team Activity Think about a student who may need to become more empowered to increase awareness of and take control of inappropriate behaviors. Would Self-Monitoring be an appropriate intervention for the student? Refer participants to their workbooks.

238 Behavior Intervention Resources

239 Intervention Central (interventioncentral.org)
Academic and Behavior Interventions Behavior Categories: Apps Challenging Students Motivation Rewards Schoolwide Classroom Management Bully Prevention

240 PBIS World

241 Goals for the Day Participants will…
Understand the systematic framework for Multi-Tiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL students Understand how classroom management and specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the necessary foundation for additional behavioral interventions Develop an understanding of behavioral assessment and the function it serves

242 Goals for the Day Participants will…
Develop a working knowledge of multiple targeted behavioral interventions for individual students Develop an understanding of the use of data in selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral interventions.


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