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Communication and Social Interaction Public Speaking Lecturer – Jerome Mak.

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Presentation on theme: "Communication and Social Interaction Public Speaking Lecturer – Jerome Mak."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication and Social Interaction Public Speaking Lecturer – Jerome Mak

2 Benefits of Public Speaking Improve your public speaking abilities Improve your social and personal abilities Improve your academic and career skills

3 Managing Your Anxiety Reduce the newness of public speaking by gaining experience Reduce your self-focus by visualizing public speaking as conversation Reduce your perceived differentness from the audience (think of similarities rather than differences)

4 Managing Your Anxiety Reduce your fear of failure by preparing and practicing Reduce your anxiety by moving about and breathing deeply Avoid chemicals as tension relievers (these can create problems such as forgetting your speech rather than relieving your anxiety)

5 Steps in Public Speaking Preparation and Delivery

6 Step 1: Select Your Topic, Purposes, and Thesis Your Topic A Good Public Speaking Topic Substantive (important) Appropriate (if you’re male, the stages of childbirth probably isn’t a good topic) Culturally sensitive (discussing sex in some cultures would be thought offensive)

7 Step 1: Select Your Topic, Purposes, and Thesis Finding Topics Yourself (what are you interested in? where have you lived? what are your talents?) Brainstorming Surveys (issues identified in opinion polls as being of interest) News items Topic lists (available online)

8 Step 1: Select Your Topic, Purposes, and Thesis Limiting Topics System of topics Tree diagrams Search directories (available online)

9 Step 1: Select Your Topic, Purposes, and Thesis Purposes General purpose Informative (e.g., seminar on career choices) Persuasive (e.g., getting you to vote for a politician) Specific purposes Use an infinitive phrase (e.g., to inform my audience of the new registration procedures) Focus on the audience (including the phrase “my audience” keeps you focused on your aim) Limit your specific purpose (“and” is a sign you have more than one purpose – choose only one) Use specific terms (limit your topic: “colour” rather than “clothing design”)

10 Step 1: Select Your Topic, Purposes, and Thesis Your thesis What is a thesis? Central idea, theme or essence of speech Informative thesis – states what you want audience to learn Persuasive thesis – states what you want your audience to believe or accept Wording and Using Your Thesis Limit thesis to one central idea State thesis as declarative sentence (e.g., we should all contribute to the homeless) Use thesis to focus audience attention

11 Step 2: Analyze Your Audience Analyzing the Sociology of the Audience Cultural factor (does the culture of the audience affect the way they see your topic?) Age (investment advice for over 60s vs under 30s) Gender (is your topic of interest to the gender that makes up your audience?) Affectional Orientation (is yours a topic that may be seen differently by gay and straight people?) Religion and religiousness (e.g., abortion may not be a suitable topic for some religions)

12 Step 2: Analyze Your Audience Analyzing the Psychology of Audience How willing is the audience? (are they there because they have to be?) How favorable is the audience? (do they support your view? Start by stressing commonality) How knowledgeable is the audience? (don’t teach grandma to suck eggs)

13 Step 2: Analyze Your Audience Analyzing and Adapting During Speech Focus on listeners as message senders Address audience responses (“I know this might seem confusing but bear with me; it will become clear in a minute”) Ask “what if” questions (“what if my audience is different to the one I expected?” This will make you think about possible answers as you prepare your speech)

14 Step 3: Research Your Topic Principles of Research Research for specifics (e.g., the average age of accountants) Research to discover what is known (this is important in informative speeches) Research to support a position (this is important in persuasive speeches)

15 Step 3: Research Your Topic Principles of Time Management Multi-task (research two or more things at once) Watch detours (don’t get distracted) Access your library from home Consult your librarian (they know where to find things fast)

16 Step 3: Research Your Topic Interviewing for Information Select the person you wish to interview Secure an appointment Select your topic area Create a sheet (list of questions) Establish rapport with the interviewee Ask open-ended questions Display effective interpersonal communication Ask for permission to tape or print the interview Close with an expression of appreciation Follow up with thank-you note

17 Step 3: Research Your Topic Primary, secondary, and tertiary sources (original, comments on, meta-analysis) Scholarly and popular journals (to enhance knowledge vs to entertain) General Reference Sources Encyclopedias Specialized reference works E-mail Newsgroups and chat groups Web searches

18 Step 3: Research Your Topic News Sources Newspaper indexes Electronic newspaper databases Newspaper and newsmagazine Web sites News wire services News networks online Other Sources PsycINFO and sociological abstracts Medline Indexes Listservs, Usenet, WWW Book sources

19 Step 3: Research Your Topic The Web The Open Web (anyone can access) The Deep Web (needs a password/payment of fee) The Social Web (blogs, Facebook, etc.) Evaluating Internet Resources Fairness Accuracy Currency Qualifications Sufficiency

20 Step 3: Research Your Topic Plagiarism Violation of another’s intellectual property rights You are in college to develop your own ideas and expression Evaluations assume work is your own

21 Step 4: Collect Supporting Materials Examples, illustrations, and narratives Stress relevancy Real v. hypothetical Analogies 類比 Figurative analogies (e.g., your degree is a passport to success) Literal analogies (e.g., similarities between 2 companies)

22 Step 4: Collect Supporting Materials Definitions Etymology 詞源學 (origin of words) Authority (define according to the inventor) Negation (e.g., a wife isn’t a cook, cleaner etc… a wife is..) Specific examples (human rights: job, wage, education etc.)

23 Step 4: Collect Supporting Materials Testimony Expert witness testimony (such as psychiatrist) Eyewitness testimony (person who witnessed event) Numerical Data Raw numbers – figures unmodified by mathematical operation Statistics-complex set of numbers (e.g., average wage) Mean, the mode, the median

24 Step 4: Collect Supporting Materials Using numerical data Make clear Make meaningful Make explicit Connect with point Use in moderation Reinforce visually

25 Step 4: Collect Supporting Materials Presentation Aids A visual or auditory means for clarifying ideas Help you gain attention and maintain interest Add clarity Reinforce your message Contribute to credibility and confidence Type of aids: The object (e.g., the jewelry or the car you are speaking about), Models, Graphs, Word charts, Maps, People, Photographs and illustrations

26 Step 4: Collect Supporting Materials Using Presentation Aids Know your aids intimately (know how they work and in what order you want to use them) Rehearse your speech using aids Integrate presentation aids into your speech seamlessly Avoid talking to your aid (keep eye contact with the audience) Use aid only when relevant (remove it after use or your audience might stay focused on it)

27 Step 4: Collect Supporting Materials Computer-Assisted Presentations Ways of using presentation software Suggestions for designing slides Use software templates Use consistent typeface, size and color Be brief Use colors wisely Use only the visuals you need Use charts and tables when necessary

28 Step 5: Develop Main Points Eliminate points less relevant to thesis Combine points that have common focus Select points that are most relevant or interesting to audience Use two to four major points (too much information otherwise) Word main points in parallel style (use the same style for the same level of points) Develop main points so they are separate and discrete (colour is important; style is important. Not colour and style are important)

29 Step 6: Organize Your Speech Organizing will help guide the speech preparation process (you can see what needs changing) Organizing will help your audience understand your speech Organizing will help your audience remember your speech Organizing will help establish your credibility (your audience will see you put effort into your speech)

30 Step 6: Organize Your Speech Temporal (chronological) Spatial (top to bottom, left to right) Topical (divisions such as faculties) Problem-Solution (identify problem, then solution) Cause-Effect/Effect-Cause (alcohol use leads to birth defects; birth defects are due to alcohol use) Motivated sequence (gain audience’s attention; identify need; identify solution; visualise what would happen if your solution was implemented; identify what action needs to happen for your solution to happen)

31 Step 7: Construct Introduction, Conclusion & Transitions Introduction Gain attention Ask a question Use humor Use a presentation aid Use a quotation Cite a little-known fact Use an illustration or dramatic story Establish connection Between speaker, audience and topic Orient audience

32 Step 7: Construct Introduction, Conclusion & Transitions Conclusion Summarize Restate thesis, importance, main points Motivate Ask for specific response Provide directions for action Close Use a quote Pose a challenge or question Refer back to introduction Thank audience

33 Step 7: Construct Introduction, Conclusion & Transitions Transition Connectives between parts of speech (e.g., “now that we have some idea of … we can examine it further”) Previews what is coming next (e.g., “in conclusion..”) Reviews remind listeners of what you’ve covered Signposts (e.g., First… A second argument… Next, consider… )

34 Step 7: Construct Introduction, Conclusion & Transitions Pitfalls Introductions Don’t apologize (may be okay in Chinese culture) Avoid promising something you won’t deliver Avoid gimmicks include only relevant items or actions Don’t introduce your speech with ineffective statements (“I’m really nervous, but here goes…”)

35 Step 7: Construct Introduction, Conclusion & Transitions Pitfalls Conclusions No new material Don’t dilute (“I hope I wasn’t too nervous…”) End crisply (don’t drag out your conclusion) Transitions Numbers (too many/too few transitions can cause problems)

36 Step 7: Construct Introduction, Conclusion & Transitions Outline your speech Preface the outline with identifying data Outline the introduction, body and conclusion as separate units Insert transitions Include a list of references Use a consistent set of symbols Use visual aspects to reflect the organizational pattern Use complete, declarative sentences

37 Step 7: Construct Introduction, Conclusion & Transitions Sample Preparation Outline Template Outline The Phrase/Key-Word Presentation Outline Be brief Be clear Be delivery minded Rehearse with presentation outline

38 Step 8: Word Your Speech Oral Style is… Different from written style Listeners hear a speech only once Speech must be instantly intelligible Shorter, simpler, more familiar words

39 Step 8: Word Your Speech Choosing words Clarity Be economical (blue in colour) Use specific terms and numbers (don’t say dog if you want listeners to picture a St Bernard) Use signposts (next, first, another argument) Use short, familiar terms (use instead of utilise) Carefully assess idioms (“go to pieces”)

40 Step 8: Word Your Speech Vividness Active verbs Instead of “The teacher was in the middle of the crowd” use “The teacher stood in the middle of the crowd” Strong verbs Instead of “walked” use “strode”, “rambled”, “strutted” Figures of speech Use “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse” instead of “I’m hungry” Imagery Describe height, weight, colour, size; tyres screeching; the smooth skin of a baby

41 Step 8: Word Your Speech Appropriateness Level of formality less formal than written essay but more formal than conversation Avoid unfamiliar terms don’t use jargon or acronyms

42 Step 8: Word Your Speech Appropriateness Avoid slang informal terms that may embarrass your audience Avoid ethnic expressions Words and phrases that are peculiar to a particular ethnic group (“blood”, “bro”, “my man” for African Americans)

43 Step 8: Word Your Speech Personal Style Use personal pronouns I, me, my instead of one’s, the speaker’s, the listeners Use questions these can be rhetorical in a large audience Create immediacy Use personal examples Address audience as “you”

44 Step 8: Word Your Speech Create immediacy Refer directly to commonalities between you and the audience Refer to shared experiences and goals

45 Step 8: Word Your Speech Forcefulness/power Eliminate weakeners Avoid hesitations Avoid using too many superlatives Avoid tag questions (e.g., “This is great, don’t you think?”) Avoid self-critical statements (I’m not very good at this) Slang and vulgar expressions (low social class = little power)

46 Step 8: Word Your Speech Forcefulness/power Vary intensity as appropriate Avoid bromides and cliches 陳詞濫調 Bromides are worn out sayings (It is what it is) Cliches are overused phrases (It goes without saying)

47 Step 8: Word Your Speech Phrasing sentences Use short sentences easier to understand and remember Use direct sentences Easier to understand (I want to tell you of three main reasons why we should not adopt Program A vs We should not adopt Program A. There are three main reasons.)

48 Step 8: Word Your Speech Phrasing sentences Use active sentences The lower court’s decision was reversed by the Supreme Court vs The Supreme Court reversed the lower court’s decision Use positive sentences The committee did not accept the proposal vs The committee rejected the proposal Vary types of sentences All the same = boring

49 Step 9: Rehearse Your Speech Rehearse as a whole including using aids Time speech Approximate actual situation as close as possible to actual conditions See yourself as speaker use a mirror Incorporate changes include things like slow down messages Rehearse often at least 3 – 4 times

50 Step 9: Rehearse Your Speech 1.Seek feedback 2.Learn the differences between effective and ineffective patterns 3.Seek additional feedback 4.Consult resources for practice exercises on volume, rate, pitch, and quality 5.See a speech clinician 6.Seek professional help if you’re uncomfortable with any aspect of your voice or bodily action

51 Step 10: Present Your Speech Effective Presentation Comfortable Consistent with subject matter Interesting, e.g., don’t stand still all the time

52 Step 10: Present Your Speech Methods of Presentation Impromptu no preparation From manuscript advantage = don’t forget what you want to say; disadvantage = difficult to respond to audience feedback From memory advantage = free to move about; disadvantage = difficult to respond to audience feedback Extemporaneously know what you want to say but speak spontaneously

53 Step 10: Present Your Speech Making presentation effective Be natural Use presentation style to reinforce your message Dress appropriately Vary your presentation ( slow/fast; louder/softer) Be conversational Be expressive Avoid common mistakes don’t display discomfort Use notes appropriately used sparingly, they show the audience that you have worked on your speech

54 Step 10: Present Your Speech Voice Volume Rate Pitch highness or lowness of your voice

55 Step 10: Present Your Speech Articulation and Pauses 1.Articulation Omission (not gov-a-ment, government) Substitution (not wader, waiter) Addition of sounds or syllables (not ath-a-lete, athlete) Accent ( not Insurance, insUrance) Pronunciations of silent sounds (not ofTen, offen)

56 Step 10: Present Your Speech Articulation and Pauses 2.Pauses Filled Vocalized Pauses - er, um, ah, well, and ‘you know’ These make you seem unprepared and unsure Unfilled These can be effective Pause before an important idea; at transition points; before asking for questions

57 Step 10: Present Your Speech Bodily Action Eye contact Facial expression Posture Gestures ( don’t fix your hair) Movement Proxemics ( close but not too close)

58 Step 10: Present Your Speech Handling Audience Questions Anticipate likely questions and prepare answers Encourage questions Maintain eye contact Pause before answering If a question is deemed personal, respond that the question is not relevant to the topic If appropriate, thank the questioner or note that it’s a good question If you’re asked a question and don’t know the answer, say so Q&A sessions can connect with main points Don’t allow one person to dominate

59 Step 10: Present Your Speech Criticizing Speeches What is criticism? evaluation Culture and criticism Giving and receiving public criticism uncomfortable Guidelines for effective criticism Don’t express negative evaluation in public Don’t prove someone wrong Don’t correct someone’s errors Don’t ask difficult questions


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