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December 5, 2013 Angienette Estonina, Nicole Knight Cathy O’Connor, Jeff Zwiers, Gabriela Uro SFUSD-OUSD.org Constructive Classroom Conversations: OUSD-SFUSD.

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Presentation on theme: "December 5, 2013 Angienette Estonina, Nicole Knight Cathy O’Connor, Jeff Zwiers, Gabriela Uro SFUSD-OUSD.org Constructive Classroom Conversations: OUSD-SFUSD."— Presentation transcript:

1 December 5, 2013 Angienette Estonina, Nicole Knight Cathy O’Connor, Jeff Zwiers, Gabriela Uro SFUSD-OUSD.org Constructive Classroom Conversations: OUSD-SFUSD Collaboration

2 Create “common enough” understandings of output and interaction Define the most pressing questions to answer Figure out best ways to collaborate to answer our questions Develop drafts of products to serve both districts (e.g., tools, web site) Objectives

3 Our aim is for ALL students and their teachers to engage in classroom interactions that foster content learning, language development, and complex reasoning Our aim is for ALL students and their teachers to engage in classroom interactions that foster content learning, language development, and complex reasoning

4 In many classrooms we do see such interactions going on, now and then… So our collective question is this: How can we increase these productive interactions, and how can we improve them? How can we increase these productive interactions, and how can we improve them?

5 How can we increase these productive interactions, (note: this doesn’t mean six hours a day) and how can we improve them? (make them more inclusive, and more productive for all students, particularly language learners)

6 This general question, how can we increase and improve classroom interactions that foster content learning, language learning, and complex reasoning? has four distinct dimensions:

7 How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions? What resources will help support good conversations in all content areas? How do we get students to participate most productively? language proficiency levels What resources and strategies are most useful for different language proficiency levels – those needing substantial, moderate, and light scaffolding?

8 Laura: What caused the fall? Eli: The text said disease and war. Fran: It also said crops and politics. Amy: Let’s write down all of them. Is this a productive interaction?

9 Mansur: I think there are different ways to solve it. Lynn: So? Just do what the teacher did. Mansur: But why did she turn the fraction over Lynn: Who cares? Just turn it over. Mansur: OK. 3a 9ab 3c - 6 c - 4 3a 9ab 3c - 6 c - 4 ÷ ÷ 2 2

10 Samir: What’s your hypothesis? Delia: The feather will fall slower. Noe: I think they will fall the same. Aida: I think the feather’ll land first. Is this a productive interaction?

11 Lisa: I think the theme is being honest. Edgar: Yeah. That’s a good one. Lisa: What do you think? Edgar: I like yours about being honest. Lisa: So are we done? Is this a productive interaction?

12 A Major Shift “Why do I have to talk to a partner? I already know the answer.”

13 Constructive Conversation Skills Goal: Students independently build an idea (e.g., knowledge, agreement, solution), using the following skills: (Mini-teachers) Negotiate Ideas Create Idea Clarify Idea Fortify Idea Build Idea

14 Formative Assessment Tool for Constructive Conversations From Zwiers, O’Hara, & Pritchard (2014), Common Core Standards in diverse classrooms: Essential practices for developing academic language and disciplinary literacy. Stenhouse. | ALDNetwork.org Questions: How do we scaffold skills differently in whole class, small group, and paired interactions? How do we address ELs’ differing ideas for knowledge shaping in interactions? How can we scaffold academic message organization, syntax, and vocabulary for ELs? Questions: How do we scaffold skills differently in whole class, small group, and paired interactions? How do we address ELs’ differing ideas for knowledge shaping in interactions? How can we scaffold academic message organization, syntax, and vocabulary for ELs?

15 A: How Lincoln a hero? B: He stop slavery, the slaves. A: How? B: The war. A: He fighted to stop slavery. B: Muchos (many) died in the war. A: Very bad. B: But slavery is more bad. Lincoln is hero. A: He won the war. They were free. A: How Lincoln a hero? B: He stop slavery, the slaves. A: How? B: The war. A: He fighted to stop slavery. B: Muchos (many) died in the war. A: Very bad. B: But slavery is more bad. Lincoln is hero. A: He won the war. They were free. Conversations at Beginning Levels of Proficiency Learning objective: Use reasons to argue the importance of a historical figure. Prompt: Talk about what makes Abraham Lincoln a hero.

16 ACTIVITY FOR SUPPORTING IDEAS: ARGUMENT SCALE My responses to opposing points 2D-Scale My position Reasons & Evidence Was Lincoln a hero? Comparing and weighing evidence with a Argument Balance Scale 3-D Version Yes No Opposing position

17 This is not a trivial change. Teachers need support— three kinds of support. So the potential of these academic conversations and productive interactions is great… Nevertheless— So the potential of these academic conversations and productive interactions is great… Nevertheless—

18 1) Support in managing interactions How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions? 2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas 3) Support through helpful and insightful observation protocols

19 Because there are many obstacles. Why do teachers need support in managing academic conversations? Why do teachers need support in managing academic conversations?

20 We don’t have time! What if no one talks? I don't want to put them on the spot... some of my students are too shy to talk in front of everyone. “Fear of behavior” Some of my students are beginning English language learners.

21 Some of my students have IEPs. I can't call on them… What if someone says something and it’s totally wrong, because they just totally don’t get what we’re talking about? Won’t that be humiliating for them? What if Spencer just hogs the floor, as usual?

22 Getting past these obstacles… 1. Basic goals for academic conversations 3. Classroom norms that support respectful and equitable discussion 2. Basic talk tools to achieve the goals: talk moves and practices

23 FOUR GOALS to create productive discussion... whether in whole group, small group, or pair interactions FOUR GOALS to create productive discussion... whether in whole group, small group, or pair interactions

24 If only one or two students can do this, you don’t have a discussion, you have a monologue or a dialogue. Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood.

25 Your ultimate goal involves sharing ideas, agreements and disagreements, arguments and counter-arguments, not simply a series of students giving their own, unconnected opinions. Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

26 Good discussion keeps a focus on reasoning. The teacher must scaffold this consistently, getting students to dig deeper. Goal 3. Help students to work on deepening their own reasoning.

27 Authentic discussion, or productive academic conversations, involves students actually taking up the ideas of other students, responding to them and working with them. Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of other students.

28 1. Helping individual students to externalize their thinking– to share their reasoning out loud. 3. Helping students to work on deepening their own reasoning. 2. Helping students to orient to others and listen to what others say. 4. Helping students to work with the reasoning of others. A supportive but complex relationship

29 So how do teachers get this to happen? Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood. Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say. Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning. Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others.

30 Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood. Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say. Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning. Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others. These things won’t happen consistently just by virtue of a good question, or an exciting topic.

31 First, the teachers we studied had set up classroom norms for using talk respectfully, and for ensuring equitable participation. Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood. Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say. Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning. Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others.

32 Second, they used a variety of talk tools that helped them achieve each of the four goals. Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood. Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say. Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning. Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others.

33 Let’s look at a few of these tools in action, from the standpoint of the teacher trying to guide a discussion…

34 An example from Word Generation 6 th grade:

35 Excerpt: Global climate statistics suggest that the average temperature of the earth’s surface is increasing….Scientists attribute these changing environmental conditions to human activities like driving cars that use a lot of gas.…. Scientists project that temperatures will keep rising if we continue to ignore the impact of our activities. Should people be allowed to drive SUVs, which use more gas than typical vehicles? Should companies be allowed to make them? ….

36 The conversation usually starts when the teacher poses a question:

37 “So SUVs, those really big cars, use a lot more gas. Do you think people should be allowed to drive SUVs?” 24 blank faces. 1 or 2 hands up. What if the response is this:

38 You think: Gee, I can’t even get to Goal 1. I’m just trying to get them to say what they think. Why won’t they talk?

39 You realize: They need time to think! (and maybe time to practice what they want to say!)

40 Goal 1 Talk Tools: Wait time Stop and jot (1-2 minutes) Turn and talk (1-2 minutes) (also known as Think-Pair-Share, Consider & Commit, etc.) Then…ask the question again.

41 So you give them time to think, time to practice, and then you ask the question again…

42 Javier: Well, the thing is, it’s not… like… yeah. Um… What if the response is this: “So SUVs, those really big cars, use a lot more gas. Do you think people should be allowed to drive SUVs?”

43 You think: Huh?? I didn’t understand that at all! Still stuck at Goal 1!

44 Now what do I do? I don’t want to embarrass him, and I don’t want to feel like I’m putting him on the spot…

45 Another talk tool: “Say more…” Can you say more about that? Could you say that again? Could you give us an example?

46 So Javier explains, and you start to understand his thinking. And that is a positive thing in several ways.

47 1. Helping individual students to externalize their thinking– to share their reasoning out loud. 3. Helping students to work on deepening their own reasoning. 2. Helping students to orient to others and listen to what others say. 4. Helping students to work with the reasoning of others. There are talk move “families” for each of the four goals Say more… Can anyone rephrase that? Why do you think that? What do others think?

48 Say more… Can anyone rephrase that? Why do you think that? What do others think? But it’s not always so clear which one to choose…

49 So teachers need examples to work with, to get used to thinking prospectively about what will come up…

50 Norms: what does it take to get started?

51 1) Support in managing interactions How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions? 2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas 3) Support through helpful and insightful observation protocols

52 1) Support in managing interactions How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions? 2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas 3) Support through helpful and insightful observation protocols

53 1) Support in managing interactions How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions? 2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas 3) Support through helpful and insightful observation protocols

54 The complexity of talk: “Talk moves” can turn toxic… The complexity of talk: “Talk moves” can turn toxic…

55 Equity Intelligibility Content Coherence Content Coherence Student Engagement

56 Academic conversations are complex, need to be planned, and can be exhausting. They need to start small— Even 15 minutes a day will be challenging at first. Academic conversations are complex, need to be planned, and can be exhausting. They need to start small— Even 15 minutes a day will be challenging at first.

57 If someone comes in to observe with a checklist of “talk moves”— Enthusiasm and motivation can rapidly turn to toxicity. If someone comes in to observe with a checklist of “talk moves”— Enthusiasm and motivation can rapidly turn to toxicity.

58 Conversations in 5 th Gr. Language Arts/ELD Context 5 th grade Language Arts/ELD class in San Francisco Intermediate and early intermediate speakers. This Clip After reading an allegory for the Holocaust, students discuss what could have happened if the animals had stood together. They practice stating opinions, paraphrasing, and clarifying

59 Conversations in Kindergarten Math Context Kindergarten in A range of ELs and LMs This Clip Teacher is working on linking vocabulary and 3 varieties of mathematical representations in service of number sense. Working with results of survey: how many people are wearing shoelaces?

60 Website-based Resource Development SFUSD-OUSD.org

61 Website-based Resource Development

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64 Website-based Resource Development SFUSD-OUSD.org

65 Video – Practicing Clarification & Elaboration Moves Context: 6 th grade History, Westlake, Viet-ly Nguyen; Focus on practicing clarification and elaboration responses; Watch for strengths and skills to work on. ALDNetwork.org

66 PD Topics Customized for Distinct Audiences Talk Moves PD For Principals For Central Office Staff For Instructional Coaches

67 PD Topics Customized for Distinct Audiences Talk Moves PD For Experienced Teachers For Novice Teachers For Para- professionals

68 Further support by type of classroom Hetergeneou s Classrooms Bilingual Biliteracy Pathway Two-way Immersion classrooms Homogeneou s L1 ELLs SIFE students

69 Further support by type of classroom and grade Hetergeneou s Classrooms Bilingual Biliteracy Pathway Two-way Immersion classrooms Homogeneou s L1 ELLs SIFE students Hetergeneou s Classrooms Bilingual Biliteracy Pathway Two-way Immersion classrooms Homogeneou s L1 ELLs SIFE students Hetergeneou s Classrooms Bilingual Biliteracy Pathway Two-way Immersion classrooms Homogeneou s L1 ELLs SIFE students K-2

70 Setting norms: classroom artifacts

71 the "Green Sheet"

72 Another approach…

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77 Talk Tools Support Materials

78 PD refresher excerpts (short 2-3 minute powerpoints with voiceovers, turned into movie files that can be played through or stopped and started at will)

79 Instructional routines: step by step descriptions

80 Step by step description of Step by step description of ‘one complex sentence at a time’ (LWFillmore)

81 Analyze Evidence Reflect & Plan Act & Assess How can we _________________________________, ______________________________ evidenced by _____________, through strategies such as__________ Use new & adapted interventions and strategies Gather data on student learning and/or teacher practices for fostering interactions during lessons Use observations, student work, conversations, video, … Find patterns, surprises, gaps What is evidence showing and not showing? Brainstorm factors that caused the patterns Clarify what teaching and learning should look like Agree on evidence to bring in that shows changes Create & adjust strategies Make a plan for assessment and data collection Action Research Cycle How can we develop teacher practices for fostering effective classroom interactions, evidenced by _____________, through strategies such as__________

82 + Final Word & Appreciations


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