Presentation on theme: "CIVIL PROCEDURE SEMINAR ONE"— Presentation transcript:
1 CIVIL PROCEDURE SEMINAR ONE LAURA MARIE CLARESEMESTER 2, 201117 OCTOBER 2011
2 BRIEF OVERVIEWI covered most of the course up until pleadings in the first few tutorials so I will only go through those briefly now
3 RELEVANT LEGISLATIONSupreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules (Vic)Supreme Court Act 1986 (Vic)Federal Court Act 1976 (Cth)Jurisdiction of Courts (Cross-Vesting) Act 1987 (Vic)ConstitutionService and Execution of Process Act 1992 (Vic)Limitation of Actions Act 1958 (Vic)
4 JURISDICTION Jurisdiction Subject matter/territorial Accrued jurisdiction (use this for the Fed Crt)Cross-vesting jurisdiction (invalid as far as it attempts to confer state jurisdiction on the Fed Crt, Re Wakim)Transfer of proceedings (within Aust)Is another court “more appropriate”Forum non conveniens (international v Aust)Clearly inappropriate forum
5 TRANSFER V FORUM NON CONVENIENS TRANSFERRING PROCEEDINGSInternationalFrom Melbourne to Another CountryForum Non Coveniens, consider the Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2005 (Vic) and Voth & SpiliadaFrom England to MelbourneForum Non Conveniens - Spiliada factors - do not talk about Australian lawWithin AustraliaSee, s 5 of the Jurisdiction of Courts (Cross-Vesting) Actgo through the relevant legislation --remember the factors here are almos the same as Spilada but were adopted by BHP - reference BHPwith all of these GO TO THE COURT THAT THE PROCEEDING HAS ALREADY BEEN LODGED IN - NOT THE COURT YOU WANT IT MOVED TO
6 INSTITUTING PROCEEDINGS Letter of demand: plaintiff2 letters – Demand & “without prejudice” offerStanding: PlaintiffCapacity: both partiesRelevant if you have a corporation/company/child/person suffering mental incapacity. Must outline why you are able to sue (this should have been your first two paragraphs in the statement of claim)Originating processWrit v Originating MotionWrit is more common, this is Form 5A and must be accompanied by a special or general indorsement. A special indorsement is the full statement of claim – this is more commonSee order 5 for more detailsNote: a failure to comply with this is an irregularity – therefore – if you have a question where there is a problem with the writ, this is not grounds to have the entire action struck out
7 CAUSES OF ACTION AND LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS McHugh J in Brisbane South Regional Health Authority v Taylor outlined the policy behind limitations of actionsContract – 6 years from time of breach even if unaware (s 5(1)(a))
8 LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS TortsGeneral – 6 years (s 5(1)(a))Personal injuryDefined in s 3 (broad) Any disease and any impairment of a person’s physical or mental conditionS 27D – 3 years from date on which the cause of action is discoverable by P or 12 years from the date the act/omission alleged to have resulted in the death or personal injury – whichever elapses firstS27F – defines discoverable – P ought to have known all of the facts that theDeath/personal injury has occurred, death/personal injury was caused by D and that the personal injury was sufficiently serious to justify bringing the actionAny disease and any impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition s 3(1)
9 LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS BUT – s 27D does not apply to dust related/tobacco/certain state comp schemes in s 27B. Need to use s 5(1A) if this is the cases 5(1A)3 years from the day on which the person first knows thatS 5(1A)(1)(a) they have suffered personal injury ANDS 5(1A)(1)(b) those personal injuries were caused by the act/omission of someoneThis section is interpreted broadly, Stingel v Clark – also been extended to cover all intentional torts
10 LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS Can extend the limitation period by considering the factors in s 27L or 23A.If you used s 27D – use s 27L (and s 23M)If you used s 5(1A) – use s 23ATHESE TESTS ARE EXACTLY THE SAME
11 JOINDER/ADDING/AMENDMENT Amendment = order 36Joinder = order 9Adding = order 9Consolidation = order 9JOINDER = BEFORE PROCEEDINGS COMMENCEDADDING = AFTER PROCEEDINGS COMMENCED
12 PERMISSIVE JOINDER9.02. Permissive joinder of parties Two or more persons may be joined as plaintiffs or defendants in any proceeding- (a) where- (i) if separate proceedings were brought by or against each of them, some common question of law or fact would arise in all the proceedings; and (ii) all rights to relief claimed in the proceeding (whether they are joint, several or alternative) are in respect of or arise out of the same transaction or series of transactions;NOTE PROBLEMS WITH TRANSACTION V SERIES OF TRANSACTIONS
13 DISCRETIONARY JOINDER 9.02 (b) where the Court, before or after the joinder, gives leave to do so.Usually used when you have satisfied one limb under 9.02(a)
14 COMPULSORY JOINDER9.03. Joinder of necessary parties (1) Except by order of the Court or as provided by or under any Act, where the plaintiff claims any relief to which any other person is entitled jointly with the plaintiff- (a) all persons so entitled shall be parties to the proceeding; and (b) any person who does not consent to being joined as a plaintiff shall be made a defendant. (2) Where the plaintiff claims relief against a defendant who is liable jointly with some other person and also liable severally, that other person need not be made a defendant to the proceeding. (3) Where persons are liable jointly, but not severally, under a contract, and the plaintiff in respect of that contract claims against some but not all of those persons, the Court may stay the proceeding until the other persons so liable are added as defendants. (4) The Court may make an order under paragraph (1) before or after the non-joinder.
15 JOINDER INCONVENIENT9.04. Joinder inconvenient Notwithstanding Rules and 9.02, where any joinder of claims or of parties may embarrass or delay the trial of the proceeding or cause prejudice to any party or is otherwise inconvenient, the Court may order that- (a) there be separate trials; (b) any claim be excluded; (c) any party be compensated by an award of costs or otherwise for being required to attend, or be relieved from attending, any part of a trial in which that party has no interest; (d) any person made a party cease to be a party on condition that that party be bound by the determination of the questions in the proceeding or without any such condition.
16 ADDING Adding uses exactly the same tests as joinder 9.06 (a) any person who is not a proper or necessary party, whether or not that person was one originally, cease to be a party;9.06 (b) any of the following persons be added as a party, namely- (i) a person who ought to have been joined as a party or whose presence before the Court is necessary to ensure that all questions in the proceeding are effectually and completely determined and adjudicated upon; orConsider this rule & then consider 9.03
17 ADDING9.06(b)(ii) a person between whom and any party to the proceeding there may exist a question arising out of, or relating to, or connected with, any claim in the proceeding which it is just and convenient to determine as between that person and that party as well as between the parties to the proceeding;Consider what this means for the other partiesConsider 9.02Consider 9.04
18 JOINDER OF CLAIMS Plaintiff can join any number of claims Defendant can join by counterclaim or TP notice – see O 10.
19 REPRESENTATIVE PROCEEDINGS/CLASS ACTIONS If Fed, start by considering jurisdictionOpt out proceeding – consider the implications and preliminary rules in s 33, namely s 33X(1)Can we commence proceedings?S 33C(1)(a)-(c)A representative proceeding may be commenced:S 33C(2)The action must be commenced via writS 33H(1)(a)-(c)Defining the classNeed to be able to identify who is in and out of the group
20 REPRESENTATIVE PROCEEDINGS/CLASS ACTIONS Must discontinue if it drops below 7, costs are excessive, interests of justice require it, but cannot settle without court approvalCosts – can be ordered against the representative party or respondent but not against a group member
21 SERVICE Personal service – r 6.01 Ordinary service – r 6.07 Substituted service – r 6.10Special parties (see notes)Affidavit of service – r 6.17 (very important document!)
22 SERVICE Outside Australia Outside Victoria Must meet the nexus requirements, s 7.01Can be served according to the rules of the country it will be served inOutside VictoriaS 5 SEPA
23 APPEARANCEThis is how the defendant lets the court (and plaintiff) know that they are aware of the proceedingsCan be done in two waysUnconditional (Form 8A)Conditional (Form 8B)
24 DISCOVERY Very important If you’re going to write about McCabe! Notice for discovery, is it a document?Affidavit of documents – Form 29BSchedule 1 = documents in possession that you havePart 1 – willing to showPart 2 – privileged (will not be shown)Schedule 2 = documents not in possession
25 DISCOVERY When is something relevant to the proceeding? Compagnie Financiere et Commerciale de Pacifique v Peruvian Guano Co – if it advances/damages/leads to a train of inquiry that might advance or damage the caseWhen is something in possession/power/custody?Possession = r 29.01(2) means the right to have it meaning the physical holding resulting from the right to possessioncustody means they have the right to ownership and power means an enforceable right to obtainpossession or control of the documentTypes of discoveryRestricted discoveryConfidential documents can only be seen by solicitorsParticular discoveryFurther discoverySupplementary discovery
26 DISCOVERYNote the Crimes (Document Destruction) Act (Vic), s 254(1) and Evidence Document Unavailability Act 2006 (Vic)Can also have discovery to identify a defendant, from a prospective defendant and from a non- party
27 INTERROGATORIES Serving interrogatories Answering interrogatories (r 30.05)State whether answering from knowledge/beliefMust make reasonable inquiriesReasonable grounds for believing whether something is trueIf no knowledge, must answer from beliefObjections to answer (r 30.07)Doesn’t relate to a Q between the partiesUnclear/vague/too wideOppressive/abuse of process (can strike them out)Requires them to express an opinion they are not qualified to givePrivilegeDefault
28 NOTICES TO ADMIT R 35.03 Notice for admission of facts Notice for admission of documentsCost consequences
29 SUBPOENA Must be served personally Could be used to summon documents or to summon someone to come to court as a witnessAll the relevant rules are in r 42.02
30 INTERLOCUTORY PROCEDURES & SERVICE Notices to admit/interrogatories etc can be served using ordinary service because the D already knows they are being suedProcess for starting interlocutory proceedings is Order 46.
31 AFFIDAVITSee O 43.Must be in first person and confined to knowledge that they haveMust be filed and servedDifferent from pleadings because you can’t anticipate defences, name counsel and don’t need to address all issues in contention
32 INJUNCTIONSOrder 38Mandatory/prohibitory/interim/ex parte (same meanings as you learn in equity)Must establish that there is a serious question to be tried (prima facie case) AND that the balance of convenience favours granting an interlocutory injunctionP must give the usual undertaking as to damages
33 ANTON PILLER ORDERS A.k.a search orders Ex parte Can only take specific things and you cannot keep it – e.g., it allows you only to photocopy documentsSee r 37B.02(1) = when the court can order a search orderMust file an affidavit in support of the order
34 FREEZING ORDERR 37A.02To stop the D disposing of assets or making themselves “judgment proof”Must file an affidavit in support of a freezing order as per r 37A.02(5).Must include type of asset and why you think you need this order
35 SECURITY FOR COSTSO 62D can apply to have P give security for costs where there is a risk that D might not be able to recover their costs if they are successfulCan be ordered in numerous circumstances (see notes)At r – if P fails to give security when they are ordered to, the trial will be dismissed
36 DIPOSITION WITHOUT TRIAL Court has the power to do this! (See McCabe)Setting aside an order for default judgment –Discuss how the defence would have been struck out (r 24.02(b)), need a summons to have the matter heard and an affidavit to provide the evidence needed for the order. Court then has wide discretion to grant this and they would need to consider the entirety of the problem (e.g., including prejudice/delay)Summary dispositionDefault judgment, default on defence, default on counterclaimSummary judgmentSummons supported by affidavit, defendant to show cause, D doesn’t file an appearance, D has no defence, judgment on counterclaim (e.g., P has no defence to whole or part of the claim)
37 ABUSE OF PROCESS/VEXATIOUS S 21 SCA – vexatious litigationsAbuse of process
38 DISMISSAL FOR WANT OF PROSECUTION If P doesn’t set a date for trial – there will be dismissal for want of prosecution r 24.06(a)
39 SETTLEMENT Formal settlement (order 26 and without prejudice) Procedure for offers of compromiseServing an offerCost consequencesAccept an offer r 26.03(7) (P entitled to costs on a party/party basis up to the date of service)P’s offer of compromise is rejected r 26.08(2)If they don’t get a better offerDeath/bodily injury – indemnity basis (r 26.08(2)(a))P gets costs up to including the day of the offer on party party and then indemnity basis after that (b)D’s offer of compromise is rejected r 26.08(3)(a)If P doesn’t get a better offer but is successful, D pays parties costs on party party basis up until the day it was served and then P pays D’s costs after that on a party party basis
41 COSTS Bases of taxation Notes Party/party costs r 63.29 In order to go beyond this default position, must have some evidence of malicious or unreasonable behaviour (Gunns, Bongiorno J)Solicitor/client costs r 63.30All costs reasonable incurred – can be awarded against a successful D on the grounds they prolonged the trial or could have revealed to P a meritorious ground for refusing their earlier claim (Verna)Indemnity costs rAll costsNotesPower and discretion of the court as to costs under s 24 SCRCan make costs orders for particular parts of the trial (e.g., denying something in a notice to admit that was proven true) r 63.04Cost indemnity rule – absolute and unfettered discretion Byrns v DaveyGenerally that an unsuccessful person recovers from a successful one
42 COSTS Exceptions to the cost indemnity rule Party wins in the wrong courtParty ultimately wins but loses on some issuesPublic interest litigationCosts in mega-litigationMultiple party orderP succeeds on claim, D succeeds on counterclaimWhere claim succeeds against one D and fails against anotherSanderson order, bullock orderSee also; VernaP is expected to behave better because they have chosen to sue – D is always the unwilling party
43 COSTS Taxing – if parties cannot agree – goes to taxing master r 63.38 Costs against lawyers – r 63.23Costs for interlocutory proceedingsCheck if the question says costs are being reserved otherwise you should mention costs when you are discussing a particular interlocutory proceeding
44 Civil procedure Seminar two Laura Marie ClareCivil Procedure 2011 Semester 220 October 2011
45 Why Study Civil?Well…what’s the use of knowing the law if you don’t know how to bring it to court
46 Things to Keep in Mind What is the main aim of civil procedure? Efficiency – e.g. summary/default judgment – remember “dismissal for want of prosecution”
47 Things to Keep in MindWho are we advising? – don’t get caught up – most past exams ask you to advise the PLAINTIFF but….Semester 1, 2010 – this exam looked at the defendant’s point of view
48 Things to Keep in Mind What are we up to? The facts are always in chronological order! Gives you a hint of what the examiner might be looking for (but not always….)ALWAYS read the first line carefully – maybe make a timelineThey will tell you if you are to assume something or not (e.g. assume your answer to the question above was that H cannot transfer proceedings)
49 What Topics Are Covered? JurisdictionDiscoveryTransferring proceedingsInterrogatoriesInstituting proceedingsNotices to admitCapacitySubpoenasOriginating processesInterlocutory proceduresLimitations of actionsDisposition without trialMultiple parties & causes of actionSettlementTrialRepresentative proceedings (class actions)Costs(enforcement)ServiceAppearancePleadings
50 CAREFUL! My notes DO NOT cover the new Civil Procedure Act 2010 (Vic) OREnforcement/Appeals
51 Now - Some RevisionI have put together a list of past exam question and some original questions. I have not reproduced any ENTIRE exam in these slides
52 Revision Question #1 Semester 1, 2010 Can we move the proceeding to Victoria?****remember – where are we applying to? What law are we using?
53 Revision Question #2, Semester 2, 2007 What is a stale writ?What is the difference between Form 8A and 8B?What are party/party costs and how do they differ from indemnity costs?In light of Re Wakim – is the Federal Court able to hear matters that ordinarily fall within the State SC jurisdiction?
56 Revision Question #5, original X wants to sue Y for negligence. They get their lawyers to prepare a Form 5A and SOC. They get a process server to go to Y’s house but he isn’t home. Instead, his friend Sally is home. They give the form 5A and SOC to Sally and explain that this is valid service of Y.Is this effective personal service?
57 Revision Question #5(a) Would the answer be different if instead Y was home but refused to unlock the door and let the process server actually hand him the documents – is it enough for the process server to(a) slip it under the door?(b) put it in the letter box?
58 Revision Question #5(b) What else does the process server need to do?
59 Revision Question #7If costs are NOT reserved until the end – when should you raise the issue of costs for interlocutory procedures?
60 Revision Question #8The D realises that they might not win against P and decide to quickly try and settle the matter. They go to P and offer him $100,000 in accordance with Order 26. The P ignores the letter and does not accept within 14 days.The matter goes to trial and P gets $90,000 in damages and costs.Note: rules for serving an offer
61 Revision Question #8 cont What is the significance of “in accordance with Order 26?”When can the contents of the settlement be disclosed in court?What cost orders might D ask for?What if it was P who asks the D for $100,000 – what costs orders might P ask for?
62 Revision Question #9P believes D has some really important DVD’s that are relevant in evidence. If D shows these tapes, P is 100% sure the judge will find in his favour because they are VERY damaging to D’s case. P also believes that D might try and find ANY excuse he can not to disclose the fact that these DVD’s exist and might even try and throw them out or give them to his friend C to hold onto until the trial is over.
63 Revision Question #9 If D gives them to C – what could P try and do? Because P is worried D might throw them out – what order might P try and get?If D disposed of the evidence – what sort of offence could he be guilty of? What would P need to prove? Is he likely to succeed?
64 Revision Question #10P believes D pushed him down the stairs at work (Edward’s Funeral Parlour) because he was worried P would finish all the lovely black tea in the work tea room if D didn’t get there first. P severely hurt his head and now suffers from neglect syndrome.Assume you are D - answer the following Interrogatory written by P
65 Revision Question #10Why didn’t you give me back my DVD of Being Human Season I?How long have you worked at Edward’s Funeral Parlour?How did you come to work at Edward’s Funeral Parlour?Who do Edward’s Funeral Parlour receive their tea supplies from?How do the other staff at Edward’s Funeral Parlour treat you?