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Active Learning Strategies Emad Mansour 3 /3/ 2012 Engaging Students in Learning: Graduate Teaching Assistant Fellows Program Follow up workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "Active Learning Strategies Emad Mansour 3 /3/ 2012 Engaging Students in Learning: Graduate Teaching Assistant Fellows Program Follow up workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Active Learning Strategies Emad Mansour 3 /3/ 2012 Engaging Students in Learning: Graduate Teaching Assistant Fellows Program Follow up workshop

2 By the end of this session, participants will be able to:  Describe a number of Active Learning Strategies  Apply a number of Active Learning Strategies Goals

3 “Instructional activities involving students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing." Bonwell and Eison (1991) What is active learning?

4 (a)that learning is by nature an active endeavor Active learning is built upon two basic assumptions:

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6 (b) that different people learn in different ways. Active learning is built upon two basic assumptions: (Gardner, 1983)

7 Encourages student-Instructor contact Encourages cooperation among student Encourages active learning Give prompt feedback Emphasizes time on task Communicates high expectation Respect diverse talents/ways of learning The 7 principles of excellent teaching:

8 Introduction: Gain Attention Direction: know exactly what they are to do Direction: know exactly what they are to do Activity: to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes Activity: to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes Practice and feedback Practice and feedback Retention and transfer: of new learning

9 Question to group Write a question Write a response to a question Some individual Active Learning Strategies

10 Write an example What do you do next? One minute paper The muddiest point Voting One page lecture summaries Paraphrasing List pros and cons Daily or weekly journal Some individual Active Learning Strategies

11 Think-pair-share Demonstrations Brainstorming Role playing Buzz groups Fishbowls Jigsaw Debate Simulations, games Some Group/Collaborative ALS

12 Active Learning Continuum Presentations, debates, role playing activities Small group interaction Having students engage in writing activities followed by Instructor use of discussion Instructor use of questions to engage students in personal exploration of material Asking questions at appropriate times during presentation Monitoring one's level of understanding and writing questions in notes when confused Making sustained effort to take non literal notes (paraphrasing) Sitting in class inattentively (episodes of daydreaming and periods of attentiveness to lecture, listening occasionally and taking literal notes) Piccinin, 2009

13 Think-Pair-Share The teacher asks a question or presents a problem Every student think individually for seconds. Students exchange ideas in pairs Students share their ideas with another pair of students or with the whole class Can be applied in any class size

14 Buzz Groups  Students subdivided into smaller groups of 3–4  Groups may be assigned same or different topic to discuss.  After about 20 minutes of discussion, one member of each sub-group presents the findings of the sub-group to the whole group.

15 One Minute Paper A few minutes before end of class, Professor asks students to take a clean sheet of paper (no name) and answer these two questions: 1- What was the most important thing you learned during this class? 2- What important question remains unanswered?

16 The Muddiest Point  Near end of lecture ask students to write what is least clear (muddiest) after today’s lecture/class.  Students hand in sheets without names – similar to One Minute Paper- or use collection box  Teacher identifies the most difficult aspects and elaborates more on these points, at beginning of next class

17 (1)a general topic is divided into smaller, interrelated pieces (4-5) “Home groups”. (2) each member of a team is assigned to read and become an expert on a different piece of the puzzle (individually or in "Expert Group“). (3)Individual experts from each part teach the other team members about that puzzle piece. Jigsaw Teamwork

18 Questions and questioning Case study Debate

19 Questions and Questioning Use at the beginning of the lecture to attract attention (interest approach) Use during lecture to explain materials in more depth Use during and at end of lecture to check for comprehensive

20 DOs and DON’Ts when asking questions 1- Stimulate students thinking 2- Continuously evaluate students’ learning 3- Present question clearly so student is not confused 4- Present the same question to different students 5- Wait a few seconds before you answer it yourself 6- Give open-ended questions more frequently 7- Repeat student’s question 8- Praise the student for his/her participation 9- Always conclude with the correct answer DOs:

21 DOs and DON’Ts when asking questions DON’Ts: 1- Use the question for punishment/ embarrassing 2- Over use close-ended questions (yes/no), follow with WHY 3- Direct question to a specific person (unless….) 4- Let students answer right away. 5- Point with index finger to a student when asking 6- Direct question based on students seating or alphabetically 7- Embarrass students who do not get the right answer 8- Give possible answers or options 9- Turn your back to student when he/she starts answering. 10- Stand close to the students when they start answering 11- Focus questions on specific part of the lecture

22 Debate A process of considering multiple viewpoints and arriving at a Judgment -one-on-one debate. -team debates Assign teams: Affirmative team & the Negative team Arguments from both sides need to be supported with facts and examples. Clarify with students how they will be Judged (Rubric) May be used as assessment or a summative activity (Freeley & Steinberg, 2005)

23 Affirmative Team Negative Team AUDIENCE Judge (student) Debate

24 Case study Help students analyze, critique, make judgments, speculate, express reasoned opinions, articulate their point of view, listen to others, bring about consensus, summarize, and then present their findings and their decisions. Cases must be written Relate to learning objectives Real or invented, but realistic and believable Enough to be credible, but not so complete Provide ( 2-3) questions Often there is not a “correct” decision. Not a yes or not issue

25 You walked into a large field of a wheat 3 weeks after planting and noticed that there were lots of missing plants. You questioned the owner (Mr. Johns) as to the watering, fertilizer, and planting date. You learn the plants rain were not somewhat sufficient, plants received fertilizer at planting. Mr. John told you that he bought the seeds from a neighbor who was storing these seeds from last year and they had a bit of insect infestation. The farmer also chose use only minimum plowing to avoid soil erosion. Case Study What do you think the possible reasons for missing plants in this field? What you will do to solve the problem?

26 Advantages and disadvantages for -Students -Professor Active Learning in Large Classes

27 Ice Breakers/Get Acquainted Activities/Getting to Know Others Have students meet those in rows behind/in front Ask students to write an example Ask a question Ask students to write a question AL Strategies for Use in Large Classes

28 AL Strategies for Use in Large Classes (cont’d)  Voting  Demonstrations  One minute paper  The muddiest point  Brainstorming  Buzz groups  Think-pair-share

29 Active Learning in Large Classes

30 From professor’s point of view Fear of trying something new Lecture time is short Large number of students in the class Lack of equipment or facilities Fear of lack of students’ participation Difficulty to create assignment that use higher-order thinking skills Need to cover content Students will not learn enough Lack of experience is managing discussion Fear of peer critique for going against norms Fear of losing control of class …………. Barriers to using ALS

31 b) From students’ point of view Barriers to using ALS

32 For successful ALS application:  Clear link to class/course objectives  Use appropriate strategy for each topic  Clarity of instructions (before “GO”)  Control over process (stop signal)  Flexibility of outcomes  Good follow up during application

33 Final Tips  Start Small  Start early  Plan  Experiment  Expect resistance  Practice, practice, practice  Play!  Use different strategies  Evaluate  Adjust

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35 35 Thank you Emad Mansour Biggio Center, RBD Library


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