Presentation on theme: "Engaging Students in Learning: Active Learning Strategies Emad Mansour"— Presentation transcript:
1 Engaging Students in Learning: Active Learning Strategies Emad Mansour 3/3/2012Engaging Studentsin Learning:Active Learning StrategiesGraduate Teaching Assistant Fellows ProgramFollow up workshopEmad Mansour3 /3/ 2012
2 By the end of this session, participants will be able to: 3/3/2012GoalsBy the end of this session, participants will be able to:Describe a number of Active Learning StrategiesApply a number of Active Learning Strategies
3 What is active learning? 3/3/2012What is active learning?“Instructional activities involving students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing."Bonwell and Eison (1991)
4 Active learning is built upon two basic assumptions: 3/3/2012Active learning is built upon two basic assumptions:that learning is by nature an active endeavor
6 Active learning is built upon two basic assumptions: 3/3/2012Active learning is built upon two basic assumptions:(b) that different people learn in different ways.(Gardner, 1983)
7 The 7 principles of excellent teaching: 3/3/2012The 7 principles of excellent teaching:Encourages student-Instructor contactEncourages cooperation among studentEncourages active learningGive prompt feedbackEmphasizes time on taskCommunicates high expectationRespect diverse talents/ways of learning
8 Introduction: Gain Attention Direction:know exactly what they are to doActivity:to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudesPractice andfeedbackRetention and transfer: of new learning3/3/2012
9 Some individual Active Learning Strategies 3/3/2012Some individual Active Learning StrategiesQuestion to groupWrite a questionWrite a response to a question
10 Some individual Active Learning Strategies Write an exampleWhat do you do next?One minute paperThe muddiest pointVotingOne page lecture summariesParaphrasingList pros and consDaily or weekly journal
11 Some Group/Collaborative ALS Think-pair-shareDemonstrationsBrainstormingRole playingBuzz groupsFishbowlsJigsawDebateSimulations, games
12 Active Learning Continuum 3/3/2012Presentations, debates, role playing activitiesSmall group interactionHaving students engage in writing activities followed byInstructor use of discussionInstructor use of questions to engage students in personal exploration of materialAsking questions at appropriate times during presentationMonitoring one's level of understanding and writing questions in notes when confusedMaking sustained effort to take non literal notes (paraphrasing)Sitting in class inattentively (episodes of daydreaming and periods of attentiveness to lecture, listening occasionally and taking literal notes)Piccinin, 2009
13 Think-Pair-Share The teacher asks a question or presents a problem 3/3/2012Think-Pair-ShareThe teacher asks a question or presents a problemEvery student think individually for seconds.Students exchange ideas in pairsStudents share their ideas with another pair of students or with the whole classCan be applied in any class size
14 Students subdivided into smaller groups of 3–4 3/3/2012Buzz GroupsStudents subdivided into smaller groups of 3–4Groups may be assigned same or different topic to discuss.After about 20 minutes of discussion, one member of each sub-group presents the findings of the sub-group to the whole group.
15 One Minute Paper A few minutes before end of class, 3/3/2012One Minute PaperA few minutes before end of class,Professor asks students to take a clean sheet of paper (no name) and answer these two questions:1- What was the most important thing you learnedduring this class?2- What important question remains unanswered?
16 3/3/2012The Muddiest PointNear end of lecture ask students to write what is least clear (muddiest) after today’s lecture/class.Students hand in sheets without names – similar to One Minute Paper- or use collection boxTeacher identifies the most difficult aspects and elaborates more on these points, at beginning of next class
17 3/3/2012Jigsaw Teamworka general topic is divided into smaller, interrelated pieces (4-5) “Home groups”.each member of a team is assigned to read and become an expert on a different piece of the puzzle (individually or in "Expert Group“).Individual experts from each part teach the other team members about that puzzle piece.
18 Questions and questioning 3/3/2012Questions and questioningDebateCase study
19 Questions and Questioning Use at the beginning of the lecture to attract attention(interest approach)Use during lecture to explain materials in more depthUse during and at end of lecture to check for comprehensive
20 DOs and DON’Ts when asking questions 3/3/2012DOs and DON’Ts when asking questionsDOs:1- Stimulate students thinking2- Continuously evaluate students’ learning3- Present question clearly so student is not confused4- Present the same question to different students5- Wait a few seconds before you answer it yourself6- Give open-ended questions more frequently7- Repeat student’s question8- Praise the student for his/her participation9- Always conclude with the correct answer
21 DOs and DON’Ts when asking questions 3/3/2012DOs and DON’Ts when asking questionsDON’Ts:1- Use the question for punishment/ embarrassing2- Over use close-ended questions (yes/no), follow with WHY 3- Direct question to a specific person (unless….)4- Let students answer right away.5- Point with index finger to a student when asking6- Direct question based on students seating or alphabetically7- Embarrass students who do not get the right answer8- Give possible answers or options9- Turn your back to student when he/she starts answering.10- Stand close to the students when they start answering11- Focus questions on specific part of the lecture
22 3/3/2012DebateA process of considering multiple viewpoints and arriving at a Judgmentone-on-one debate.team debatesAssign teams: Affirmative team & the Negative teamArguments from both sides need to be supported with facts and examples.Clarify with students how they will be Judged (Rubric)May be used as assessment or a summative activity(Freeley & Steinberg, 2005)
24 3/3/2012Case studyHelp students analyze, critique, make judgments, speculate, express reasoned opinions, articulate their point of view, listen to others, bring about consensus, summarize, and then present their findings and their decisions.Cases must be writtenRelate to learning objectivesReal or invented, but realistic and believableEnough to be credible, but not so completeProvide ( 2-3) questionsOften there is not a “correct” decision.Not a yes or not issue
25 3/3/2012Case StudyYou walked into a large field of a wheat 3 weeks after planting and noticed that there were lots of missing plants. You questioned the owner (Mr. Johns) as to the watering, fertilizer, and planting date. You learn the plants rain were not somewhat sufficient, plants received fertilizer at planting. Mr. John told you that he bought the seeds from a neighbor who was storing these seeds from last year and they had a bit of insect infestation. The farmer also chose use only minimum plowing to avoid soil erosion.What do you think the possible reasons for missing plants in this field?What you will do to solve the problem?
26 Active Learning in Large Classes Advantages and disadvantages for 3/3/2012Advantages and disadvantages forStudentsProfessor
27 AL Strategies for Use in Large Classes Ice Breakers/Get Acquainted Activities/Getting to Know OthersHave students meet those in rows behind/in frontAsk students to write an exampleAsk a questionAsk students to write a question
28 AL Strategies for Use in Large Classes (cont’d) VotingDemonstrationsOne minute paperThe muddiest pointBrainstormingBuzz groupsThink-pair-share
29 Active Learning in Large Classes 3/3/2012Active Learning in Large Classes
30 From professor’s point of view 3/3/2012Barriers to using ALSFrom professor’s point of viewFear of trying something newLecture time is shortLarge number of students in the classLack of equipment or facilitiesFear of lack of students’ participationDifficulty to create assignment that use higher-order thinking skillsNeed to cover contentStudents will not learn enoughLack of experience is managing discussionFear of peer critique for going against normsFear of losing control of class………….
31 b) From students’ point of view 3/3/2012Barriers to using ALSb) From students’ point of view
32 For successful ALS application: 3/3/2012For successful ALS application:Clear link to class/course objectivesUse appropriate strategy for each topicClarity of instructions (before “GO”)Control over process (stop signal)Flexibility of outcomesGood follow up during application
33 Final Tips Start Small Start early Plan Experiment Expect resistance 3/3/2012Final TipsStart SmallStart earlyPlanExperimentExpect resistancePractice, practice, practicePlay!Use different strategiesEvaluateAdjust
34 3/3/2012Compare to the 7 principlesThe 7 principle of good teaching include (contact between prof and students, cooperation among students, active learning, prompt feedback, time on task, communicate high expectation and respect diversity and different learning styles)
35 Thank you Emad Mansour Biggio Center, RBD Library email@example.com 3/3/2012Thank youEmad MansourBiggio Center, RBD LibraryReferences1-Buehl.D.(2001),classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning, The International Reading Association, Inc.2-Fisher,D.et al (2007),50 Content Area Strategies for Adolescent Literacy ,Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall .