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Lecture # 14 Establishment of Pakistan I from

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1 Lecture # 14 Establishment of Pakistan I from 1947-71
Recap of lecture # 13,Topic: Creation of Pakistan and Role of Muslim Leadership Role of Quaid-i-Azam Iqbal and Pakistan Movement Choudhry Rahmat Ali Prominent Leaders of the Pakistan Movement Role of Women of the Pakistan Movement Role of Ulema and Mushaikh Now today’s lecture:Establishment of Pakistan I from (34 years)

2 Early Problems of Pakistan
The emergence of Pakistan, after a long and difficult freedom movement, was actually a great victory of the democratic idea of life. The Indian Muslims happily and boldly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life free from Hindu and British dominance. From its very beginning, Pakistan faced a large number of problems. Some of the initial difficulties were :

3 Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government
The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.

4 Unfair Boundary Distribution
A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslims majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur and Junagadh to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam called it an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.

5 The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India
On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more violent. In a planned move, Muslims properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave India for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.

6 Division of Military and Financial Assets
In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, India did a lot of enmity in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs. 750 million but the Indian Government refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.

7 Canal Water Dispute Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. However on 9th September, 1960 an agreement called Indus Basin Treaty was signed between the two countries.

8 Kashmir Dispute Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir's total population was Muslim. The Hindu Dogra Rule, who was secretly with the Government of India, declared Kashmir as a part of India. Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-cooperation of India, Kashmir issue still remain unsolved.

9 Annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of states. However, the fate of some states remained undecided. The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November, 1947. Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim leader Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to the applied by Indian Government and Mountbatten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.

10 Economic Problems When Pakistan came into existence, it mostly consisted of economically backward and underdeveloped areas. The agricultural system was obsolete and outdated which added to the economic backwardness of the areas forming part of Pakistan. Before partition the Hindus, with the blessings of the British Government, had acquired complete monopoly in trade and commerce. The entire capital was in the hands of the Hindus. Unfortunately, the banks and other financial institutions were located in Indian territory. The major industries were also in those areas which were part of India.

11 Cont. Besides these factors the technical experts and laborers, who operated the industries, were all Hindus because the Muslims extremely lagged behind in education and financial capabilities. The insufficient system of transportation and communication also made its adverse affect on economic development of the country. The railway system and river transportation in East Pakistan was in depleted condition.

12 Cont. The roads were in shabby and irreparable condition. The communication and transportation system in West Pakistan, comparatively, was in better position. The power resources in the two wings were rare and small which were insufficient to meet the national requirement.

13 Administrative Problems
Pakistan came into being under the most terrible conditions. The Government of Pakistan could not get enough time to set up workable administrative machinery because of the great difficulties created by Congress. The Indian Government adopted delaying strategies in transferring the Government servants and official record which aggravated the situation. Therefore the immediate task before the nation was to establish a workable administrative and Government machinery to run the affairs of the newly born state.

14 Cont. The biggest administrative problem facing Pakistan was the acute shortage of competent and experienced employees in the Central and Provincial Governments. Furthermore, there weren't enough chairs, tables or even stationary and paper pins for administrative purposes. However, Quaid-e-Azam paid his immediate attention towards setting up of administrative machinery and took a number of steps to overcome the administrative problems of the new state.

15 Constitutional Problem
At the time of establishment of Pakistan the Government of India Act 1935 became the working constitution of Pakistan with certain adaptions. But the need of a constitution framed by the elected representatives of the people was necessary for free people. So the first constituent assembly was formed and was given the task to frame the constitution for the country. But the constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years.

16 CONT. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of corrupt interference in democratic progress of Pakistan. On the other hand, the constituent assembly conferred extra ordinary powers on Governor General which afterwards led to future constitutional crisis.

17 Power Problem Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to India and of unfair demarcation, electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted, because all power stations were at Mundi, a predominantly Muslim majority area, gifted to Bharat.

18 First democratic era (1947–1958)
The first government of Pakistan was headed by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and it chose the seaport of Karāchi as its capital. Jinnah, considered the founder of Pakistan and welcomed as the Quaid-i-Azam (Great Leader), became head of state as Governor-General. The government faced many challenges in setting up new economic, judicial, and political structures. It tried to organize the bureaucracy and the armed forces, resettle the Mohajirs (Muslim refugees from India), and establish the distribution and balance of power in the provincial and central governments. Before the government could overcome these difficulties, Jinnah died in September 1948.

19 Cont. In foreign policy, Liaquat Ali Khan established friendly relations with the United States and visited USA in 1950. Pakistan’s early foreign policy was one of nonalignment, with no formal commitment to either the United States or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the two major adversaries in the Cold War. In 1953, however, Pakistan aligned itself with the United States and accepted military and economic assistance.

20 From Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated in Khwaja Nazimuddin, an East Pakistani who had succeeded Jinnah as governor-general, became Prime Minister. Ghulam Muhammad became Governor-General. Nazimuddin tried to limit the powers of the governor-general through amendments to the Government of India Act of 1935, under which Pakistan was governed pending the adoption of a constitution. Ghulam Muhammad dismissed Nazimuddin and replaced him with Muhammad Ali Bogra, Pakistan’s ambassador to the United States, who subsequently was elected president of the Muslim League.

21 Cont. In the 1954 provincial elections in East Pakistan, the Muslim League was routed by the United Front coalition, which supported provincial autonomy. The coalition was dominated by the Awami League. However, Ghulam Muhammad imposed governor’s rule in the province, preventing the United Front from taking power in the provincial legislature. After the constituent assembly tried to control the Governor-General’s power, Ghulam Muhammad declared a state of emergency and dissolved the assembly.

22 From A new constituent assembly was indirectly elected in mid-1955 by the various provincial legislatures. The Muslim League, although still the largest party, was no longer dominant as more parties, including those of the United Front coalition, gained representation. Bogra, who had little support in the new assembly, was replaced by Chaudhri Muhammad Ali, a former civil servant in West Pakistan and a member of the Muslim League. At the same time, General Iskander Mirza became Governor-General.

23 Cont. The new constituent assembly enacted a bill, which became effective in October 1955, integrating the four West Pakistani provinces into one political and administrative unit, known as the One Unit. This change was considered to give West Pakistan parity with the more populous East Pakistan in the national legislature. The assembly also produced Pakistan’s first constitution, which was adopted on March 23, 1956.

24 Cont. It provided for a unicameral (single-chamber) National Assembly with 300 seats, evenly divided between East and West Pakistan. It also officially designated Pakistan an Islamic republic. According to its provisions, Mirza’s title changed from Governor-General to President. Unstable Parliamentary Democracy

25 Cont. The new charter not bearing political instability continued because no stable majority party emerged in the National Assembly. Prime Minister Ali remained in office only until September 1956, when he was unable to retain his majority in the National Assembly and was succeeded by Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy, founder of the Awami League of East Pakistan. He formed a coalition cabinet that included the Awami League and the Republican Party of the West Wing, a new party that was formed by rebel members of the Muslim League.

26 Cont. However, President Mirza forced Suhrawardy to resign after he discovered that the prime minister was planning to support Firoz Khan Noon, leader of the Republican Party, for the presidency in the country’s first general elections, scheduled for January 1959. The succeeding coalition government, headed by Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar of the Muslim League, lasted only two months before it was replaced by a Republican Party cabinet under Noon.

27 Cont. President Mirza, realizing he had no chance of being reelected president and openly dissatisfied with parliamentary democracy, proclaimed martial law on October 7, 1958. He dismissed Noon’s government, dissolved the National Assembly, and canceled the scheduled general elections. Mirza was supported by General Muhammad Ayub Khan, commander in chief of the army, who was named chief martial-law administrator. Twenty days later Ayub forced the president to resign and assumed the presidency himself.

28 First military era (1958–1971):The Ayub Years 1958-69
President Ayub ruled Pakistan almost absolutely for a little more than ten years. Although his regime made some notable achievements, it did not eliminate the basic problems of Pakistani society. Ayub’s regime increased developmental funds to East Pakistan more than threefold. This had a noticeable effect on the economy of the province, but the disparity between the two wings of Pakistan was not eliminated.

29 Cont. His regime also initiated land reforms designed to reduce the political power of the landed aristocracy. Ayub also publicized a progressive Islamic law, the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance of 1961, imposing restrictions on polygamy and divorce and reinforcing the inheritance rights of women and minors. He also implemented constitution of 1962

30 Presidential Republic (1962-1969)
In 1959, soon after taking office, Ayub ordered the planning and construction of a new national capital, to replace Karachi. The chosen location of the new capital in the province of Punjab was close to the military headquarters of Rawalpindi which served as an interim capital. Islamabad officially became the new capital in 1967, although construction continued into the 1970s. Perhaps the most important of Ayub’s changes, was his introduction of a new political system, known as the Basic Democracies, in 1959

31 Cont. A new constitution promulgated by Ayub in 1962 ended the period of martial law. The new, 156-member National Assembly was elected that year by an electoral college of 120,000 Basic Democrats from the union councils. The presidential election of January 1965, also determined by electoral college rather than direct vote, resulted in a victory for Ayub, although opposition parties were allowed to participate. Ayub was skillful in maintaining cordial relations with the United States, stimulating substantial economic and military aid to Pakistan.

32 Cont. This relationship declined in 1965, when another war with India broke out over Kashmīr. The United States then suspended military and economic aid to both countries. The USSR interfered to mediate the conflict, inviting Ayub Khan and Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri of India to meet in Tashkent. By the terms of the so-called Tashkent Agreement of January 1966, the two countries pull out their forces to prewar positions and restored diplomatic, economic, and trade relations.

33 Cont. The Tashkent Agreement and the Kashmīr war, however, generated frustration among the people and resentment against President Ayub. Foreign Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who opposed Pakistan’s policy regarding war, resigned his position and founded the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) in opposition to the Ayub regime. Ayub tried unsuccessfully to make compensations, But public protests started and he declared martial law and resigned in March 1969.

34 Martial law in Pakistan : Yahya Regime from 1969 -1971
Instead of transferring power to the speaker of the National Assembly, as the constitution dictated, he handed it over to the commander in chief of the army, General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan, who was the designated martial-law administrator. Yahya then assumed the presidency. This way Ayub period ended and Yahya regime started in 1969

35 Cont. In an attempt to make his martial-law regime more acceptable, Yahya dismissed almost 300 senior civil servants and identified 32 families that were said to control about half of Pakistan’s gross national product. To control their power Yahya issued an ordinance against monopolies and restrictive trade practices in He also committed to the return of constitutional government and announced the country would hold its first general election on the basis of universal adult franchise in late 1970.(Every adult rich or poor irrespective of their religion caste or education , religion , color , race , economic conditions is free to vote. Universal Adult Franchise is based on the concept of equality.)

36 Cont. Yahya determined that representation in the National Assembly would be based on population. In July 1970 he abolished the One Unit, thereby restoring the original four provinces in West Pakistan. As a result, East Pakistan emerged as the largest province of the country, while in West Pakistan the province of Punjab emerged as the dominant province. East Pakistan was allocated 162 seats in the 300-seat National Assembly, and the provinces of West Pakistan were allocated a total of 138.

37 Civil War Yahya opened negotiations with Mujib in Dhaka in mid-March, but the effort soon failed. Meanwhile Pakistan’s army went into action against Mujib’s civilian followers, who demanded that East Pakistan become independent as the nation of Bangladesh. The Awami League leaders took refuge in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and established a government in exile. India finally intervened on December 3, 1971, and the Pakistani army surrendered 13 days later. East Pakistan declared its independence as Bangladesh.

38 Summary Early Problems of Pakistan
Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government Unfair Boundary Distribution The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India Division of Military and Financial Assets Canal Water Dispute Kashmir Dispute Annexation of Princely States Economic Problems

39 Cont. Administrative Problems Constitutional Problem Power Problem
First democratic era 1947–1958 History From From First military era:The Ayub Years Presidential republic ( ) Yahya Regime From

40 Quotation All that is valuable in human society depends upon the opportunity for development accorded the individual. Albert Einstein Thank you

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