Size of the army by number of active troops Flag State Total Vietnam10,564,000 China7,024,000 North Korea 5,995,000 South Korea4,210,000 India3,973,300 Russia3,796,100 United States 3,385,400 Pakistan1,449,500 Egypt 1,109,000 Turkey 1,042,700 Iran 1,005,000
Challenges Facing the Army Changing competitive environment Emerging technologies Massive turnover of employees Budget cuts and downsizing Size of army reduced by 2/3
History of National Training Center Native Americans inhabited the lake Mojave area, currently Fort Irwin, 15,000 years ago 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Mojave Anti-Aircraft Range 1951 Camp Irwin opened as an Armored Combat Training area for Korean war troops 1979 NTC opened
NTC Mission 1979 Mission Statement: “NTC trains and transforms the Army by conducting force-on-force and live-fire training for ground and aviation brigades in a joint scenario across the spectrum of conflict.” 2001 Mission Statement: “National Training Center has transformed to focus on continuous counterinsurgency operations that reflect the ongoing and rapidly changing battlefield.”\ Video
External Conditions Training Area Trainers Program Design
NTC Training Area Mojave desert Rough Terrain Scorching temperatures ranging from 110 to 121 degrees centigrade Away from urban environments
NTC Trainers Staffed with 700 professional including Observer-Controller (OC)’s OC’s are normally individuals who have a great wealth of knowledge due to their experiences OC’s provide close oversight that lead to intense learning experiences and they pressure trainees to perform at their best
NTC’s Program Design Two week battle training is split between “force-on-force” and “live-fire” training
What is “force-on-force”? Units fight “freethinking” opposing forces OPFOR OPFOR vehicles are equipped with multiple integrated laser engagement system (MILES) and detection belts The vehicles are linked with GPS and tracked by a central computer center This technology interfaces with MILES continuously tracks all shots, casualty statistics, and other vital metrics
HOW DOES THE 3 RD SQUADRPON DO IN THE FORCE ON FORCE?
Army “Live-Fire” Training Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PX WiGgdaYsc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PX WiGgdaYsc
After Action Review What is an AAR? A structured conversation about a recent experience that enables members of a unit to learn from their mistakes and successes
After Action Review All levels of the military Core of the Army’s organizational learning framework Primary tool for continuous improvement
Key Point Everything is a learning opportunity “The only real failure is the failure to learn” General Sullivan, U.S. Army, retired
The AAR: Roles of Key Individuals Major James Steckleson Lieutenant Colonel Tom Hanson Major Jim Straight Captain Flip Finnegan Second Lieutenant Hank Smith
OC’s Role at an AAR Promote an atmosphere of open discussion Guiding objectives Raises key performance issues Analyzes strong performances Facilitates the discussion Did Major Steckleson complete his role successfully?
2LT Hank Smith, CPT Flip Finnegan, & LTC Tom Hanson What were the contributions to AAR from the officers listed? What were their attitudes during the AAR? Do you agree with the way they handled the AAR meeting? What do you think Steckleson thought of Smith, Hanson, and Finnegan?
The AAR Process 1.What did we set out to do? 2.What happened? 3.Why did it happen? 4.What are we going to do about it? Was the AAR Process a Success? Why or Why not?
An AAR SHOULD Be…. Leader - guided Soldier - centered Focused on learning objectives Frequent Not a lecture Not a discussion of minor events Not a gripe session Not intended to embarrass anyone A Leadership Development Tool
What is CALL? Center for Army Lessons Learned 70 personnel Responsible for spreading the learning throughout entire organization Members develop expertise and become content experts in specific areas
The difference between CALL and AAR CALL Learning from the experience of others AAR Learning from one’s own experience
What is Learning? A relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes
Break Out Groups Are these conditions required for learning present in the AAR? Opportunities to practice and receive feedback Meaningful training content Prerequisite knowledge to successfully complete the program Opportunity to learn through observation and experience
Learning Outcomes Verbal Information Describe previously stored information Facts Intellectual Skills Apply general concepts and rules to problem solving Analytical and critical thinking skills Motor Skills Execute of physical action with precision and timing Combat training
Learning Outcomes Attitudes Personal course of action Beliefs Feelings Cognitive Strategies Individual thinking and learning processes Method of memorization
Which Outcomes are Relevant to the AAR? Verbal Information Intellectual Skills Motor SkillsAttitudes Cognitive Strategies
LEARNING THEORY: HOW IT INFORMS LEARNING FROM THE AAR
Learning Theories Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Setting Theory Need Theory Expectancy Theory Adult Learning Theory Information Processing Theory
Break Out Groups Break into groups Each group assigned a single learning theory Review the case in conjunction with the learning theory and answer the following: What does this theory say about learning in general? What does this theory suggest about how and whether learning might occur during the AAR? Report Out
Reinforcement Theory People perform or avoid behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors positive reinforcement negative reinforcement Trainers need to identify what outcomes learners finds most positive (and negative) for learners to: acquire knowledge change behavior modify skills
Social Learning Theory People learn by observing others (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable Behavior that is reinforced tends to be repeated The models’ behavior that is rewarded is adopted by the observer Learning comes from: directly experiencing the consequences of behavior or seeing the consequences of observed other’s behavior
Self-Efficacy A judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn knowledge and skills Self-efficacy can be increased using: verbal persuasion – offering words of encouragement to convince others they can learn logical verification – perceiving a relationship between a new task and a task already mastered observation of others (modeling) – having employees who already have mastered the learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees past accomplishments – allowing employees to build a history of successful accomplishments
Goal Setting Theory Behavior results from conscious goals and intentions Goals influence behavior by: directing energy and attention sustaining effort over time motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment
The Best Goals Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic SMARTSMART Effective Goals Time-Bound
Goal Orientation Refers to goals held by trainee in a learning situation learning orientation – relates to trying to increase ability or competence in a task performance orientation – refers to a focus of learners on task performance and how they compare to others Who learns more and performs better at job-related tasks?
Need Theories Explains the value that a person places on certain outcomes need – a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time. Suggest that to motivate learning: trainers should identify trainees’ needs, and communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs If the basic needs of trainees are not met, they are unlikely to be motivated to learn
Expectancy Theory Suggests that learning is most likely to occur when employees believe: they can learn the content of the program (expectancy) learning is linked to outcomes such as better job performance, a salary increase, or peer recognition (instrumentality) employees value these outcomes (valence)
Expectancy Theory of Motivation X X = Effort Expectancy InstrumentalityValance Effort Performance Performance Outcome Value of Outcome Does Trainee Have Ability to Learn? Does Trainee Believe He Can Learn? Does Trainee Believe Training Outcomes Promised Will Be Delivered? Are Outcomes Related to Training Valued?
Adult Learning Theory It is based on several assumptions: adults need to know why they are learning something adults need to be self-directed adults bring more work-related experiences into the learning situation adults approach learning with a problem- centered approach adults are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators
Information Processing Theory Cognitive processes that occur during learning are influenced by external events increased freq of material exposure enhances attention verbal instructions, pictures, diagrams, and maps suggesting ways to code the training content so that it can be stored in memory meaningful learning context (examples, problems) creating cues that facilitate coding demonstration or verbal instructions helping to organize the learner’s response as well as facilitating the selection of the correct response
Reinforcement Theory Motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors based on past outcomes that have resulted from these behaviors Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Extinction Behavior modification training
Social Learning Theory Learning by observation of others Rewarded behavior will be repeated Learning new skills comes from Experience with that behavior or skill Observation of others using that behavior or skill Self-efficacy important to successful learning
Goal Setting Theory Goals direct effort toward particular behavior Goal Orientation Individual goals of each learning situation Learning Orientation Increase ability or competence in a task Performance Orientation Focus on task performance in comparison to others
Need Theory Explain the value a person places on certain outcomes Need Current or past deficiency experienced Need drives behavior Maslow’s Need Theory
Expectancy Theory Behavior is based on three factors 1.Expectancy – Correlation between attempting to perform and actually performing a behavior 2.Instrumentality – Belief that performing a given behavior will yield a certain outcome 3.Valence – Value placed on an outcome
Adult Learning Theory Andragogy is the theory of adult learning Model assumptions Need to know why you are learning Need to be self-directed Bring work related experiences into the learning environment Enter the learning environment with a problem centered approach Motivated to learn by extrinsic and intrinsic factors
Information Processing Theory Emphases on internal processes Response generated relates to the five learning outcomes Verbal information Cognitive skills Motor skills Intellectual skills Attitudes Feedback completes the model cycle